Managing the Natura 2000 network: between Europeanization and societal engagement
Bouwma, Irene M. - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J.M. Arts, co-promotor(en): J.D. Liefferink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435123 - 205
The Member States of the European Union have agreed to protect nature. Therefore all Member States have designated protected areas - called Natura 2000 sites that jointly form the Natura 2000 network. This network now consists of more than 27,000 sites and covers over 18% of the EU’s territory. This thesis reviews how different Member States have arranged the management of these sites and how people who own, use or live near these sites – or the organisations representing those people – have influenced the management of the sites. This thesis provides a comparative overview of the variation in policy instruments used by Member States for management and how these instruments have changed due to societal involvement of national and local actors. On the basis of these findings this thesis draws concrete lessons in possible improvements for policy instrumentation for the Natura 2000 network management.
Natura 2000 management plans in France and the Netherlands : Carrots, sticks, sermons and different problems
Bouwma, Irene ; Beunen, Raoul ; Liefferink, Duncan - \ 2018
Journal for Nature Conservation 46 (2018). - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 56 - 65.
Management planning - Natura 2000 - Nature management - Policy instruments - Protected areas
Many EU Member States are using management plans to ensure the sustainable conservation and management of Natura 2000 sites. The decision about whether to use management plans lies with the Member States. Although management planning systems differ, in most countries the management plan is developed at local level in close consultation with relevant stakeholders. This article explores to what extent national decisions on the management planning system have influenced the content of the local plans. The comparison of French and Dutch Natura 2000 management plans shows that the plans mostly propose conservation measures that can be implemented by individual owners or users of the site and for which funding is available. The individual measures in the French plans reflect the national decision that the management plans should work primarily as a funding tool. The individual measures in the Dutch plans however do not reflect the national decision that management plans should act as a legislative tool to regulate land use activities in and around the site. In the Netherlands, the focus has shifted towards a tool for the coordination of funding. The analysis shows that in both countries the selection of particular measures in the management plans is connected to other policies and funding mechanisms that deal with the problems perceived by involved actors, such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Dutch National Programme for Nitrogen Deposition.
Cause, catalyst or conjunction? The influence of the Habitats Directive on policy instrument choice in Member States
Bouwma, Irene ; Arts, Bas ; Liefferink, Duncan - \ 2017
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60 (2017)6. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 977 - 996.
EU Directive - governance - management planning - Natura 2000 - policy instrument choice
In the process of implementing EU policy, Member States sometimes introduce new policy instruments in cases where this is not obligatory. To better understand this phenomenon, this paper reviews three cases in which new instruments emerged and develops a methodology to trace back the influence of EU Directives on instrument choice. The method is illustrated by a narrative of the emergence of new management planning instruments during the implementation of the EU Habitats Directive in three EU Member States: Finland, Hungary and the Netherlands. Three key features of a policy instrument are defined, namely, its authoritative force, action content and governance design. These are used to measure the contribution of the Habitats Directive compared to other potential explanatory causes for the emergence of the new policy instrument. In all three reviewed countries a nested causal relationship between the Habitats Directive and the introduction of the new policy instrument is identified. Based on the relative contribution of the Habitats Directive to the emergence of the new instrument a distinction is made whether the Directive acted as a cause, catalyst or if conjunction occurred.
Following Old Paths or Shaping New Ones in Natura 2000 Implementation? Mapping Path Dependency in Instrument Choice.
Bouwma, I.M. ; Liefferink, D. ; Apeldoorn, D.F. van; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2016
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 18 (2016)2. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 214 - 233.
This article reviews the influence of two specific European Union (EU) laws, the Birds and Habitats Directives, on the choice of national policy instruments by Member States. Both Directives leave the choice for policy instruments to manage the sites designated under the Directives to the Member States. Using path dependency as a leading concept, this article analyses the continuity or changes in policy instruments due to the implementation of the Directives in 15 countries. This article shows that the tendency to use existing instruments to implement EU policy is limited, as in almost all countries new instruments were developed. Yet, states do tend to choose instruments from their predominant policy instrument mix and preferred implementation style to address the management requirements of the Directives. Additionally, in Central and Eastern European countries where the implementation of EU policy coincided with a process of transition to a market economy, new instruments were introduced outside the existing implementation style. The introduction of new policy instruments is the result of historical turns, domestic pressure and a shift to new modes of governance. National case studies are needed to shed more light on the interaction between EU policy and domestic factors during the process of instrument choice.
Leaders and laggards in environmental policy: a quantitative analysis of domestic policy outputs
Liefferink, D. ; Arts, B. ; Kamstra, J. ; Ooijevaar, J. - \ 2009
Journal of European Public Policy 16 (2009)5. - ISSN 1350-1763 - p. 677 - 700.
corporatism - democracies - performance
This paper investigates the domestic characteristics of 'leaders' and 'laggards' in environmental policy in 21 European countries as well as the USA, Mexico and Japan from 1970. Data with regard to environmental policy strength are related to a set of potentially explanatory domestic factors. By way of the so-called gap approach, the distance or gap between current policy in a given country and the strictest policy available in the sample at the time is established. This is done for 40 environmental policy issues in all 24 countries and at four points in time (1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000). Mean country gaps for each point in time provide a picture of changing 'leaders' and 'laggards' in environmental policy, conforming only partly to conventional wisdom. Apparently, the international reputation of environmental 'pioneers' is not always matched by equally ambitious domestic policies. Statistical analysis identifies EU membership as the most important factor explaining a strong domestic policy output, whereas environmental problem pressure, institutional structure (neo-corporatism) and the level of economic development appear to be of secondary importance
A short history of Dutch forest policy: The 'de-institutionalisation' of a policy arrangement
Veenman, S. ; Liefferink, D. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2009
Forest Policy and Economics 11 (2009)3. - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 202 - 208.
Over the past thirty years, forest policy in the Netherlands has almost entirely been integrated into nature policy. This process of `de-institutionalisation¿ is surprising in view of widely accepted theories of institutional stability and `path dependency¿. The process is investigated in this paper along the four dimensions of the policy arrangement approach: discourse, power, rules and actors. It is argued that a discursive shift, moving the focus from production forest to `forest as part of nature¿ and fuelled by a number of underlying factors, lies at the heart of the process. In concordance with this shift, advocates of timber autarky lost power in favour of `nature advocates¿. A more diverse set of actors became involved in forest policy, also reflecting a more general trend in Dutch politics towards greater openness and the erosion of neo-corporatist rules. Thus, changes in all four dimensions of the policy arrangement worked into one direction. This may explain the unusually quick and radical `de-institutionalisation¿ of Dutch forest policy.
|The gap approach: what affects the direction of environmental policy convergence?
Arts, B. ; Liefferink, D. ; Kamstra, J. ; Ooijevaar, J. - \ 2008
In: Environmental Policy Convergence in Europe : the Impact of International Institutions and Trade / Holzinger, K., Knill, C., Arts, B., New York, USA : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9780521888813 - p. 196 - 226.
The Inter-play between formal and informal practices
Tatenhove, J.P.M. van; Mak, J. ; Liefferink, J.D. - \ 2006
Perspectives on European Politics and Society 7 (2006)1. - ISSN 1570-5854 - p. 8 - 24.
This article deals with the interaction between formal and informal politics in the EU. First of all, it argues that the EU is a special setting for such interaction, as compared to other political systems, as a result of its speedy institutional development and multi-layered nature. Then, it briefly addresses new institutionalist and governance approaches to informality, as well as the strategic motivations behind informal practices. Four such strategies are distinguished. At the co-operative end of the spectrum informal practices may be intended either as a lubricant for applying existing rules or as an experimental garden for trying out new rules. More conflictual strategies may aim at re-directing policy substance or the application of existing rules (critical voice) or rather at circumventing those rules. On that basis, the article presents the `staging¿ of practices as a way to understand the interplay of formal and informal practices. Informality can take place in front stage settings where rules are pre-given or in backstage settings where rules are not pre-given, while at the same time these settings can be formally sanctioned or not. Besides formal front stage practices this may result in three types of informal practices: informal front stage practices, formally sanctioned backstage practices and `sub-politics¿
|The Netherlands: The Advantages of being 'Mr. Average'?
Liefferink, D. ; Zouwen, M.W. van der - \ 2004
In: Environmental policy in Europe / Jordan, A., Liefferink, D., London : Routledge (Routledge Research in Environmental Politics 7) - ISBN 9780415339414 - p. 136 - 153.
Bestuurlijke trends en het natuurbeleid
Kuindersma, W. ; Selnes, T.A. ; Liefferink, J.D. ; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van; Hajer, M.A. ; Buunk, W.W. ; Volker, C.M. ; Pleijte, M. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Natuurplanbureau (Planbureaustudies 3) - 166
natuurbescherming - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - bedrijfsvoering - nederland - europa - bestuurskunde - natuurbeleid - nature conservation - government policy - environmental policy - management - netherlands - europe
De maatschappij verandert en dus verandert ook het bestuur van Nederland. Besturen is niet meer voorbehouden aan de politiek. Ook maatschappelijke groeperingen en bedrijven willen invloed op het gevoerde beleid hebben. In deze studie stellen diverse auteurs de vraag wat de gevolgen van de bestuurlijke veranderingen zijn voor het natuurbeleid.
|The Voluntary Approach to Environmental Policy
Mol, A.P.J. ; Lauber, V. ; Liefferink, J.D. - \ 2000
Oxford : Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780199241163 - 279
milieubeleid - deregulering - politiek - energie - efficiëntie - industrie - afval - etiketteren - biologische voedingsmiddelen - europa - environmental policy - deregulation - politics - energy - efficiency - industry - wastes - labelling - organic foods - europe
Epilogue : Conclusions and Policy Implications
Mol, A.P.J. ; Liefferink, J.D. ; Lauber, V. - \ 2000
In: The Voluntary Approach to Environmental Policy / Mol, Arthur P.J., Lauber, Volkmar, Liefferink, Duncan, Oxford : Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780199241163 - p. 217 - 226.
Mol, A.P.J. ; Liefferink, J.D. ; Lauber, V. - \ 2000
In: The Voluntary Approach to Environmental Policy / Mol, Arthur P.J., Lauber, Volkmar, Liefferink, Duncan, Oxford : Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780199241163 - p. 1 - 9.
|Interpreting Joint Environmental Policy-making : Between Deregulation and Political Modernization
Liefferink, J.D. ; Andersen, M.S. ; Enevoldsen, M. - \ 2000
In: The Voluntary Approach to Environmental Policy / Mol, Arthur P.J., Lauber, Volkmar, Liefferink, Duncan, Oxford : Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780199241163 - p. 10 - 31.
A Comparative Analysis of Joint Environmental Policy-making
Liefferink, J.D. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2000
In: The Voluntary Approach to Environmental Policy / Mol, Arthur P.J., Lauber, Volkmar, Liefferink, Duncan, Oxford : Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780199241163 - p. 192 - 216.
|Climate OptiOns for the Long term (COOL)
Berk, M.M. ; Hordijk, L. ; Hisschemöller, M. ; Kok, M.T.J. ; Liefferink, D. ; Swart, R.J. ; Tuinstra, W. - \ 1999
Unknown Publisher - 120 p.
|Joint environmental policy-making (JEP) : New interactive approaches in the EU and selected member states. Final report
Liefferink, J.D. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Lauber, V. ; Hofer, K. ; Enevoldsen, M. ; Andersen, M.S. - \ 1998
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit (Environmental Sociology Series 11) - 102 p.
|Strategies of the 'green' member states in EU environmental policy making.
Liefferink, D. ; Andersen, M.S. - \ 1998
Journal of European Public Policy 5 (1998). - ISSN 1350-1763 - p. 254 - 270.
|Voluntary agreements as a form of deregulation? The Dutch experience.
Liefferink, D. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 1998
In: Deregulation in the European Union: environmental perspectives / Collier, U., London : Routledge - p. 181 - 197.
|New environmental policy instruments in The Netherlands.
Liefferink, D. - \ 1998
In: New instruments for environmental protection in the EU / Golub, J., London : Routledge - p. 85 - 105.