Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Soil parameters, land use, and geographical distance drive soil bacterial communities along a European transect
Plassart, Pierre ; Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas Chemidlin ; Uroz, Stéphane ; Dequiedt, Samuel ; Stone, Dorothy ; Creamer, Rachel ; Griffiths, Robert I. ; Bailey, Mark J. ; Ranjard, Lionel ; Lemanceau, Philippe - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

To better understand the relationship between soil bacterial communities, soil physicochemical properties, land use and geographical distance, we considered for the first time ever a European transect running from Sweden down to Portugal and from France to Slovenia. We investigated 71 sites based on their range of variation in soil properties (pH, texture and organic matter), climatic conditions (Atlantic, alpine, boreal, continental, Mediterranean) and land uses (arable, forest and grassland). 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial communities highly varied in diversity, richness, and structure according to environmental factors. At the European scale, taxa area relationship (TAR) was significant, supporting spatial structuration of bacterial communities. Spatial variations in community diversity and structure were mainly driven by soil physicochemical parameters. Within soil clusters (k-means approach) corresponding to similar edaphic and climatic properties, but to multiple land uses, land use was a major driver of the bacterial communities. Our analyses identified specific indicators of land use (arable, forest, grasslands) or soil conditions (pH, organic C, texture). These findings provide unprecedented information on soil bacterial communities at the European scale and on the drivers involved; possible applications for sustainable soil management are discussed.

Opportunities for soil sustainability in Europe
Putten, W.H. van der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Poesen, Jean ; Winding, A. ; Lemanceau, Philippe ; Lisa, Lenka ; Simek, Miloslaw ; Moora, M. ; Setala, Heikki ; Zaitsev, A. ; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria ; Hornung, E. ; Wall, David ; Angelis, P. de; Lipiec, Jerzy ; Briones, M.J.I. ; Hedlund, Katarina ; Heijden, M. ; Six, Johan ; Bardgett, Richard D. ; Powlson, D. ; Goulding, K. ; Norton, Michael - \ 2018
European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) (EASAC policy report 36) - ISBN 9783804738980 - 48 p.
Soil networks become more connected and take up more carbon as nature restoration progresses
Morriën, W.E. ; Hannula, S.E. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Helmsing, N.R. ; Zweers, Hans ; Hollander, M. de; Soto, Raquel Luján ; Bouffaud, Marie Lara ; Buée, M. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Duyts, Henk ; Geisen, Stefan ; Girlanda, Mariangela ; Griffiths, R.I. ; Jorgensen, H.B. ; Jensen, J. ; Plassart, P. ; Redecker, Dirk ; Schmelz, R.M. ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Thomson, Bruce C. ; Tisserant, Emilie ; Uroz, Stephane ; Winding, Anne ; Bailey, M.J. ; Bonkowski, M. ; Faber, J.H. ; Martin, F. ; Lemanceau, Philippe ; Boer, W. de; Veen, J.A. van; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2017
Nature Communications 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-1723 - 10 p.
Soil organisms have an important role in aboveground community dynamics and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems. However, most studies have considered soil biota as a black box or focussed on specific groups, whereas little is known about entire soil networks. Here we show that during the course of nature restoration on abandoned arable land a compositional shift in soil biota, preceded by tightening of the belowground networks, corresponds with enhanced efficiency of carbon uptake. In mid- and long-term abandoned field soil, carbon uptake by fungi increases without an increase in fungal biomass or shift in bacterial-to-fungal ratio. The implication of our findings is that during nature restoration the efficiency of nutrient cycling and carbon uptake can increase by a shift in fungal composition and/or fungal activity. Therefore, we propose that relationships between soil food web structure and carbon cycling in soils need to be reconsidered.
Indicator species and co-occurrence in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the European scale
Bouffaud, Marie Lara ; Creamer, Rachel E. ; Stone, Dote ; Plassart, Pierre ; Tuinen, Diederik van; Lemanceau, Philippe ; Wipf, Daniel ; Redecker, Dirk - \ 2016
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 103 (2016). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 464 - 470.
454 pyrosequencing - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - European scale - ITS

Utilizing a European transect of 54 soil samples, comprising of grasslands, arable and forest sites, we analyzed community composition of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) using pyrosequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region. We found a significant influence of environmental factors (soil pH and organic carbon or land use) on the community composition, but these factors did not fully explain the overall amount of AMF diversity. Geographical distance of sites also significantly affected community structure, indicating significant dispersal limitations of Glomeromycota at the European scale. Indicator species have been proposed by land use and physicochemical soil parameters. Generalist species were also identified, that were found occurring in a large proportion of the sample sites. By co-occurrence analysis of species pairs we show that, at this spatial scale, closely-related species are more likely to co-occur than distantly-related ones. This suggests that environmental filtering is a more dominant driving force in community assembly than fungal competition.

Global soil biodiversity atlas
Orgiazzi, A. ; Bardgett, R.D. ; Barrios, E. ; Behan-Pelletier, V. ; Briones, M.J.I. ; Chotte, J.L. ; Deyn, G.B. de; Eggleton, P. ; Fierer, N. ; Fraser, T. ; Hedlund, K. ; Jeffery, S. ; Johnson, N.C. ; Jones, A. ; Kandeler, E. ; Kaneko, N. ; Lavelle, P. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Miko, L. ; Montanarella, L. ; Moreira, F.M.S. ; Ramirez, K.S. ; Scheu, S. ; Singh, B.K. ; Six, J. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Wall, D.H. - \ 2016
Luxembourg : European Union (EUR ) - ISBN 9789279481697 - 176 p.
Ecological network analysis reveals the inter-connection between soil biodiversity and ecosystem function as affected by land use across Europe
Creamer, R.C. ; Hannula, S.E. ; Leeuwen, J.P. van; Stone, D. ; Rutgers, M. ; Schmelz, R.M. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Bohse Hendriksen, N. ; Bolger, T. ; Bouffaud, M.L. ; Buee, M. ; Calvalho, F. ; Costa, D. ; Dirilgen, T. ; Francisco, R. ; Griffiths, B.S. ; Griffiths, R. ; Martin, F. ; Martins da Silva, P. ; Mendes, S. ; Morais, P.V. ; Pereira, C. ; Philippot, L. ; Plassart, P. ; Redecker, D. ; Römbke, J. ; Sousa, J.P. ; Wouterse, M. ; Lemanceau, P. - \ 2016
Applied Soil Ecology 97 (2016). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 112 - 124.
Soil organisms are considered drivers of soil ecosystem services (primary productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, water regulation) associated with sustainable agricultural production. Soil biodiversity was highlighted in the soil thematic strategy as a key component of soil quality. The lack of quantitative standardised data at a large scale has resulted in poor understanding of how soil biodiversity could be incorporated into legislation for the protection of soil quality. In 2011, the EcoFINDERS (FP7) project sampled 76 sites across 11 European countries, covering five biogeographical zones (Alpine, Atlantic, Boreal, Continental and Mediterranean) and three land-uses (arable, grass, forestry). Samples collected from across these sites ranged in soil properties; soil organic carbon (SOC), pH and texture. To assess the range in biodiversity and ecosystem function across the sites, fourteen biological methods were applied as proxy indicators for these functions. These methods measured the following: microbial diversity: DNA yields (molecular biomass), archaea, bacteria, total fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; micro fauna diversity: nematode trophic groups; meso fauna diversity: enchytraeids and Collembola species; microbial function: nitrification, extracellular enzymes, multiple substrate induced respiration, community level physiological profiling and ammonia oxidiser/nitrification functional genes. Network analysis was used to identify the key connections between organisms under the different land use scenarios. Highest network density was found in forest soils and lowest density occurred in arable soils. Key taxomonic units (TUs) were identified in each land-use type and in relation to SOC and pH categorisations. Top-connected taxonomic units (i.e. displaying the most co-occurrence to other TUs) were identified for each land use type. In arable sites this was dominated by bacteria and fungi, while in grassland sites bacteria and fungi were most connected. In forest soils archaeal, enchytraeid and fungal TUs displayed the largest number of neighbours, reflecting the greatest connectivity. Multiple regression models were applied to assess the potential contribution of soil organisms to carbon cycling and storage and nutrient cycling of specifically nitrogen and phosphorus. Key drivers of carbon cycling were microbial biomass, basal respiration and fungal richness; these three measures have often been associated with carbon cycling in soils. Regression models of nutrient cycling were dependent on the model applied, showing variation in biological indicators.
Shifts in microbial diversity through land use intensity as drivers of carbon mineralization in soil
Tardy, V. ; Spor, A. ; Mathieu, O. ; Lévèque, J. ; Terrat, S. ; Plassart, P. ; Regnier, M. ; Bardgett, R.D. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Paolo Roggero, P. ; Seddaiu, G. ; Bagella, S. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Ranjard, L. ; Maron, P. - \ 2015
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 90 (2015). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 204 - 213.
Land use practices alter the biomass and structure of soil microbial communities. However, the impact of land management intensity on soil microbial diversity (i.e. richness and evenness) and consequences for functioning is still poorly understood. Here, we addressed this question by coupling molecular characterization of microbial diversity with measurements of carbon (C) mineralization in soils obtained from three locations across Europe, each representing a gradient of land management intensity under different soil and environmental conditions. Bacterial and fungal diversity were characterized by high throughput sequencing of ribosomal genes. Carbon cycling activities (i.e., mineralization of autochthonous soil organic matter, mineralization of allochthonous plant residues) were measured by quantifying 12C- and 13C-CO2 release after soils had been amended, or not, with 13C-labelled wheat residues. Variation partitioning analysis was used to rank biological and physicochemical soil parameters according to their relative contribution to these activities. Across all three locations, microbial diversity was greatest at intermediate levels of land use intensity, indicating that optimal management of soil microbial diversity might not be achieved under the least intensive agriculture. Microbial richness was the best predictor of the C-cycling activities, with bacterial and fungal richness explaining 32.2 and 17% of the intensity of autochthonous soil organic matter mineralization; and fungal richness explaining 77% of the intensity of wheat residues mineralization. Altogether, our results provide evidence that there is scope for improvement in soil management to enhance microbial biodiversity and optimize C transformations mediated by microbial communities in soil.
On the value of soil biodiversity and ecosystem services
Pascual, U. ; Termansen, M. ; Hedlund, K. ; Brussaard, L. ; Faber, J.H. ; Foudi, S. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Liv-Jørgensen, S. - \ 2015
Ecosystem Services 15 (2015). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 11 - 18.
This paper provides a framework to understand the source of the economic value of soil biodiversity and soil ecosystem services and maps out the pathways of such values. We clarify the link between components of the economic value of soil biodiversity and their associated services of particular relevance to soils. We contend that soil biodiversity and associated ecosystem services give rise to two main additive value components in the context of risk and uncertainty: an output value and an insurance value. These are illustrated with examples from soil ecology and a simple heuristic model. The paper also points towards the challenges of capturing such values highlighting the differences between private (individual) and public (global) sources of value.
Soil biodiversity and DNA barcodes: opportunities and challenges
Orgiazzi, A. ; Bonnet Dunbar, M. ; Panagos, P. ; Groot, G.A. de; Lemanceau, P. - \ 2015
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 80 (2015)1. - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 244 - 250.
molecular microbial ecology - bacterial communities - ecosystem services - diversity - fungal - patterns - identification - assemblages - resilience - extraction
Soils encompass a huge diversity of organisms which mostly remains to be characterized due to a number of methodological and logistical issues. Nonetheless, remarkable progress has been made in recent years toward developing strategies to characterize and describe soil biodiversity, especially thanks to the development of molecular approaches relying on direct DNA extraction from the soil matrix.Metabarcoding can be applied to DNA from any environment or organism, and is gaining increasing prominence in biodiversity studies. This approach is already commonly used to characterize soil microbial communities and its application is now being extended to other soil organisms, i.e. meso- and macro-fauna.These developments offer unprecedented scientific and operational opportunities in order to better understand soil biodiversity distribution and dynamics, and to propose tools and strategies for biodiversity diagnosis. However, these opportunities also come with challenges that the scientific community must face. Such challenges are related to i) clarification of terminology, (ii) standardisation of methods and further methodological development for additional taxonomic groups, (iii) development of a common database, and (iv) ways to avoid waste of information and data derived from metabarcoding. In order to facilitate common application of metabarcoding in soil biodiversity assessment, we discuss these opportunities and challenges and propose solutions towards a more homogeneous framework.
Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere
Philippot, L. ; Raaijmakers, J. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2013
Nature Reviews Microbiology 11 (2013)11. - ISSN 1740-1526 - p. 789 - 799.
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - bacterial community structure - disease-suppressive bacteria - gradient gel-electrophoresis - plant-herbivore interactions - elevated atmospheric co2 - soil-borne pathogens - medicago-truncatula - food webs - arabidopsis-thaliana
The rhizosphere is the interface between plant roots and soil where interactions among a myriad of microorganisms and invertebrates affect biogeochemical cycling, plant growth and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. The rhizosphere is intriguingly complex and dynamic, and understanding its ecology and evolution is key to enhancing plant productivity and ecosystem functioning. Novel insights into key factors and evolutionary processes shaping the rhizosphere microbiome will greatly benefit from integrating reductionist and systems-based approaches in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. Here, we discuss recent developments in rhizosphere research in relation to assessing the contribution of the micro- and macroflora to sustainable agriculture, nature conservation, the development of bio-energy crops and the mitigation of climate change.
Identification of traits shared by rhizosphere-competent strains of fluorescent pseudomonads
Ghirardi, S. ; Dessaint, F. ; Mazurier, S. ; Corberand, T. ; Raaijmakers, J. ; Meyer, J.M. ; Dessaux, Y. ; Lemanceau, P. - \ 2012
Microbial Ecology 64 (2012)3. - ISSN 0095-3628 - p. 725 - 737.
all decline soils - plant-growth - biological-control - root colonization - fusarium-wilt - disease suppressiveness - phenazine antibiotics - gene-expression - take-all - nonpathogenic fusarium
Rhizosphere competence of fluorescent pseudomonads is a prerequisite for the expression of their beneficial effects on plant growth and health. To date, knowledge on bacterial traits involved in rhizosphere competence is fragmented and derived mostly from studies with model strains. Here, a population approach was taken by investigating a representative collection of 23 Pseudomonas species and strains from different origins for their ability to colonize the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in natural soil. Rhizosphere competence of these strains was related to phenotypic traits including: (1) their carbon and energetic metabolism represented by the ability to use a wide range of organic compounds, as electron donors, and iron and nitrogen oxides, as electron acceptors, and (2) their ability to produce antibiotic compounds and N-acylhomoserine lactones (N-AHSL). All these data including origin of the strains (soil/rhizosphere), taxonomic identification, phenotypic cluster based on catabolic profiles, nitrogen dissimilating ability, siderovars, susceptibility to iron starvation, antibiotic and N-AHSL production, and rhizosphere competence were submitted to multiple correspondence analyses. Colonization assays revealed a significant diversity in rhizosphere competence with survival rates ranging from approximately 0.1 % to 61 %. Multiple correspondence analyses indicated that rhizosphere competence was associated with siderophore-mediated iron acquisition, substrate utilization, and denitrification. However, the catabolic profile of one rhizosphere-competent strain differed from the others and its competence was associated with its ability to produce antibiotics phenazines and N-AHSL. Taken together, these data suggest that competitive strains have developed two types of strategies to survive in the rhizosphere
Diversity and Evolution of the Phenazine Biosynthesis Pathway
Mavrodi, D.V. ; Peever, T.L. ; Mavrodi, O.V. ; Parejko, J.A. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Mazurier, S. ; Heide, L. ; Blankenfeldt, W. ; Weller, D.M. ; Thomashow, L.S. - \ 2010
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76 (2010)3. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 866 - 879.
burkholderia-cepacia complex - pseudomonas-chlororaphis pcl1391 - erwinia-herbicola eh1087 - phenazine-1-carboxylic acid - fluorescent pseudomonas - biological-control - virulence factors - genome sequence - aeruginosa pao1 - gene-cluster
Phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites of bacterial origin that function in biological control of plant pathogens and contribute to the ecological fitness and pathogenicity of the producing strains. In this study, we employed a collection of 94 strains of various geographic, environmental and clinical origins to study the distribution and evolution of phenazine genes in members of Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Pectobacterium, Brevibacterium and Streptomyces genera. Our results confirmed the diversity of phenazine producers and revealed that most of them appear to be soil-dwelling and/or plant-associated species. Genome analyses and comparisons of phylogenies inferred from sequences of the key phenazine biosynthesis phzF and housekeeping genes (rrs, recA, rpoB, atpD, and gyrB) revealed that the evolution and dispersal of phenazine genes is driven by mechanisms ranging from conservation in Pseudomonas spp. to horizontal gene transfer in Burkholderia spp. and Pectobacterium spp. DNA extracted from cereal crop rhizospheres and screened for the presence of phzF contained sequences consistent with a diverse population of phenazine-producers in commercial farm fields located in central Washington State, thus providing the first evidence of U.S. soils enriched in indigenous phenazine-producing bacteria
Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt
Mazurier, S. ; Corberand, T. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. - \ 2009
ISME Journal 3 (2009). - ISSN 1751-7362 - p. 977 - 991.
black root-rot - dose-response relationships - graminis var tritici - nonpathogenic fusarium - biological-control - oxysporum fo47 - 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing pseudomonas - genotypic diversity - genetic diversity - chlororaphis pcl1391
Natural disease-suppressive soils provide an untapped resource for the discovery of novel beneficial microorganisms and traits. For most suppressive soils, however, the consortia of microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. To date, soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease has been ascribed to carbon and iron competition between pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum and fluorescent pseudomonads. In this study, the role of bacterial antibiosis in Fusarium wilt suppressiveness was assessed by comparing the densities, diversity and activity of fluorescent Pseudomonas species producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) (phlD+) or phenazine (phzC+) antibiotics. The frequencies of phlD+ populations were similar in the suppressive and conducive soils but their genotypic diversity differed significantly. However, phlD genotypes from the two soils were equally effective in suppressing Fusarium wilt, either alone or in combination with non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strain Fo47. A mutant deficient in DAPG production provided a similar level of control as its parental strain, suggesting that this antibiotic does not play a major role. In contrast, phzC+ pseudomonads were only detected in the suppressive soil. Representative phzC+ isolates of five distinct genotypes did not suppress Fusarium wilt on their own, but acted synergistically in combination with strain Fo47. This increased level of disease suppression was ascribed to phenazine production as the phenazine-deficient mutant was not effective. These results suggest, for the first time, that redox-active phenazines produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to the natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease and may act in synergy with carbon competition by resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum.
Special Issue on New perspectives and approaches in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria research : Foreword
Bakker, P.A.H.M. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. ; Bloemberg, G.V. ; Höfte, M. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Cooke, M. - \ 2007
European Journal of Plant Pathology 119 (2007)3. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 241 - 242.
Concepts and methods to assess the phytosanitary quality of soils
Alabouvette, C. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. ; Boer, W. de; Notz, R. ; Défago, G. ; Steinberg, C. ; Lemanceau, P. - \ 2005
In: Microbiological Methods for Assessing Soil Quality / Bloem, J., Hopkins, D.W., Benedetti, A., [S.l.] : CABI Publishing - ISBN 0851990983 - p. 257 - 270.
Defense responses of Fusarium oxysporum to 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens
Schouten, A. ; Berg, G. van den; Edel, V. ; Steinberg, C. ; Alabouvette, C. ; Vos, R. de; Lemanceau, P. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. - \ 2004
In: Book of Abstracts International Congress Rhizosphere 2004, Munich, Germany, 12-17 September 2004 - p. 223 - 223.
Defense responses of Fusarium oxysporum to 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens
Schouten, A. ; Berg, G. van den; Edel-Hermann, V. ; Steinberg, C. ; Gautheron, N. ; Alabouvette, C. ; Vos, C.H. de; Lemanceau, P. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. - \ 2004
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 17 (2004)11. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 1201 - 1211.
genetic diversity - abc transporters - take-all - biocontrol - resistance - populations - biosynthesis - sensitivity - strains - tomato
A collection of 76 plant-pathogenic and 41 saprophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains was screened for sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by multiple strains of antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens. Approximately 17% of the E oxysporum strains were relatively tolerant to high 2,4-DAPG concentrations. Tolerance to 2,4-DAPG did not correlate with the geographic origin of the strains, formae speciales, intergenic spacer (IGS) group, or fusaric acid production levels. Biochemical analysis showed that 18 of 20 tolerant E oxysporum strains were capable of metabolizing 2,4-DAPG. For two tolerant strains, analysis by mass spectrometry indicated that deacetylation of 2,4-DAPG to the less fungitoxic derivatives monoacetylphloroglucinol and phloroglucinol is among the initial mechanisms of 2,4-DAPG degradation. Production of fusaric acid, a known inhibitor of 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis in P fluorescens, differed considerably among both 2,4-DAPG-sensitive and -tolerant E oxysporum strains, indicating that fusaric acid production may be as important for 2,4-DAPG-sensitive as for -tolerant E oxysporum strains. Whether 2,4-DAPG triggers fusaric acid production was studied for six E oxysporum strains; 2,4-DAPG had no significant effect on fusaric acid production in four strains. In two strains, however, sublethal concentrations of 2,4-DAPG either enhanced or significantly decreased fusaric acid production. The implications of 2,4-DAPG degradation, the distribution of this trait within E oxysporum and other plant-pathogenic fungi, and the consequences for the efficacy of biological control are discussed.
Fungal defense mechanisms against antagonistic bacteria
Schouten, A. ; Berg-Velthuis, G.C.M. van den; Edel, V. ; Steinberg, C. ; Gautheron, N. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. - \ 2003
In: Book of Abstracts 1st Federation of European Microbiological Societies Congress, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 29 June - 3 July 2003 [S.l.] : S.n. - p. 448 - 448.
Effect of 2,4diacetylphloroglucinol of Pythium: cellular responses and variation in sensitivity among propagules and species
Souza, J.T. ; Arnould, C. ; Deulvot, C. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. - \ 2003
Phytopathology 93 (2003)8. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 966 - 975.
pseudomonas-fluorescens q2-87 - sigma-factor sigma(s) - black root-rot - antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol - phloroglucinol derivatives - biological-control - gaeumannomyces-graminis - electron microscopy - photosystem-ii - in-vitro
The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) plays an important role in the suppression of plant pathogens by several strains of Pseudomonas spp. Based on the results of this study, there is variation within and among Pythium spp. to 2,4-DAPG. Also, various propagules of Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum, that are part of the asexual stage of the life cycle, differ considerably in their sensitivity to 2,4-DAPG. Mycelium was the most resistant structure, followed by zoosporangia, zoospore cysts, and zoospores. Additionally, we report for the first time that pH has a significant effect on the activity of 2,4-DAPG, with a higher activity at low pH. Furthermore, the level of acetylation of phloroglucinols is also a major determinant of their activity. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that 2,4-DAPG causes different stages of disorganization in hyphal tips of Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum, including alteration (proliferation, retraction, and disruption) of the plasma membrane, vacuolization, and cell content disintegration. The implications of these results for the efficacy and consistency of biological control of plant-pathogenic Pythium spp. by 2,4-DAPG-producing Pseudomonas spp. are discussed.
Natural soil suppressiveness to soilborne diseases
Lemanceau, P. ; Steinberg, C. ; Thomas, D.J.I. ; Edel, V. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. ; Alabouvette, C. - \ 2000
In: Book of Abstracts: Oral sessions of the 5th International Workshop on PGPR, Córdoba, Argentina, 30 October - 3 November 2000. - Cordoba (Argentina) : [s.n.], 2000 - p. 82 - 83.
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