Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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China’s pig relocation in balance
Bai, Zhaohai ; Jin, Shuqin ; Wu, Yan ; Ermgassen, Erasmus zu; Oenema, Oene ; Chadwick, David ; Lassaletta, Luis ; Velthof, Gerard ; Zhao, Jun ; Ma, Lin - \ 2019
Nature Sustainability 2 (2019)10. - ISSN 2398-9629 - 1 p.
The acclimation of leaf photosynthesis of wheat and rice to seasonal temperature changes in T-FACE environments
Cai, Chuang ; Li, Gang ; Di, Lijun ; Ding, Yunjie ; Fu, Lin ; Guo, Xuanhe ; Struik, Paul C. ; Pan, Genxing ; Li, Haozheng ; Chen, Weiping ; Luo, Weihong ; Yin, Xinyou - \ 2019
Global Change Biology (2019). - ISSN 1354-1013
climate change - free-air CO enrichment - growth temperature - leaf nitrogen content - Oryza sativa L. - photosynthesis model - stomatal conductance - Triticum aestivum L.

Crops show considerable capacity to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics to seasonal changes in temperature. However, how photosynthesis acclimates to changes in seasonal temperature under future climate conditions has not been revealed. We measured leaf photosynthesis (An) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under four combinations of two levels of CO2 (ambient and enriched up to 500 µmol/mol) and two levels of canopy temperature (ambient and increased by 1.5–2.0°C) in temperature by free-air CO2 enrichment (T-FACE) systems. Parameters of a biochemical C3-photosynthesis model and of a stomatal conductance (gs) model were estimated for the four conditions and for several crop stages. Some biochemical parameters related to electron transport and most gs parameters showed acclimation to seasonal growth temperature in both crops. The acclimation response did not differ much between wheat and rice, nor among the four treatments of the T-FACE systems, when the difference in the seasonal growth temperature was accounted for. The relationships between biochemical parameters and leaf nitrogen content were consistent across leaf ranks, developmental stages, and treatment conditions. The acclimation had a strong impact on gs model parameters: when parameter values of a particular stage were used, the model failed to correctly estimate gs values of other stages. Further analysis using the coupled gs–biochemical photosynthesis model showed that ignoring the acclimation effect did not result in critical errors in estimating leaf photosynthesis under future climate, as long as parameter values were measured or derived from data obtained before flowering.

Further Improvement of Air Quality in China Needs Clear Ammonia Mitigation Target
Bai, Zhaohai ; Winiwarter, Wilfried ; Klimont, Zbigniew ; Velthof, Gerard ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Zhao, Zhanqing ; Jin, Xinpeng ; Oenema, Oene ; Hu, Chunsheng ; Ma, Lin - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)18. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 10542 - 10544.
Evolution of Increased Photosynthetic Capacity and Its Underlying Traits in Invasive Jacobaea vulgaris
Lin, Tiantian ; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L. ; Pons, Thijs L. ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Vrieling, Klaas - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis - invasion ecology - photosynthetic capacity - pyrrolizidine alkaloids - root carbohydrate storage - shifting defense hypothesis

The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis and the shifting defense hypothesis (SDH) predict that evolutionary changes occur in a suite of traits related to defense and growth in invasive plant species as result of the absence of specialist herbivores. We tested how this suite of traits changed due to the absence of specialist herbivores in multiple invasive regions that differ in climatic conditions with native and invasive Jacobaea vulgaris in a controlled environment. We hypothesized that invasive J. vulgaris in all invasive regions have i) a higher plant growth and underlying traits, such as photosynthetic capacity, ii) lower regrowth-related traits, such as carbohydrate storage, and iii) an increased plant qualitative defense, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Our results show that invasive J. vulgaris genotypes have evolved a higher photosynthetic rate and total PA concentration but a lower investment in root carbohydrates, which supports the SDH hypothesis. All the traits changed consistently and significantly in the same direction in all four invasive regions, indicative of a parallel evolution. Climatic and soil variables did differ between ranges but explained only a very small part of the variation in trait values. The latter suggests that climate and soil changes were not the main selective forces on these traits.

Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe
Frantz, Laurent A.F. ; Haile, James ; Lin, Audrey T. ; Scheu, Amelie ; Geörg, Christina ; Benecke, Norbert ; Alexander, Michelle ; Linderholm, Anna ; Mullin, Victoria E. ; Daly, Kevin G. ; Battista, Vincent M. ; Price, Max ; Gron, Kurt J. ; Alexandri, Panoraia ; Arbogast, Rose Marie ; Arbuckle, Benjamin ; Bǎlǎşescu, Adrian ; Barnett, Ross ; Bartosiewicz, László ; Baryshnikov, Gennady ; Bonsall, Clive ; Borić, Dušan ; Boroneanţ, Adina ; Bulatović, Jelena ; Çakirlar, Canan ; Carretero, José Miguel ; Chapman, John ; Church, Mike ; Crooijmans, Richard ; Cupere, Bea De; Detry, Cleia ; Dimitrijevic, Vesna ; Dumitraşcu, Valentin ; Plessis, Louis Du; Edwards, Ceiridwen J. ; Erek, Cevdet Merih ; Erim-Özdoǧan, Asli ; Ervynck, Anton ; Fulgione, Domenico ; Gligor, Mihai ; Götherström, Anders ; Gourichon, Lionel ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Helmer, Daniel ; Hongo, Hitomi ; Horwitz, Liora K. ; Irving-Pease, Evan K. ; Lebrasseur, Ophélie ; Lesur, Joséphine ; Malone, Caroline ; Manaseryan, Ninna ; Marciniak, Arkadiusz ; Martlew, Holley ; Mashkour, Marjan ; Matthews, Roger ; Matuzeviciute, Giedre Motuzaite ; Maziar, Sepideh ; Meijaard, Erik ; McGovern, Tom ; Megens, Hendrik Jan ; Miller, Rebecca ; Mohaseb, Azadeh Fatemeh ; Orschiedt, Jörg ; Orton, David ; Papathanasiou, Anastasia ; Pearson, Mike Parker ; Pinhasi, Ron ; Radmanović, Darko ; Ricaut, François Xavier ; Richards, Mike ; Sabin, Richard ; Sarti, Lucia ; Schier, Wolfram ; Sheikhi, Shiva ; Stephan, Elisabeth ; Stewart, John R. ; Stoddart, Simon ; Tagliacozzo, Antonio ; Tasić, Nenad ; Trantalidou, Katerina ; Tresset, Anne ; Valdiosera, Cristina ; Hurk, Youri Van Den; Poucke, Sophie Van; Vigne, Jean Denis ; Yanevich, Alexander ; Zeeb-Lanz, Andrea ; Triantafyllidis, Alexandros ; Gilbert, M.T.P. ; Schibler, Jörg ; Rowley-Conwy, Peter ; Zeder, Melinda ; Peters, Joris ; Cucchi, Thomas ; Bradley, Daniel G. ; Dobney, Keith ; Burger, Joachim ; Evin, Allowen ; Girdland-Flink, Linus ; Larson, Greger - \ 2019
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)35. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 17231 - 17238.
Domestication - Evolution - Gene flow - Neolithic

Archaeological evidence indicates that pig domestication had begun by ∼10,500 y before the present (BP) in the Near East, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that pigs arrived in Europe alongside farmers ∼8,500 y BP. A few thousand years after the introduction of Near Eastern pigs into Europe, however, their characteristic mtDNA signature disappeared and was replaced by haplotypes associated with European wild boars. This turnover could be accounted for by substantial gene flow from local European wild boars, although it is also possible that European wild boars were domesticated independently without any genetic contribution from the Near East. To test these hypotheses, we obtained mtDNA sequences from 2,099 modern and ancient pig samples and 63 nuclear ancient genomes from Near Eastern and European pigs. Our analyses revealed that European domestic pigs dating from 7,100 to 6,000 y BP possessed both Near Eastern and European nuclear ancestry, while later pigs possessed no more than 4% Near Eastern ancestry, indicating that gene flow from European wild boars resulted in a near-complete disappearance of Near East ancestry. In addition, we demonstrate that a variant at a locus encoding black coat color likely originated in the Near East and persisted in European pigs. Altogether, our results indicate that while pigs were not independently domesticated in Europe, the vast majority of human-mediated selection over the past 5,000 y focused on the genomic fraction derived from the European wild boars, and not on the fraction that was selected by early Neolithic farmers over the first 2,500 y of the domestication process.

How to avoid coastal eutrophication - a back-casting study for the North China Plain
Li, Ang ; Strokal, Maryna ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Ma, Lin - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 692 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 676 - 690.
China - Coastal eutrophication - Manure management - MARINA 1.0 model - Nutrients - River pollution

Eutrophication is a serious problem in Chinese seas. We explore possibilities to avoid coastal eutrophication without compromising food production in the North China Plain. We used the Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrient to seAs (MARINA 1.0) for back-casting and scenario analysis. Avoiding coastal eutrophication by 2050 implies required reductions in river export of total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) by 50–90% for the Hai, Huai and Huang rivers. We analyzed the potential to meet these targets in 54 scenarios assuming improvements in manure recycling, fertilizer application, animal feed and wastewater treatment. Results indicate that combining manure recycling while reducing synthetic fertilizer use are effective options to reduce nutrient inputs to seas. Without such options, direct discharge of manure are important sources of water pollution. In the 7–25 scenarios with the low eutrophication potential, 40–100% of the N and P in untreated manure is recycled on land to replace synthetic fertilizers. Our results can support the formulation of effective environmental policies to avoid coastal eutrophication in China.

Multi-scale Modeling of Nutrient Pollution in the Rivers of China
Chen, Xi ; Strokal, Maryna ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. Van; Stuiver, John ; Wang, Mengru ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Ma, Lin ; Kroeze, Carolien - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)16. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 9614 - 9625.
Chinese surface waters are severely polluted by nutrients. This study addresses three challenges in nutrient modeling for rivers in China: (1) difficulties in transferring modeling results across biophysical and administrative scales, (2) poor representation of the locations of point sources, and (3) limited incorporation of the direct discharge of manure to rivers. The objective of this study is, therefore, to quantify inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to Chinese rivers from different sources at multiple scales. We developed a novel multi-scale modeling approach including a detailed, state-of-the-art representation of point sources of nutrients in rivers. The model results show that the river pollution and source attributions differ among spatial scales. Point sources accounted for 75% of the total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) inputs to rivers in China in 2012, and diffuse sources accounted for 72% of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) inputs. One-third of the sub-basins accounted for more than half of the pollution. Downscaling to the smallest scale (polygons) reveals that 14% and 9% of the area contribute to more than half of the calculated TDN and TDP pollution, respectively. Sources of pollution vary considerably among and within counties. Clearly, multi-scale modeling may help to develop effective policies for water pollution
Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Cao, Min ; Chanthorn, Wirong ; Chao, Wei Chun ; Clay, Keith ; Condit, Richard ; Cordell, Susan ; Silva, João Batista da; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Andrade, Ana Cristina Segalin de; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de; Ouden, Jan den; Drescher, Michael ; Fletcher, Christine ; Giardina, Christian P. ; Savitri Gunatilleke, C.V. ; Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. ; Hau, Billy C.H. ; He, Fangliang ; Howe, Robert ; Hsieh, Chang Fu ; Hubbell, Stephen P. ; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Johnson, Daniel J. ; Kong, Lee Sing ; Král, Kamil ; Ku, Chen Chia ; Lai, Jiangshan ; Larson, Andrew J. ; Li, Xiankun ; Li, Yide ; Lin, Luxiang ; Lin, Yi Ching ; Liu, Shirong ; Lum, Shawn K.Y. ; Lutz, James A. ; Ma, Keping ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; McMahon, Sean ; McShea, William ; Mi, Xiangcheng ; Morecroft, Michael ; Myers, Jonathan A. ; Nathalang, Anuttara ; Novotny, Vojtech ; Ong, Perry ; Orwig, David A. ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Parker, Geoffrey ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Abd. Rahman, Kassim ; Sack, Lawren ; Sang, Weiguo ; Shen, Guochun ; Shringi, Ankur ; Shue, Jessica ; Su, Sheng Hsin ; Sukumar, Raman ; Fang Sun, I. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Tan, Sylvester ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Toko, Pagi S. ; Valencia, Renato ; Vallejo, Martha I. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vrška, Tomáš ; Wang, Bin ; Wang, Xihua ; Weiblen, George D. ; Wolf, Amy ; Xu, Han ; Yap, Sandra ; Zhu, Li ; Fung, Tak - \ 2019
Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)6. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 2598 - 2610.
forest - legume - nitrogen fixation - nutrient limitation - Smithsonian ForestGEO - symbiosis

Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N-fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N-fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N-fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N-fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N-fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N-fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N-fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N-fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N-fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.

Seasonality in river export of nitrogen : A modelling approach for the Yangtze River
Chen, Xuanjing ; Strokal, Maryna ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Ma, Lin ; Shen, Zhenyao ; Wu, Jiechen ; Chen, Xinping ; Shi, Xiaojun - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 671 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1282 - 1292.
Diffuse and point sources - MARINA model - Nitrogen - Sub-basins - Water quality - Yangtze River

In China, many estuaries suffer from eutrophication problems such as green tides and hypoxia. This is often a result of human activities on land leading to increased nutrient exports by rivers. River pollution shows seasonal trends that are not well understood. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to improve our understanding of the seasonal variation in river export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) by source and at the sub-basin scale. To this end, we modified the existing MARINA model 1.0 (Model to Assess River Input of Nutrient to seAs) to account for seasonality in river export of DIN, and applied it to the Yangtze River. The resulting MARINA model version 1.1 takes a mass-balance approach and accounts for seasonality in human activities (e.g., crop planting and fertilization) and meteorology. The model distinguishes four seasons: winter (December–February), spring (March–May), summer (June–August) and fall (September–November). Our results for Yangtze indicate that N inputs to land and river export of DIN to sea are higher in summer and lower in winter. In spring, summer and fall, diffuse sources from agriculture contribute 43–85% to DIN export. In spring and fall, use of synthetic N fertilizers in cropland is an important source of DIN. In summer, both atmospheric N deposition and synthetic N fertilizers dominate. Animal manure is typically applied on land in spring and fall, contributing then to DIN. In winter, point sources of animal manure are responsible for 34–74% of DIN river export. In general, more DIN is exported to the sea from activities in middlestream and downstream sub-basins. Our results can serve as an example for other large rivers worldwide, and support the formulation of effective strategies to reduce seasonal eutrophication.

Energy Efficiency of Capacitive Deionization
Wang, Li ; Dykstra, J.E. ; Lin, Shihong - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)7. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 3366 - 3378.

Capacitive deionization (CDI) as a class of electrochemical desalination has attracted fast-growing research interest in recent years. A significant part of this growing interest is arguably attributable to the premise that CDI is energy efficient and has the potential to outcompete other conventional desalination technologies. In this review, systematic evaluation of literature data reveals that while the absolute energy consumption of CDI is in general low, most existing CDI systems achieve limited energy efficiency from a thermodynamic perspective. We also analyze the causes for the relatively low energy efficiency and discuss factors that may lead to enhanced energy efficiency for CDI.

Baculovirus per os infectivity factor complex : Components and assembly
Wang, Xi ; Shang, Yu ; Chen, Cheng ; Liu, Shurui ; Chang, Meng ; Zhang, Nan ; Hu, Hengrui ; Zhang, Fenghua ; Zhang, Tao ; Wang, Zhiying ; Liu, Xijia ; Lin, Zhe ; Deng, Fei ; Wang, Hualin ; Zou, Zhen ; Vlak, Just M. ; Wang, Manli ; Hu, Zhihong - \ 2019
Journal of Virology 93 (2019)6. - ISSN 0022-538X
Baculovirus - Entry - Per os infectivity factor - PIF complex - PIF9

Baculovirus entry into insect midgut cells is dependent on a multiprotein complex of per os infectivity factors (PIFs) on the envelopes of occlusion-derived virions (ODVs). The structure and assembly of the PIF complex are largely unknown. To reveal the complete members of the complex, a combination of blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and Western blotting was conducted on three different baculoviruses. The results showed that the PIF complex has a molecular mass of ~500 kDa and consists of nine PIFs, including a newly discovered member (PIF9). To decipher the assembly process, each pif gene was knocked out from the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) genome individually by use of synthetic baculovirus technology, and the impact on PIF complex formation was investigated. Deletion of pif8 resulted in the formation of an ~400-kDa subcomplex. Deletion of pif0, -4, -6, -7, or -9 resulted in a subcomplex of ~230 kDa, but deletion of pif1, -2, or -3 abolished formation of any complex. Taken together, our data identified a core complex of ~230 kDa, consisting of PIF1, -2, and -3. This revised the previous knowledge that the core complex was about 170 kDa and contained PIF1 to -4. Analysis of the PIF complex in cellular fractions suggested that it is assembled in the cytoplasm before being transported to the nucleus and subsequently incorporated into the envelopes of ODVs. Only the full complex, not the subcomplex, is resistant to proteolytic attack, indicating the essentiality of correct complex assembly for oral infection. IMPORTANCE Entry of baculovirus into host insects is mediated by a per os infectivity factor (PIF) complex on the envelopes of occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs). Knowledge of the composition and structure of the PIF complex is fundamental to understanding its mode of action. By using multiple approaches, we determined the complete list of proteins (nine) in the PIF complex. In contrast to previous knowledge in the field, the core complex is revised to ~230 kDa and consists of PIF1 to -3 but not PIF4. Interestingly, our results suggest that the PIF complex is formed in the cytoplasm prior to its transport to the nucleus and subsequent incorporation into ODVs. Only the full complex is resistant to proteolytic degradation in the insect midgut, implying the critical role of the entire complex. These findings provide the baseline for future studies on the ODV entry mechanism mediated by the multiprotein complex.

The global forest age dataset and its uncertainties (GFADv1.1)
Poulter, B. ; Aragão, L. ; Andela, N. ; Bellassen, V. ; Ciais, P. ; Kato, T. ; Lin, X. ; Nachin, B. ; Luyssaert, S. ; Pederson, N. ; Peylin, P. ; Piao, S. ; Pugh, T. ; Saatchi, S. ; Schepaschenko, D. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Shivdenko, A. - \ 2019
The global forest age dataset (GFAD v.1.1) provides a correction to GFAD v1.0, as well as its uncertainties. GFAD describes the age distributions of plant functional types (PFT) on a 0.5-degree grid. Each grid cell contains information on the fraction of each PFT within an age class. The four PFTs, needleaf evergreen (NEEV), needleleaf deciduous (NEDE), broadleaf evergreen (BREV) and broadleaf deciduous (BRDC) are mapped from the MODIS Collection 5.1 land cover dataset, crosswalking land cover types to PFT fractions. The source of data for the age distributions is from country-level forest inventory for temperate and high-latitude countries, and from biomass for tropical countries. The inventory and biomass data are related to fifteen age classes defined in ten-year intervals, from 1-10 up to a class greater than 150 years old. The uncertainties are estimated for the inventory derived forest age classes as +/- 40% of the mean age. For the areas where age is derived from aboveground biomass, the uncertainty is derived from the 5th and 95th percentile estimates of biomass, but using the same age-aboveground biomass curves. The GFAD dataset represents the 2000-2010 era.
Exploring Future Food Provision Scenarios for China
Ma, Lin ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Ma, Wenqi ; Guo, Mengchu ; Jiang, Rongfeng ; Liu, Junguo ; Oenema, Oene ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Whitmore, Andrew P. ; Crawford, John ; Dobermann, Achim ; Schwoob, Marie ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)3. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 1385 - 1393.

Developing sustainable food systems is essential, especially for emerging economies, where food systems are changing rapidly and affect the environment and natural resources. We explored possible future pathways for a sustainable food system in China, using multiple environmental indicators linked to eight of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Forecasts for 2030 in a business as usual scenario (BAU) indicate increases in animal food consumption as well as increased shortages of the land available and the water needed to produce the required food in China. Associated greenhouse gas emissions and nitrogen and phosphorus losses could become 10-42% of global emissions in 2010. We developed three main pathways besides BAU [produce more and better food (PMB), consume and waste less food (CWL), and import more food (IMF)] and analyzed their impacts and contributions to achieving one or more of the eight SDGs. Under these scenarios, the demand for land and water and the emissions of GHG and nutrients may decrease by 7-55% compared to BAU, depending on the pathway followed. A combination of PMB and CWL was most effective, while IMF externalizes impacts to countries exporting to China. Modestly increasing feed or food imports in a selective manner could ease the pressure on natural resources. Our modeling framework allows us to analyze the effects of changes in food production-consumption systems in an integrated manner, and the results can be linked to the eight SDGs. Despite formidable technological, social, educational, and structural barriers that need to be overcome, our study indicates that the ambitious targets of China's new agricultural and environmental strategy appear to be achievable.

Excess nutrient loads to Lake Taihu : Opportunities for nutrient reduction
Wang, Mengru ; Strokal, Maryna ; Burek, Peter ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Ma, Lin ; Janssen, Annette B.G. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 664 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 865 - 873.
Critical nutrient loads - MARINA-Lake - Nutrient sources - PCLake model - River export of nutrients - Sub-basins

Intensive agriculture and rapid urbanization have increased nutrient inputs to Lake Taihu in recent decades. This resulted in eutrophication. We aim to better understand the sources of river export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and phosphorus (TDP) to Lake Taihu in relation to critical nutrient loads. We implemented the MARINA-Lake (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs) model for Lake Taihu. The MARINA-Lake model quantifies river export of dissolved inorganic and organic N and P to the lake by source from sub-basins. Results from the PCLake model are used to identify to what extent river export of nutrients exceeds critical loads. We calculate that rivers exported 61 kton of TDN and 2 kton of TDP to Lake Taihu in 2012. More than half of these nutrients were from human activities (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) in Sub-basins I (north) and IV (south). Most of the nutrients were in dissolved inorganic forms. Diffuse sources contributed 90% to river export of TDN with a relatively large share of synthetic fertilizers. Point sources contributed 52% to river export of TDP with a relatively large share of sewage systems. The relative shares of diffuse and point sources varied greatly among nutrient forms and sub-basins. To meet critical loads, river export of TDN and TDP needs to be reduced by 46–92%, depending on the desired level of chlorophyll-a. There are different opportunities to meet the critical loads. Reducing N inputs from synthetic fertilizers and P from sewage systems may be sufficient to meet the least strict critical loads. A combination of reductions in diffuse and point sources is needed to meet the most strict critical loads. Combining improved nutrient use efficiencies and best available technologies in wastewater treatment may be an effective opportunity. Our study can support the formulation of effective solutions for lake restoration.

Does pay raise decrease temporary agency workers’ voluntary turnover over time in China? Understanding the moderating role of demographics
Lin, Li ; Bai, Yuntao ; Mo, Changwei ; Liu, Dong ; Li, Xiyuan - \ 2019
International Journal of Human Resource Management (2019). - ISSN 0958-5192 - 30 p.
China - demographics - pay raise - TAWs - voluntary turnover

China’s continued economic development relies heavily on its vibrant human resources, a large portion of which is accounted for by temporary agency workers (TAWs). However, researchers have yet to investigate the factors that are related to TAWs’ retention in China. To address this research void, we take a contingency perspective on the relationship between TAW pay raise and voluntary turnover by examining the moderation effects of demographics on the relationship. Drawing on economic exchange theory and human capital theory, we reason that six identity-related demographic factors (namely hukou status, gender, age, education, tenure and occupation type) may alter the negative relationship between pay raise and voluntary turnover (hereafter referred to as turnover). Probit regression analyses of unbalanced panel data from 1184 TAWs over four years support the moderating effects of five of the six demographics (hukou, gender, age, education and tenure) on the negative pay raise − turnover link. The findings of this study provide important theoretical and practical insights for understanding TAWs’ retention in China.

Breeding progress and preparedness for mass-scale deployment of perennial lignocellulosic biomass crops switchgrass, miscanthus, willow and poplar
Clifton-Brown, John ; Harfouche, Antoine ; Casler, Michael D. ; Dylan Jones, Huw ; Macalpine, William J. ; Murphy-Bokern, Donal ; Smart, Lawrence B. ; Adler, Anneli ; Ashman, Chris ; Awty-Carroll, Danny ; Bastien, Catherine ; Bopper, Sebastian ; Botnari, Vasile ; Brancourt-Hulmel, Maryse ; Chen, Zhiyong ; Clark, Lindsay V. ; Cosentino, Salvatore ; Dalton, Sue ; Davey, Chris ; Dolstra, Oene ; Donnison, Iain ; Flavell, Richard ; Greef, Joerg ; Hanley, Steve ; Hastings, Astley ; Hertzberg, Magnus ; Hsu, Tsai Wen ; Huang, Lin S. ; Iurato, Antonella ; Jensen, Elaine ; Jin, Xiaoli ; Jørgensen, Uffe ; Kiesel, Andreas ; Kim, Do Soon ; Liu, Jianxiu ; McCalmont, Jon P. ; McMahon, Bernard G. ; Mos, Michal ; Robson, Paul ; Sacks, Erik J. ; Sandu, Anatolii ; Scalici, Giovanni ; Schwarz, Kai ; Scordia, Danilo ; Shafiei, Reza ; Shield, Ian ; Slavov, Gancho ; Stanton, Brian J. ; Swaminathan, Kankshita ; Trindade, Luisa M. - \ 2019
Global change biology Bioenergy 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 118 - 151.
bioenergy - feedstocks - lignocellulose - M. sacchariflorus - M. sinensis - Miscanthus - Panicum virgatum - perennial biomass crop - Populus spp. - Salix spp.

Genetic improvement through breeding is one of the key approaches to increasing biomass supply. This paper documents the breeding progress to date for four perennial biomass crops (PBCs) that have high output–input energy ratios: namely Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), species of the genera Miscanthus (miscanthus), Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar). For each crop, we report on the size of germplasm collections, the efforts to date to phenotype and genotype, the diversity available for breeding and on the scale of breeding work as indicated by number of attempted crosses. We also report on the development of faster and more precise breeding using molecular breeding techniques. Poplar is the model tree for genetic studies and is furthest ahead in terms of biological knowledge and genetic resources. Linkage maps, transgenesis and genome editing methods are now being used in commercially focused poplar breeding. These are in development in switchgrass, miscanthus and willow generating large genetic and phenotypic data sets requiring concomitant efforts in informatics to create summaries that can be accessed and used by practical breeders. Cultivars of switchgrass and miscanthus can be seed-based synthetic populations, semihybrids or clones. Willow and poplar cultivars are commercially deployed as clones. At local and regional level, the most advanced cultivars in each crop are at technology readiness levels which could be scaled to planting rates of thousands of hectares per year in about 5 years with existing commercial developers. Investment in further development of better cultivars is subject to current market failure and the long breeding cycles. We conclude that sustained public investment in breeding plays a key role in delivering future mass-scale deployment of PBCs.

Comparing Arabidopsis receptor kinase and receptor protein-mediated immune signaling reveals BIK1-dependent differences
Wan, Wei Lin ; Zhang, Lisha ; Pruitt, Rory ; Zaidem, Maricris ; Brugman, Rik ; Ma, Xiyu ; Krol, Elzbieta ; Perraki, Artemis ; Kilian, Joachim ; Grossmann, Guido ; Stahl, Mark ; Shan, Libo ; Zipfel, Cyril ; Kan, Jan A.L. van; Hedrich, Rainer ; Weigel, Detlef ; Gust, Andrea A. ; Nürnberger, Thorsten - \ 2019
New Phytologist 221 (2019)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 2080 - 2095.
Arabidopsis - immune receptor - immune signaling comparison - plant immunity - receptor kinase - receptor protein

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense microbial patterns and activate innate immunity against attempted microbial invasions. The leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RK) FLS2 and EFR, and the LRR receptor protein (LRR-RP) receptors RLP23 and RLP42, respectively, represent prototypical members of these two prominent and closely related PRR families. We conducted a survey of Arabidopsis thaliana immune signaling mediated by these receptors to address the question of commonalities and differences between LRR-RK and LRR-RP signaling. Quantitative differences in timing and amplitude were observed for several early immune responses, with RP-mediated responses typically being slower and more prolonged than those mediated by RKs. Activation of RLP23, but not FLS2, induced the production of camalexin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that RLP23-regulated genes represent only a fraction of those genes differentially expressed upon FLS2 activation. Several positive and negative regulators of FLS2-signaling play similar roles in RLP23 signaling. Intriguingly, the cytoplasmic receptor kinase BIK1, a positive regulator of RK signaling, acts as a negative regulator of RP-type immune receptors in a manner dependent on BIK1 kinase activity. Our study unveiled unexpected differences in two closely related receptor systems and reports a new negative role of BIK1 in plant immunity.

Genetic dissection of flowering time in Brassica rapa responses to temperature and photoperiod
Xiao, Dong ; Shen, Hao Ran ; Zhao, Jian Jun ; Wei, Yan Ping ; Liu, Dong Rang ; Hou, Xi Lin ; Bonnema, Guusje - \ 2019
Plant Science 280 (2019). - ISSN 0168-9452 - p. 110 - 119.
Brassica rapa - FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) - Flowering time - Photoperiod - QTL mapping - Temperature

The Brassica rapa (B. rapa) species displays enormous phenotypic diversity, with leafy vegetables, storage root vegetables and oil crops. These different crops all have different flowering time, which determine their growing season and cultivation area. Little is known about the effects of diverse temperature and day-lengths on flowering time QTL associated with FLC paralogues. We phenotyped the flowering time of a doubled haploid population, established from a cross between Yellow sarson and Pak choi under diverse environmental conditions. We identified flowering-time QTL (fQTL) in different photoperiod and temperature regimes in the greenhouse, and studied their colocation with known flowering time genes. As several fQTL colocalized with FLC paralogues, we studied the expression patterns of four FLC paralogues during the course of vernalization in parental lines. Under all environmental conditions tested the major fQTL that mapped to the BrFLC2_A02 locus was detected, however its effect decreased when plants were grown at low temperatures. Another fQTL that mapped to the FLC paralogue, BrFLC5_A03 was also identified under all tested environments, while no fQTL colocated with BrFLC1_A10 or BrFLC3_A03. Furthermore, the vernalization treatment decreased expression of all BrFLC paralogues in the parental lines, and showed the lowest transcript level after 28 days of vernalization. Transcript abundance stayed low after returning the plants for seven days to normal growth temperature. Interestingly, transcript abundance of BrFLC3_A03 and BrFLC5_A03 was repressed much stronger and already reached lowest levels after 14d in the early-flowering type YS-143. This study improves understanding of the effects of daylength and vernalization on flowering time in B. rapa and the role of the different BrFLC paralogues therein.

Improved aerosol correction for OMI tropospheric NO2 retrieval over East Asia : Constraint from CALIOP aerosol vertical profile
Liu, Mengyao ; Lin, Jintai ; Folkert Boersma, K. ; Pinardi, Gaia ; Wang, Yang ; Chimot, Julien ; Wagner, Thomas ; Xie, Pinhua ; Eskes, Henk ; Roozendael, Michel Van; Hendrick, François ; Wang, Pucai ; Wang, Ting ; Yan, Yingying ; Chen, Lulu ; Ni, Ruijing - \ 2019
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 1 - 21.

Satellite retrieval of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is critical for NOx pollution and impact evaluation. For regions with high aerosol loadings, the retrieval accuracy is greatly affected by whether aerosol optical effects are treated implicitly (as additional effective clouds) or explicitly, among other factors. Our previous POMINO algorithm explicitly accounts for aerosol effects to improve the retrieval, especially in polluted situations over China, by using aerosol information from GEOS-Chem simulations with further monthly constraints by MODIS/Aqua aerosol optical depth (AOD) data. Here we present a major algorithm update, POMINO v1.1, by constructing a monthly climatological dataset of aerosol extinction profiles, based on level 2 CALIOP/CALIPSO data over 2007-2015, to better constrain the modeled aerosol vertical profiles. We find that GEOS-Chem captures the month-to-month variation in CALIOP aerosol layer height (ALH) but with a systematic underestimate by about 300-600 m (season and location dependent), due to a too strong negative vertical gradient of extinction above 1 km. Correcting the model aerosol extinction profiles results in small changes in retrieved cloud fraction, increases in cloud-top pressure (within 2 %-6 % in most cases), and increases in tropospheric NO2 VCD by 4 %-16 % over China on a monthly basis in 2012. The improved NO2 VCDs (in POMINO v1.1) are more consistent with independent ground-based MAX-DOAS observations (R2=0.80, NMB =-3.4 %, for 162 pixels in 49 days) than POMINO (R2=0.80, NMB =-9.6 %), DOMINO v2 (R2=0.68, NMB =-2.1 %), and QA4ECV (R2=0.75, NMB =-22.0 %) are. Especially on haze days, R2 reaches 0.76 for POMINO v1.1, much higher than that for POMINO (0.68), DOMINO v2 (0.38), and QA4ECV (0.34). Furthermore, the increase in cloud pressure likely reveals a more realistic vertical relationship between cloud and aerosol layers, with aerosols situated above the clouds in certain months span id=page2 instead of always below the clouds. The POMINO v1.1 algorithm is a core step towards our next public release of the data product (POMINO v2), and it will also be applied to the recently launched S5P-TROPOMI sensor.

Accumulation and leaching of nitrate in soils in wheat-maize production in China
Lu, Jie ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Wu, Zhiguo ; Chadwick, David ; Ma, Lin - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 212 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 407 - 415.
Maize - Nitrate accumulation - Nitrate leaching - Soil - Wheat

Application rates of fertilizers in China often exceed crop requirements, resulting in high accumulation of nitrate (NO3) in the soil. Nitrate that has accumulated in soils is highly prone to leaching, directly threatening the quality of groundwater. A study was conducted to assess the magnitude of NO3 accumulation and leaching in China, to identify factors controlling NO3 accumulation and leaching, and to develop strategies that can be used to minimize NO3 leaching. Data were compiled from 212 studies conducted in China, amounting to 1077 observations of the NO3 content of the 0–100 cm soil profile in wheat and maize fields after harvest. Leaching of NO3 was significantly correlated with NO3 accumulation in the soil. NO3 leaching increased with 0.058 and 0.34 kg NO3-N ha−1 per season for wheat and maize, respectively, for every 1 kg ha-1 increase in NO3-N accumulation in 0–100 cm. This mainly related to lower precipitation during the wheat season and intensive rainfall in the maize season. Accumulation of NO3 in maize systems was 50% lower than for wheat when fertilized at the same rate, due to differences in rainfall between seasons. Soil NO3 accumulation was higher in heavy textured soils than in freely draining lighter textured soils, as most of NO3 leached out of 0–100 cm soil in lighter textured soils. Compared to flood irrigation, sprinkler irrigation increased NO3 accumulation by 17% and 152% for wheat and maize, respectively, due to lower irrigation and leaching rate. The level of nitrate accumulation in Chinese arable soils has become a significant hazard to drinking water, so good agricultural management is essential. Soil NO3 accumulation and leaching in China can be reduced by source and process control, such as reducing fertilizer application, using slow or controlled release forms of fertilizers, and regulating irrigation.

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