Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Consumer moral dilemma in the choice of animal-friendly meat products
    Lin-Schilstra, Li ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)12. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 1 p.
    Animal-friendly products - Consumer behavior - Meat - Moral dilemma - Systematic review

    More and more consumers, at least in Western developed countries, are attentive to the sustainability aspects of their food, one of which concerns animal welfare. The conflict of harming an animal for the joy of eating meat causes a moral dilemma, affecting consumers' reactions to, and choices of, animal-friendly products. This systematic review identified 86 studies from Scopus andWeb of Science. The review outlines: (1) What are the personal antecedents among consumers regarding moral conflicts?; (2) In what situation do moral conflicts occur in consumer food choice?; (3) How do consumers emotionally experience the moral dilemma?; (4) How do consumers resolve moral conflicts over animal products? Researchers have studied personal factors and situational factors that arouse consumers' moral dilemma and how the dilemma is solved, during which emotions and dissonance come into play. When synthesizing these findings into a comprehensive model, we notice that the current research is lacking on how personal factors change and interact with situations, which limits the understanding of the real-life context of consumers' moral dilemma as well as their choices of animal-friendly products. More in-depth studies are needed to find situational factors that contribute to this complex psychological process.

    Examining Health of Wetlands with Multiple Ecosystem Services as Targets in China’s Coastal Regions
    Zhou, Yangming ; Dou, Yuehan ; Yu, Xiubo ; Zhang, Li ; Huang, Chong ; Wang, Yuyu ; Li, Xiaowei ; Li, He ; Jia, Yifei ; Bakker, Martha ; Carsjens, Gerrit Jan ; Zhou, Yan ; Duan, Houlang - \ 2020
    Chinese Geographical Science 30 (2020)4. - ISSN 1002-0063 - p. 600 - 613.
    coastal zones - ecosystem services - Wetland Health Index (WHI) - wetland utilization

    Coastal zones are key interconnectors of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Due to the degradation and fragmentation of coastal wetlands, there is an urgent need to develop assessment methodology to compare the health of wetland ecosystems at different spatial scales. This will help efficiently develop and implement protections using easy-to-access ecosystem health data. This study aims to understand the spatial distribution of coastal and inland wetland health for China’s coastal regions. A Wetland Health Index (WHI) was developed to provide a basis for policy and decision making. Four utilization models—Long Term Model, Open Model, Nature Reserve Model, and Protected and Economic Model—were defined in the context of China’s coastal regions to specifically examine wetland health. Results show that the average WHI score was 63.6 with the range of 44.8–84.3 for 35 National Nature Reserves (NNRs), and the southern NNRs generally performed better than the northern NNRs. The wetlands in the southern provinces/municipalities are relatively healthier than their northern counterparts. The competent authority has slight influence on WHI scores but duration of conservation establishment does not show a clear correlation. With increasing economic activity, the differences in health conditions (WHI scores) of China’s coastal regions also increase. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or economic intensification does not relate to WHI scores. Appropriate trade-offs between wetland management and economic development could contribute to improve health conditions, conservation and utilization of coastal and inland wetlands.

    Plant architectural responses in simultaneous maize/soybean strip intercropping do not lead to a yield advantage
    Li, Shuangwei ; Evers, Jochem B. ; Werf, Wopke van der; Wang, Ruili ; Xu, Zhaoli ; Guo, Yan ; Li, Baoguo ; Ma, Yuntao - \ 2020
    Annals of Applied Biology (2020). - ISSN 0003-4746
    architectural response - border row effect - growth - intercropping - land equivalent ratio

    Maize/soybean strip intercropping is a commonly used system throughout China with high crop yields at reduced nutrient input compared to sole maize. Maize is the taller crop, and due to its dominance in light capture over soybean in the intercrop, maize is expected to outperform maize in sole cropping. Conversely, soybean is the subordinate crop and intercropped soybean plants are expected to perform worse than sole soybean. Crop plants show plastic responses in plant architecture to their growing conditions to forage for light and avoid shading. There is little knowledge on plant architectural responses to growing conditions in simultaneous (non-relay) intercropping and their relationship to species yields. A two-year field experiment with two simultaneous maize/soybean intercropping systems with narrow and wide strips was conducted to characterise architectural traits of maize and soybean plants grown as intercrop and sole crops. Intercropped maize plants, especially those in border rows, had substantially greater leaf area, biomass and yield than maize plants in sole crops. Intercropped soybean plants, especially those in border rows, had lower leaf area, biomass and yield than sole soybean plants. Overall intercrop performance was similar to that of sole crops, with the land equivalent ratio (LER) being only slightly greater than one (1.03–1.08). Soybean displayed typical shade avoidance responses in the intercrop, such as greater internode elongation and changes in specific leaf area, but these responses could not overcome the consequences of the competition with the taller maize plants. Therefore, in contrast to relay intercrop systems, in the studied simultaneous maize/soybean system, plastic responses did not contribute to practically relevant increases in resource capture and yield at whole system (i.e., intercrop) level.

    Salt stress and fluctuating light have separate effects on photosynthetic acclimation, but interactively affect biomass
    Zhang, Yuqi ; Kaiser, Elias ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. ; Yang, Qichang ; Li, Tao - \ 2020
    Plant, Cell & Environment (2020). - ISSN 0140-7791 - 15 p.
    fluctuating light - light acclimation - photosynthesis - salt stress - stomatal conductance - tomato

    In nature, soil salinity and fluctuating light (FL) often occur concomitantly. However, it is unknown whether salt stress interacts with FL on leaf photosynthesis, architecture, biochemistry, pigmentation, mineral concentrations, as well as whole-plant biomass. To elucidate this, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings were grown under constant light (C, 200 μmol m−2 s−1) or FL (5–650 μmol m−2 s−1), in combination with no (0 mM NaCl) or moderate (80 mM NaCl) salinity, for 14 days, at identical photoperiods and daily light integrals. FL and salt stress had separate effects on leaf anatomy, biochemistry and photosynthetic capacity: FL reduced leaf thickness as well as nitrogen, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents per unit leaf area, but rarely affected steady-state and dynamic photosynthetic properties along with abundance of key proteins in the electron transport chain. Salt stress, meanwhile, mainly disorganized chloroplast grana stacking, reduced stomatal density, size and aperture as well as photosynthetic capacity. Plant biomass was affected interactively by light regime and salt stress: FL reduced biomass in salt stressed plants by 17%, but it did not affect biomass of non-stressed plants. Our results stress the importance of considering FL when inferring effects of salt-stress on photosynthesis and productivity under fluctuating light intensities.

    Sedimentation and transport of different soil colloids : Effects of goethite and humic acid
    Chen, Yali ; Ma, Jie ; Wu, Xiaojuan ; Weng, Liping ; Li, Yongtao - \ 2020
    Water 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 2073-4441
    Goethite - Humic acid - Sedimentation - Soil colloid - Transport

    Soil colloids significantly facilitate the transport of contaminants; however, little is known about the effects of highly reactive iron oxide and the most representative organic matter on the transport of soil colloids with different physicochemical properties. This study investigated the effects of goethite (GT) and humic acid (HA) on the sedimentation and transport of soil colloids using settling and column experiments. The stability of soil colloids was found to be related to their properties and decreased in the following order: black soil colloids (BSc) > yellow soil colloids (YSc) > fluvo-aquic soil colloids (FSc). Organic matter increased the stability of BSc, and ionic strength (Ca2+) promoted the deposition of FSc. Colloids in individual and GT colloids (GTc) coexistence systems tended to stabilize at high pH and showed a pH-dependence whereby the stability decreased with decreasing pH. The interaction of GTc and kaolinite led to a dramatic sedimentation of YSc at pH 4.0. HA enhanced the stability of soil colloids, especially at pH 4.0, and obscured the pH-dependent sedimentation of soil colloids. The transport ability of soil colloids was the same as their stability. The addition of GT retarded the transport of soil colloids, which was quite obvious at pH 7.0. This retardation effect was attributed to the transformation of the surface charge of sand from negative to positive, which increased the electrical double-layer attraction. Although sand coated with GT-HA provided more favorable conditions for the transport of soil colloids in comparison to pure sand, the corresponding transport was relatively slow. This suggests that the filtration effect, heterogeneity, and increased surface roughness may still influence the transport of soil colloids.

    Serum Protein N-Glycans in Colostrum and Mature Milk of Chinese Mothers
    Elwakiel, Mohèb ; Bakx, Edwin J. ; Szeto, Ignatius M. ; Li, Yitong ; Hettinga, Kasper A. ; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2020
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)25. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 6873 - 6883.
    glycoproteins - glycosylation - intestinal mucosal barrier - oligosaccharides

    To study the Chinese human milk N-glycome over lactation, N-glycans were released and separated from serum proteins, purified by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In total, 66 different putative N-glycans were found in the colostrum (week 1) and mature milk (week 4) of seven Chinese mothers. A clear difference was observed between milk of five secretor and two nonsecretor mothers, based on the type and relative amounts of the individual N-glycans. The relative levels of the total neutral nonfucosylated and the fucosylated N-glycans in milk of five secretor mothers increased and decreased over lactation, respectively. This pattern could not be observed for the milk from the two nonsecretor mothers. Overall, this was the first study that provided detailed information on individual N-glycans in milk among mothers and over time as well as that fucosylation of N-glycans in milk was associated with the mother's secretor status.

    Effect of personality traits on smallholders’ land renting behavior: Theory and evidence from the North China Plain
    Qian, Chen ; Li, F. ; Antonides, G. ; Heerink, N.B.M. ; Ma, Xianlei ; Li, Xiande - \ 2020
    China Economic Review 62 (2020). - ISSN 1043-951X
    Land rental market - Personality traits - Locus of control - Causal mediation analysis - Rural China
    This study investigates the effect of smallholders’ personality traits on their land rental market decisions. We develop a conceptual framework and show that these internal factors could affect smallholders’ land rental market participation beyond institutional and socio-demographic factors. Our empirical analysis is based on a survey of 2119 rural households collected in the North China Plain. We find that smallholders with a higher level of openness are more active in participating in the farmland rental market. Moreover, internal locus of control plays a significant role in explaining smallholders’ land renting behavior. We further show that need for achievement mediates the link between internal locus of control and smallholder’s intention to rent land, indicating that fostering a higher level of internal locus of control—and subsequently achievement desire—could play an important role in promoting smallholders’ land-renting behavior. More generally, our results imply that taking rural smallholders’ personality traits into account in designing land rental policies may increase the effectiveness of policies aimed at promoting land rental market participation among smallholders and incubating crop farm scale enlargement in rural China.
    Postharvest Spectral Light Composition Affects Chilling Injury in Anthurium Cut Flowers
    Aliniaeifard, Sasan ; Falahi, Zahra ; Dianati Daylami, Shirin ; Li, Tao ; Woltering, Ernst - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-462X
    anthurium - chilling stress - light spectrum - transpiration rate - water loss

    The effect of the lighting environment during postharvest storage of ornamentals has largely been neglected in previous research. Anthurium is a cold-sensitive species originating from tropical climates and is widely cultivated all around the world for its colorful spathes. To investigate the effects of light spectrum on the performance of Anthurium cut flowers under cold storage, two cultivars [Calore (red spathe) and Angel (withe spathe)] were placed at low temperature (4°C), either in darkness (D) or under different light spectra [red (R), blue (B), 70:30% red:blue (RB), and white (W)] at an intensity of 125 µmol.m−2.s−1. In both cultivars, the longest and shortest vase lives were observed in spathes exposed to the R and B spectra, respectively. In both cultivars, electrolyte leakage (EL) of spathe was highest under the B and W spectra and lowest under the R spectrum. The highest rate of flower water loss from the spathes was observed under the B-containing light spectra, whereas the lowest rate of water loss was observed in D and under the R spectrum. Negative correlations were observed between EL and vase life and between anthocyanin concentration and EL for both Anthurium cultivars. A positive correlation was found between anthocyanin concentration and vase life. For both Anthurium cultivars, spectral light composition with higher percentage of B resulted in higher EL and as a result shorter vase life in cut flowers under cold storage condition. The negative effect of the B light spectrum on vase life of Anthurium can be explained through its effect on water loss and on oxidative stress and membrane integrity. The quality of Anthurium cut flowers should benefit from environments with restricted B light spectrum during postharvest handling.

    Sel1L-Hrd1 ER-associated degradation maintains β cell identity via TGF-β signaling
    Shrestha, Neha ; Liu, Tongyu ; Ji, Yewei ; Reinert, Rachel B. ; Torres, Mauricio ; Li, Xin ; Zhang, Maria ; Tang, Chih-Hang Anthony ; Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew ; Liu, Chengyang ; Naji, Ali ; Liu, Ming ; Lin, Jiandie D. ; Kersten, Sander ; Arvan, Peter ; Qi, Ling - \ 2020
    The Journal of Clinical Investigation 130 (2020)7. - ISSN 0021-9738 - p. 3499 - 3510.
    β Cell apoptosis and dedifferentiation are 2 hotly debated mechanisms underlying β cell loss in type 2 diabetes; however, the molecular drivers underlying such events remain largely unclear. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of mice carrying β cell-specific deletion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) and autophagy. We reported that, while autophagy was necessary for β cell survival, the highly conserved Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD protein complex was required for the maintenance of β cell maturation and identity. Using single-cell RNA-Seq, we demonstrated that Sel1L deficiency was not associated with β cell loss, but rather loss of β cell identity. Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD controlled β cell identity via TGF-β signaling, in part by mediating the degradation of TGF-β receptor 1. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling in Sel1L-deficient β cells augmented the expression of β cell maturation markers and increased the total insulin content. Our data revealed distinct pathogenic effects of 2 major proteolytic pathways in β cells, providing a framework for therapies targeting distinct mechanisms of protein quality control
    Correction to: Rewiring of glucose metabolism defines trained immunity induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein
    Keating, Samuel T. ; Groh, Laszlo ; Thiem, Kathrin ; Bekkering, Siroon ; Li, Yang ; Matzaraki, Vasiliki ; Heijden, Charlotte D.C.C. van der; Puffelen, Jelmer H. van; Lachmandas, Ekta ; Jansen, Trees ; Oosting, Marije ; Bree, L.C.J. de; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Moorlag, Simone J.C.F.M. ; Mourits, Vera P. ; Diepen, Janna van; Stienstra, Rinke ; Novakovic, Boris ; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G. ; Crevel, Reinout van; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Riksen, Niels P. - \ 2020
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 98 (2020). - ISSN 0946-2716

    The correct name of the 17th Author is presented in this paper. In the paragraph “Metabolic analysis” of the Method section “an XFp Analyzer” should be changed to “an XFe96 Analyzer”.

    Rewiring of glucose metabolism defines trained immunity induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein
    Keating, Samuel T. ; Groh, Laszlo ; Thiem, Kathrin ; Bekkering, Siroon ; Li, Yang ; Matzaraki, Vasiliki ; Heijden, Charlotte D.C.C. van der; Puffelen, Jelmer H. van; Lachmandas, Ekta ; Jansen, Trees ; Oosting, Marije ; Bree, L.C.J. de; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Moorlag, Simone J.C.F.M. ; Mourits, Vera P. ; Diepen, Janna van; Stienstra, Rinke ; Novakovic, Boris ; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G. ; Crevel, Reinout van; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Riksen, Niels P. - \ 2020
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 98 (2020). - ISSN 0946-2716 - p. 819 - 831.
    Atherosclerosis - Cardiovascular disease - Diabetes complications - Glycolysis - Immunometabolism - Inflammation - Trained immunity

    Abstract: Stimulation of monocytes with microbial and non-microbial products, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), induces a protracted pro-inflammatory, atherogenic phenotype sustained by metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming via a process called trained immunity. We investigated the intracellular metabolic mechanisms driving oxLDL-induced trained immunity in human primary monocytes and observed concomitant upregulation of glycolytic activity and oxygen consumption. In two separate cohorts of healthy volunteers, we assessed the impact of genetic variation in glycolytic genes on the training capacity of monocytes and found that variants mapped to glycolytic enzymes PFKFB3 and PFKP influenced trained immunity by oxLDL. Subsequent functional validation with inhibitors of glycolytic metabolism revealed dose-dependent inhibition of trained immunity in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the glucose metabolism modulator metformin abrogated the ability for human monocytes to mount a trained response to oxLDL. These findings underscore the importance of cellular metabolism for oxLDL-induced trained immunity and highlight potential immunomodulatory strategies for clinical management of atherosclerosis. Key messages: Brief stimulation of monocytes to oxLDL induces a prolonged inflammatory phenotype.This is due to upregulation of glycolytic metabolism.Genetic variation in glycolytic genes modulates oxLDL-induced trained immunity.Pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis prevents trained immunity.

    Roadmap for naming uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria
    Murray, Alison E. ; Freudenstein, John ; Gribaldo, Simonetta ; Hatzenpichler, Roland ; Hugenholtz, Philip ; Kämpfer, Peter ; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T. ; Lane, Christopher E. ; Papke, R.T. ; Parks, Donovan H. ; Rossello-Mora, Ramon ; Stott, Matthew B. ; Sutcliffe, Iain C. ; Thrash, J.C. ; Venter, Stephanus N. ; Whitman, William B. ; Acinas, Silvia G. ; Amann, Rudolf I. ; Anantharaman, Karthik ; Armengaud, Jean ; Baker, Brett J. ; Barco, Roman A. ; Bode, Helge B. ; Boyd, Eric S. ; Brady, Carrie L. ; Carini, Paul ; Chain, Patrick S.G. ; Colman, Daniel R. ; DeAngelis, Kristen M. ; Rios, Maria Asuncion de los; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina ; Dunlap, Christopher A. ; Eisen, Jonathan A. ; Emerson, David ; Ettema, Thijs J.G. ; Eveillard, Damien ; Girguis, Peter R. ; Hentschel, Ute ; Hollibaugh, James T. ; Hug, Laura A. ; Inskeep, William P. ; Ivanova, Elena P. ; Klenk, Hans Peter ; Li, Wen Jun ; Lloyd, Karen G. ; Löffler, Frank E. ; Makhalanyane, Thulani P. ; Moser, Duane P. ; Nunoura, Takuro ; Palmer, Marike ; Parro, Victor ; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos ; Probst, Alexander J. ; Smits, Theo H.M. ; Steen, Andrew D. ; Steenkamp, Emma T. ; Spang, Anja ; Stewart, Frank J. ; Tiedje, James M. ; Vandamme, Peter ; Wagner, Michael ; Wang, Feng Ping ; Hedlund, Brian P. ; Reysenbach, Anna Louise - \ 2020
    Nature Microbiology 5 (2020). - ISSN 2058-5276 - p. 987 - 994.

    The assembly of single-amplified genomes (SAGs) and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) has led to a surge in genome-based discoveries of members affiliated with Archaea and Bacteria, bringing with it a need to develop guidelines for nomenclature of uncultivated microorganisms. The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) only recognizes cultures as ‘type material’, thereby preventing the naming of uncultivated organisms. In this Consensus Statement, we propose two potential paths to solve this nomenclatural conundrum. One option is the adoption of previously proposed modifications to the ICNP to recognize DNA sequences as acceptable type material; the other option creates a nomenclatural code for uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria that could eventually be merged with the ICNP in the future. Regardless of the path taken, we believe that action is needed now within the scientific community to develop consistent rules for nomenclature of uncultivated taxa in order to provide clarity and stability, and to effectively communicate microbial diversity.

    Fertilization changes soil microbiome functioning, especially phagotrophic protists
    Zhao, Zhi Bo ; He, Ji Zheng ; Quan, Zhi ; Wu, Chuan Fa ; Sheng, Rong ; Zhang, Li Mei ; Geisen, Stefan - \ 2020
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 148 (2020). - ISSN 0038-0717
    Fertilization - High-throughput sequencing - Microbiome functioning - Nitrogen - Phagotrophic protists

    The soil microbiome determines crop production and drives nutrient cycling, functions that are altered by fertilization. Yet, we have only begun to understand the effects of fertilization on taxonomic changes on soil microorganisms, while impacts on functional groups across the microbiome and therefore potential soil functioning have never been assessed. Here, using a range of methods including high-throughput sequencing, we identified 77 functional parameters of the main microbiome groups including bacteria, fungi, and protists in three common agricultural soil types in China (black, fluvo-aquic, and red soil), which were fertilized in the same way over two years. We show that fertilization most strongly and generally throughout soil types reduced the relative abundance of the main microbial predators, phagotrophic protists, by 31%. Ten functional groups within the microbiome showed soil type-specific responses to fertilization. For example, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and predatory/exoparasitic bacteria were reduced by fertilization in the acidic black and the red soils, while, no other microbial functional group than phagotrophic protists was suppressed by fertilization in the alkaline fluvo-aquic soil. The significant reductions in microbial functional groups especially in acidic soils could be explained by nitrogen enrichment, increased soil acidification and potential biotic links between the functional groups within the microbiome. Together, we show that the fertilization-induced abiotic changes alter microbial functions that depend on the soil and environmental conditions. Particularly the most profound changes on the group of microbial predators might subsequently affect other soil functions performed by bacteria and fungi.

    Hydrothermal processes of near-surface warm permafrost in response to strong precipitation events in the Headwater Area of the Yellow River, Tibetan Plateau
    Luo, Dongliang ; Jin, Huijun ; Bense, Victor F. ; Jin, Xiaoying ; Li, Xiaoying - \ 2020
    Geoderma 376 (2020). - ISSN 0016-7061
    Aquifer - Aquitard - Headwater Area of the Yellow River - Seasonal freeze-thaw processes - Tibetan Plateau - Warm permafrost

    Permafrost is mostly warm and thermally unstable on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), particularly in some marginal areas, thereby being susceptible to degrade or even disappear under climate warming. The degradation of permafrost consequently leads to changes in hydrological cycles associated with seasonal freeze-thaw processes. In this study, we investigated seasonal hydrothermal processes of near-surface permafrost layers and their responses to rain events at two warm permafrost sites in the Headwater Area of the Yellow River, northeastern TP. Results demonstrated that water content in shallow active layers changed with infiltration of rainwater, whereas kept stable in the perennially frozen layer, which serves as an aquitard due to low hydraulic conductivity or even imperviousness. Accordingly, the supra-permafrost water acts as a seasonal aquifer in the thawing period and as a seasonal aquitard in the freezing period. Seasonal freeze-thaw processes in association with rain events correlate well with the recharge and discharge of the supra-permafrost water. Super-heavy precipitation (44 mm occurred on 2 July 2015) caused a sharp increase in soil water content and dramatic rises in soil temperatures by 0.3–0.5 °C at shallow depths and advancement thawing of the active layer by half a month. However, more summer precipitation amount tends to reduce the seasonal amplitude of soil temperatures, decrease mean annual soil temperatures and thawing indices and thin active layers. High salinity results in the long remaining of a large amount of unfrozen water around the bottom of the active layer. We conclude that extremely warm permafrost with TZAA (the temperature at the depth of zero annual amplitude) >−0.5 °C is likely percolated under heavy and super-heavy precipitation events, while hydrothermal processes around the permafrost table likely present three stages concerning TZAA of <−0.5 °C, −0.5–0 °C, and >0 °C.

    Protein A-mesoporous silica composites for chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G
    Huang, Si ; Cheng, Si Yuan ; Zhang, Shu Yuan ; Yan, Yi Lun ; Cai, Song Liang ; Li, Xin Le ; Zheng, Sheng Run ; Fan, Jun ; Zhang, Wei Guang - \ 2020
    New Journal of Chemistry 44 (2020)19. - ISSN 1144-0546 - p. 7884 - 7890.

    The development of a robust and efficient stationary phase for chromatographic biopharmaceutical purification is of prime importance but remains challenging. Herein, we have developed a series of protein A-mesoporous silica composites for the first time by covalently coupling protein A with the tagged carbonyl imidazole moieties in the column, which constitutes a facile and efficient route for the preparation of protein A immunoaffinity materials. The resultant composites are employed as the stationary phase for chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The effect of silica's pore size and coupled protein A on the antibody purification is systematically investigated. When the pore size of silica increased from 100 to 1000 Å, the amount of coupled protein A decreased, and the surface coverage on the silica significantly improved, accompanied by an increase in the amount of purified rabbit IgG. With an increasing coupled protein A, the surface coverage increased at first and decreased subsequently, which shows a similar trend to the amount of purified IgG and specific activity. When practically implemented for purifying several immunoglobulins that are central for commercial ELISA Kits, the protein A-mesoporous silica composite exhibited superior performance compared to the GE-Mabselcetxtra rProtein A column, particularly in the purification of immunoglobulin M (IgM), which cannot be realized by the GE-Mabselcetxtra rProtein A column. This study sheds new light on the rational development of protein-affinity chromatography for biopharmaceutical purification.

    Chain conformation and physicochemical properties of polysaccharide (glucuronoxylomannan) from Fruit Bodies of Tremella fuciformis
    Xu, Xiaoqi ; Chen, Aijun ; Ge, Xinyan ; Li, Sha ; Zhang, Tao ; Xu, Hong - \ 2020
    Carbohydrate Polymers 245 (2020). - ISSN 0144-8617
    Chain conformation - Glucuronoxylomannan - Moisture absorption and retention capacity - Rheological properties - Tremella fuciformis - Wormlike cylinder model

    Based on its potential bioactivities and sustainable source, polysaccharide (glucuronoxylomannan) from fruit bodies of Tremella fuciformis (TFP) aroused attention in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. The present study aimed at revealing its chain conformational and physicochemical properties. By using HPSEC-MALLS-Visc-RI measurement, worm-like cylinder model calculation and AFM observation, we manifested that TFP existed as flexible chains in 0.15 M NaCl (pH 7.4) solution, with the persistence length of 9.20 nm and chain diameter of 0.97 nm. Meanwhile, TFP solution exhibited shear-thinning behavior with C* at 5.3 mg mL−1, owning the feature of entangled polysaccharide. TFP solution changed from liquid-like to solid-like behavior as frequency increases, and the crossover points shifted to lower frequencies with concentration increasing. Besides, the strong moisture retention ability of TFP was evaluated. These characteristics indicated that TFP could be utilized to design microstructure system and applied as stabilizer or moisture holding ingredient in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic system.

    The relative importance of green infrastructure as refuge habitat for pollinators increases with local land-use intensity
    Li, Pengyao ; Kleijn, David ; Badenhausser, Isabelle ; Zaragoza-Trello, Carlos ; Gross, Nicolas ; Raemakers, Ivo ; Scheper, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Ecology (2020). - ISSN 0021-8901
    agri-environmental measures - field boundaries - flower resources - grassland - green infrastructure - hoverflies - land-use intensity - wild bees

    Agricultural expansion and intensification have resulted in strong declines in farmland biodiversity across Europe. In many intensively farmed landscapes, linear landscape elements such as field boundaries, road verges and ditch banks are the main remaining green infrastructures providing refuge for biodiversity, and as such play a pivotal role in agri-environmental policies aiming at mitigating biodiversity loss. Yet, while we have a fairly good understanding of how agricultural intensification influences biodiversity on farmland, little is known about whether and how local land-use intensity affects biodiversity in nearby linear landscape elements and how this affects their role as biodiversity refuge. Focussing on pollinating insects, we examined the effects of local land-use intensity on biodiversity in agricultural fields and adjacent green infrastructures. In an intensively farmed area in south-western France, we selected 23 agricultural grasslands and nearby field boundaries along a gradient in grassland cutting frequency which acted as a proxy for land-use intensity. We analysed how grassland cutting frequency affects species richness, abundance and community composition of wild bees and hoverflies in the grasslands and neighbouring field boundaries, and whether these effects differ across habitat types and species groups. Grassland cutting frequency negatively affected pollinator species richness and abundance in the grasslands, whereas pollinators in the neighbouring field boundaries were unaffected. These responses reflected the effects of cutting frequency on floral resources, with flower cover and richness decreasing in grasslands but not in field boundaries. As a result, the proportion of the local pollinator community supported by field boundaries increased with the increasing cutting frequency of the adjacent grassland. Common and rare pollinator species generally showed similar responses. Furthermore, communities of plants and pollinators in field boundaries next to intensively farmed grasslands were fairly similar to those next to extensively farmed ones. Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that, as nearby land use intensifies, flower-rich field boundaries become increasingly important as pollinator refuge habitats. Conserving field boundaries and other green infrastructures, and maintaining or enhancing their quality, therefore constitute important tools to conserve and promote pollinators in intensively farmed landscapes.

    Agriculture green development : A model for China and the world
    Shen, Jianbo ; Zhu, Qichao ; Jiao, Xiaoqiang ; Ying, Hao ; Wang, Hongliang ; Wen, Xin ; Xu, Wen ; Li, Tingyu ; Cong, Wenfeng ; Liu, Xuejun ; Hou, Yong ; Cui, Zhenling ; Oenema, Oene ; Davies, William J. ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2020
    Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2095-7505 - p. 5 - 13.
    Agriculture green development - Food security - Interdisciplinary innovations - Resource use efficiency - Sustainable development - Sustainable intensification - Whole industry chain

    Realizing sustainable development has become a global priority. This holds, in particular, for agriculture. Recently, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the Nineteenth National People's Congress has delivered a national strategy for sustainable development in China-realizing green development. The overall objective of Agriculture Green Development (AGD) is to coordinate "green" with "development" to realize the transformation of current agriculture with high resource consumption and high environmental costs into a green agriculture and countryside with high productivity, high resource use efficiency and low environmental impact. This is a formidable task, requiring joint efforts of government, farmers, industry, educators and researchers. The innovative concept for AGD will focus on reconstructing the whole crop-animal production and food production-consumption system, with the emphasis on high thresholds for environmental standards and food quality as well as enhanced human well-being. This paper addresses the significance, challenges, framework, pathways and potential solutions for realizing AGD in China, and highlights the potential changes that will lead to a more sustainable agriculture in the future. Proposals include interdisciplinary innovations, whole food chain improvement and regional solutions. The implementation of AGD in China will provide important implications for the countries in developmental transition, and contribute to global sustainable development.

    Energy consumption in membrane capacitive deionization and comparison with reverse osmosis
    Porada, S. ; Zhang, Li ; Dykstra, J.E. - \ 2020
    Desalination 488 (2020). - ISSN 0011-9164

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a technique for water desalination by adsorbing ions in charged porous electrodes. In the present experimental and theoretical study, we analyze the performance, in terms of energy consumption, salt rejection and water recovery, of MCDI operated in intermittent flow mode. With this mode, the water recovery of MCDI is increased by reducing the water flow ratio during regeneration. Both experimental and theoretical results show that high values for water recovery and salt rejection can be achieved with a lab-scale MCDI system for feed water with a salinity of 40 mM. Importantly, we find that the energy requirement of MCDI is a factor of 2.0–2.5 higher than of RO. For RO, the energy requirements were calculated with a system-scale model developed by Qin et al. [1]. Furthermore, we show that, based on our theoretical predictions, improved MCDI can reach high salt rejection and water recovery, without an additional energy penalty. In these conditions, the energy consumption of MCDI is lower than of RO. In the present work, we present new insights for a fair performance comparison of MCDI and RO.

    Syndromes of production in intercropping impact yield gains
    Li, Chunjie ; Hoffland, Ellis ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Yu, Yang ; Zhang, Chaochun ; Li, Haigang ; Zhang, Fusuo ; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2020
    Nature Plants 6 (2020)6. - ISSN 2055-026X
    Intercropping, the simultaneous production of multiple crops on the same field, provides opportunities for the sustainable intensification of agriculture if it can provide a greater yield per unit land and fertilizer than sole crops. The worldwide absolute yield gain of intercropping as compared with sole crops has not been analysed. We therefore performed a global meta-analysis to quantify the effect of intercropping on the yield gain, exploring the effects of crop species combinations, temporal and spatial arrangements, and fertilizer input. We found that the absolute yield gains, compared with monocultures, were the greatest for mixtures of maize with short-grain cereals or legumes that had substantial temporal niche differentiation from maize, when grown with high nutrient inputs, and using multirow strips of each species. This approach, commonly practised in China, provided yield gains that were (in an absolute sense) about four times as large as those in another, low-input intercropping strategy, commonly practised outside China. The alternative intercropping strategy consisted of growing mixtures of short-stature crop species, often as full mixtures, with the same growing period and with low to moderate nutrient inputs. Both the low- and high-yield intercropping strategies saved 16–29% of the land and 19–36% of the fertilizer compared with monocultures grown under the same management as the intercrop. The two syndromes of production in intercropping uncovered by this meta-analysis show that intercropping offers opportunities for the sustainable intensification of both high- and low-input agriculture.
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