Postmortaal onderzoek van bruinvissen (Phocoena phocoena) uit Nederlandse wateren, 2019 : Biologische gegevens, gezondheidsstatus en doodsoorzaken
IJsseldijk, Lonneke L. ; Kik, Marja J.L. ; Schalkwijk, Linde van; Gröne, Andrea - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 184) - 54
This annual report presents the results of post-mortem examinations of porpoises in 2019. One of the main objectives of the research is to quantify human-induced causes of death. In 2019, 57 dead harbour porpoises were examined: 31 males and 26 females, 22 adults, 24 juveniles and 11 neonates. There were an additional six foetuses found. Most of the examined harbour porpoises died as a result of infectious diseases (30%) and grey seal attacks (21%), followed by bycatch (11%).
Microbial hosts engineered for increased tolerance to temperature shifts
Kampers, Linde Francisca Cornelia ; Volkers, Joanna Maria ; Schaap, Petrus Johannes ; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor Alexandre Pires - \ 2020
Octrooinummer: WO2020094828, gepubliceerd: 2020-05-14.
The present invention relates to microbial host cells that have been engineered for increased tolerance to temperature shifts, for increased performance at temperatures different from the microorganism's optimal temperature and/or for changing at least one of the microorganism's cardinal temperatures by replacing an endogenous NAD+ biosynthesis gene by a heterologous gene encoding a corresponding enzyme with another temperature profile and/or from a microorganism with a different optimum growth temperature.The invention further relates to processes wherein the engineered microbial host cells are used for producing a fermentation product,and to the use nucleotide sequences encoding NAD+ biosynthesis gene for changing at least one of a microorganism's cardinal temperatures and/or for improving a microorganism's tolerance to temperature shifts.
Microbial lifestyle engineering
Kampers, Linde F.C. - \ 2020
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): V.A.P. Martins dos Santos, co-promotor(en): P.J. Schaap. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463953245 - 228
Using Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a proof-of-concept organism, this thesis was aimed at microbial lifestyle engineering for industrial applications. In this thesis, a structured approach was applied by first determining what microbial improvements industry is looking for by conducting a series of interviews with both industry and academia. Besides pinpointing the fields of interest from an industrial perspective, the interviews also clarified the limitations of the actual implementation of novel or (synthetically) adapted strains developed. Strain safety being at the top of their list, we first checked the claimed GRAS safety level of P. putida KT2440.
A major obstacle for the breakthrough of P. putida KT2440 to be widely used as a biotechnological host is its obligate aerobic metabolism. In silico-directed strain improvement were initiated by the adaptation of strict aerobic P. putida KT2440 to micro-oxic and anoxic conditions. Adaptation to micro-oxic levels was done by first creating a design for a recombinant strain capable of anaerobic fermentation. The bottlenecks uncovered were resolved by insertion of three genes, and the recombinant strains were monitored through an adaptive laboratory evolution method with oxygen gradients set up specifically for this purpose. Recombinant strains were able to grow under micro-oxic conditions. Strain performance did not improve compared to the negative control under anoxic conditions. A more elaborate in-silico analysis was performed, combining protein domain analysis, transcriptomic analysis and genome-scale metabolic models to design a recombinant P. putida KT2440 strain capable of anaerobic respiration.
Another general limitation in strains is their limited thermo-tolerance. We discovered a strong universal connection between NAD+ availability and thermo-tolerance. By replacing one single gene for a thermophilic heterolog in mesophilic prokaryotes, both P. putida and E. coli showed instant improved thermo-tolerance. Insertion of the aspartate NAD+ biogeneration pathway in eukaryotic yeast S. cerevisiae resulted in a similar effect. To determine the value of this thermo-tolerance in industry, a down-scaled microfluidics system was developed to mimic temperature fluctuations occurring in large scale bioreactors. The novel discovery between thermo-tolerance and NAD+ availabilty was patented.
Malvawantsen verspreiden zich succesvol over zuidelijk Nederland
Kuppen, Henry ; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2019
De malvawants is een warmteminnend insect die voor het eerst in 2007 in Nederland is aangetroffen. Recent is gebleken dat de wants zich succesvol in Zuid-Nederland aan het verspreiden is. De malvawants lijkt vooralsnog vooral te leven van de plantensappen van kleinbladige linde. Schadelijke effecten voor bomen worden niet voorzien.
|Animal breeding as a mitigation tool for enteric methane emissions of dairy cattle
Haas, Y. de; Jong, Gerben de; Linde, Rene van der; Koenen, Erwin - \ 2019
- p. 638 - 638.
In silico-guided engineering of Pseudomonas putida towards growth under micro-oxic conditions
Kampers, Linde F.C. ; Heck, Ruben G.A. van; Donati, Stefano ; Saccenti, Edoardo ; Volkers, Rita J.M. ; Schaap, Peter J. ; Suarez-Diez, Maria ; Nikel, Pablo I. ; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A.P. - \ 2019
Microbial Cell Factories 18 (2019)1. - ISSN 1475-2859 - 1 p.
Anaerobiosis - Comparative genomics - Constraint-based metabolic modelling - Domainome analysis - Microbial physiology - Synthetic biology
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas putida is a metabolically versatile, genetically accessible, and stress-robust species with outstanding potential to be used as a workhorse for industrial applications. While industry recognises the importance of robustness under micro-oxic conditions for a stable production process, the obligate aerobic nature of P. putida, attributed to its inability to produce sufficient ATP and maintain its redox balance without molecular oxygen, severely limits its use for biotechnology applications. RESULTS: Here, a combination of genome-scale metabolic modelling and comparative genomics is used to pinpoint essential [Formula: see text]-dependent processes. These explain the inability of the strain to grow under anoxic conditions: a deficient ATP generation and an inability to synthesize essential metabolites. Based on this, several P. putida recombinant strains were constructed harbouring acetate kinase from Escherichia coli for ATP production, and a class I dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a class III anaerobic ribonucleotide triphosphate reductase from Lactobacillus lactis for the synthesis of essential metabolites. Initial computational designs were fine-tuned by means of adaptive laboratory evolution. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the value of combining in silico approaches, experimental validation and adaptive laboratory evolution for microbial design by making the strictly aerobic Pseudomonas putida able to grow under micro-oxic conditions.
Consequent fokken levert vooruitgang op
Veerkamp, R.F. ; Linde, R. van der - \ 2019
Meer melk, een betere voerefficiëntie of juist een lagere tussenkalftijd en celgetal. Wie consequent fokt op efficiëntie of gezondheid, gaat er daadwerkelijk op vooruit. Dat blijkt uit praktijkonderzoek van CRV en WUR op de Dairy Campus. De resultaten laten ook zien dat fokken op efficiëntie niet ten koste hoeft te gaan van gezondheid en omgekeerd.
Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is HV1 certified, not GRAS
Kampers, Linde F.C. ; Volkers, Rita J.M. ; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P. - \ 2019
Microbial Biotechnology 12 (2019)5. - ISSN 1751-7907 - p. 845 - 848.
Pseudomonas putida is rapidly becoming a workhorse for industrial production due to its metabolic versatility, genetic accessibility and stress-resistance properties. The P. putida strain KT2440 is often described as Generally Regarded as Safe, or GRAS, indicating the strain is safe to use as food additive. This description is incorrect. P. putida KT2440 is classified by the FDA as HV1 certified, indicating it is safe to use in a P1 or ML1 environment.
In the name of the rose: a roadmap for rose research in the genome era
Smulders, Marinus J.M. ; Arens, Paul ; Bourke, Peter M. ; Debener, Thomas ; Linde, Marcus ; Riek, Jan De; Leus, Leen ; Ruttink, Tom ; Baudino, Sylvie ; Hibrant Saint-Oyant, Laurence ; Clotault, Jeremy ; Foucher, Fabrice - \ 2019
Horticulture Research 6 (2019)1. - ISSN 2052-7276
The recent completion of the rose genome sequence is not the end of a process, but rather a starting point that opens up a whole set of new and exciting activities. Next to a high-quality genome sequence other genomic tools have also become available for rose, including transcriptomics data, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array and software to perform linkage and quantitative trait locus mapping in polyploids. Rose cultivars are highly heterogeneous and diverse. This vast diversity in cultivated roses can be explained through the genetic potential of the genus, introgressions from wild species into commercial tetraploid germplasm and the inimitable efforts of historical breeders. We can now investigate how this diversity can best be exploited and refined in future breeding work, given the rich molecular toolbox now available to the rose breeding community. This paper presents possible lines of research now that rose has entered the genomics era, and attempts to partially answer the question that arises after the completion of any draft genome sequence: ‘Now that we have “the” genome, what’s next?’. Having access to a genome sequence will allow both (fundamental) scientific and (applied) breeding-orientated questions to be addressed. We outline possible approaches for a number of these questions.
|Can we reduce pre-weaning piglet losses with maternal nitrate supplementation around farrowing
Bosch, M. van den; Wijnen, H.J. ; Linde, Irene van de; Brand, H. van den - \ 2019
In: Trade-offs in science – keeping the balance. - Wageningen University & Research - p. 32 - 32.
Effects of maternal dietary nitrate supplementation during the perinatal period on piglet survival, body weight, and litter uniformity
Bosch, M. van den; Wijnen, H.J. ; Linde, I.B. van der; Wesel, A.A.M. van; Melchior, D. ; Kemp, B. ; Clouard, C.M. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2019
Translational Animal Science 3 (2019)1. - ISSN 2573-2102 - p. 464 - 472.
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different dosages of dietary nitrate supplementation to sows from d 108 of gestation until d 5 of lactation on reproductive performance of sows and piglet performance from birth until weaning. Dietary nitrate supplementation leads to nitric oxide (NO) formation that can potentially increase blood flow to the fetuses (by the vasodilative effect of NO), leading to a decrease in the loss of potential viable piglets in the form of stillbirth and preweaning mortality. Three hundred and five gilts and sows were allocated to one of six diets from d 108 of gestation until d 5 of lactation, containing 0.00% (Control), 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.09%, 0.12%, or 0.15% of dietary nitrate. The source of nitrate used was calcium nitrate double salt. Calcium levels were kept the same among diets by using limestone. Gilts and sows were weighed and backfat was measured at arrival to the farrowing room (d 108 of gestation) and at weaning (d 27 of age). Data included number of piglets born alive, born dead, and weaned, as well as individual piglet weights at d 0, 72 h of age and weaning. Preweaning mortality was determined throughout lactation.Body weight d 0 (P = 0.04) as well as BW at 72 h of age (P < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing dosages of nitrate in the maternal diet. Litter uniformity (SD) at birth was not affected by maternal nitrate supplementation level (P > 0.10), but tended to be higher at 72 h of age in the control treatment than in all nitrate-supplemented treatments (P = 0.07), and SD decreased linearly (increased uniformity) at weaning with increasing dosages of nitrate (P = 0.05). BW at weaning (P > 0.05) and average daily gain of piglets during lactation (P > 0.05) were not affected by maternal nitrate supplementation. A tendency for a quadratic effect (P = 0.10) of the dosage of maternal dietary nitrate was found on preweaning mortality of piglets with the lowest level of mortality found at 0.09% to 0.12% of maternal nitrate supplementation. We conclude that the use of nitrate in the maternal diet of sows during the perinatal period might stimulate preweaning piglet vitality. Exact mode of action and optimal dose of nitrate still need to be elucidated.
Effects of maternal dietary nitrate supplementation on farrowing and placental characteristics, level of asphyxiation at birth and piglet vitality
Bosch, M. van den; Wijnen, H.J. ; Linde, I.B. van der; Wesel, A.A.M. van; Melchior, D. ; Kemp, B. ; Brand, H. van den; Clouard, C.M. - \ 2019
Theriogenology 129 (2019). - ISSN 0093-691X - p. 1 - 7.
nitrate - piglet vitality - placenta - farrowing - asphyxiation
We investigated whether maternal dietary nitrate supplementation, leading to nitric oxide (NO) formation, would affect duration of farrowing, levels of asphyxiation, vitality of piglets at birth and/or loss of potential viable piglets in the form of stillbirth and pre-weaning mortality. Data were collected from 190 crossbred (Yorkshire x Dutch Landrace) sows, which were allocated, balanced for parity, to six dietary nitrate levels (0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 or 0.15% of nitrate). Sow received the lactational diet containing nitrate from approximately 7 days before farrowing until 5 days after farrowing. Blood acid-base parameters (pH, pO2, pCO2, BEecf, HCO3, sO2 and lactate) and nitrate concentration were determined in umbilical cord blood. The farrowing process was video recorded and later analysed for total duration of farrowing, piglet birth interval, piglet vitality was scored and piglet latency to stand right after birth. Placentas were collected after expulsion during and after farrowing. Placenta length and width were measured and placental color scores were assessed based on redness of the placenta. The probability of a higher vitality score of piglets (being more vital) linearly increased with increasing levels of maternal dietary nitrate. This higher vitality score however, was not reflected by changes in the blood acid-base parameters in umbilical cord blood, except for a tendency for a higher pO2 with increasing levels of nitrate, which could have been caused by a quicker onset of respiration or an increased blood flow to the piglets during birth. Placenta width increased with increasing levels of maternal dietary nitrate, but no effect on placenta length and redness was found. Neither duration of farrowing nor birth interval were affected by maternal dietary nitrate level. In conclusion, maternal nitrate supplementation may affect piglet vitality via vasodilatation (placental characteristics) rather than an increase in exercise efficiency (duration of farrowing).
Analysis of innovation brokering systems related to grasslands across Europe
Golinski, P. ; Pol, A. van den; Golinska, Barbara ; Paszkowski, A. ; Nilsdotter-Linde, N. - \ 2018
In: Grassland Science in Europe European Grassland Federation EGF - ISBN 9781841706436 - p. 983 - 985.
Innovation brokering system is an organisational structure of persons or institutions that, from a relatively impartial third-party position, purposefully catalyse innovation through bringing together actors and facilitating their interaction on international, national or regional levels. The aim of this paper is to analyse innovation brokering systems (IBS) across Europe that are, or have the potential to be, used in grassland farming. Eight European countries within the Horizon2020 project Inno4Grass were involved in the analysis: Belgium (BE), France (FR), Germany (DE), Ireland (IE), Italy (IT), Poland (PL), Sweden (SE) and the Netherlands (NL). To collect information about IBS related to grasslands in these countries, a questionnaire was developed on characteristics of the different brokering systems and their barriers and benefits. The collected data allowed for an inventory and evaluation of existing structures fostering IBS using descriptive analysis of quantitative data. We concluded that IBS should be an important part of building a European innovation space for grassland-based farming
Understanding user needs : a practice-based approach to exploring the role of weather and sea ice services in European Arctic expedition cruising
Lamers, Machiel ; Duske, Paula ; Bets, Linde van - \ 2018
Polar Geography 41 (2018)4. - ISSN 1088-937X - p. 262 - 278.
European Arctic - expedition cruising - practice theory - Tourism - user needs - weather and sea ice services
Climate change has been credited with making the Arctic Ocean more accessible to maritime transport, but those navigating its waters must contend with highly dynamic and unpredictable weather and sea ice conditions. Despite ongoing developments in weather and sea ice services to enable responsible and safe operation and navigation, little is known about what and how these information services are used, and whether the services meet the information needs of maritime sectors. Here we address this gap by providing insights from the expedition cruise tourism sector active in European Arctic ocean areas. By applying a social practice theory perspective and relying on semi-structured interviews we show how weather and sea ice services are currently used by expedition cruise operators in various operational decision-making contexts. We argue that practice theory contributes to understanding user needs in a more contextualized way, which is essential for enhancing and tailoring information services. Our analysis suggests that weather and sea ice are only two elements in a complex socio-material setting. Finally, we argue that weather and sea ice services contribute to the resilience and rationalization of the expedition cruise sector in the European Arctic and beyond.
Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study, a prospective study on dietary determinants and cardiometabolic health in Dutch adults
Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske Maria ; Lee, Linde Van; Streppel, Martinette T. ; Sluik, Diewertje ; De Wiel, Anne M. Van; Vries, Jeanne H.M. De; Geelen, Anouk ; Feskens, Edith J.M. - \ 2018
BMJ Open 8 (2018)7. - ISSN 2044-6055
During the past decades, the number of people with cardiometabolic conditions substantially increased. To identify dietary factors that may be responsible for this increase in cardiometabolic conditions, the Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study was initiated. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the study design and baseline characteristics of the NQplus population.
The NQplus study is a prospective cohort study among 2048 Dutch men (52%) and women (48%) aged 20–70 years. Findings to date At baseline, we assessed habitual dietary intake, conducted physical examinations (measuring, eg, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, advanced glycation end product accumulation, cognitive performance), collected blood and 24-hour urine and administered a variety of validated demographic, health and lifestyle questionnaires. Participants had a mean BMI of 26.0±4.2 kg/m2, were mostly highly educated (63%), married or having a registered partnership (72%) and having a paid job (72%). Estimated daily energy and macronutrient intakes (mean±SD) were 8581±2531 kJ, 15±2energy (en%) of protein, 43±6 en% of carbohydrates, 36±5 en% of fat and 11±13 g of alcohol. Mean systolic blood pressure was 126±15 mm Hg, total cholesterol 5.3±1.1 mmol/L and haemoglobin A1c 36±5 mmol/mol. A total of 24% of the participants reported to be diagnosed with hypertension, 18% with hypercholesterolaemia and 4% with diabetes mellitus. All measurements were repeated after 1 and 2 years of follow-up.
We endeavour to continue measurements on the long-term. Moreover, dietary assessment methods used in the NQplus study will be extensively validated, that is, Food Frequency Questionnaires, 24-hour recalls and urinary and blood biomarkers of exposure. As such, the NQplus study will provide a unique opportunity to study many cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between diet and cardiometabolic health outcomes using the best dietary assessment methods available so far.
A high-quality genome sequence of Rosa chinensis to elucidate ornamental traits
Hibrand Saint-Oyant, L. ; Ruttink, T. ; Hamama, L. ; Kirov, I. ; Lakhwani, D. ; Zhou, N.N. ; Bourke, P.M. ; Daccord, N. ; Leus, L. ; Schulz, D. ; Geest, H. van de; Hesselink, T. ; Laere, K. Van; Debray, K. ; Balzergue, S. ; Thouroude, T. ; Chastellier, A. ; Jeauffre, J. ; Voisine, L. ; Gaillard, S. ; Borm, T.J.A. ; Arens, P. ; Voorrips, R.E. ; Maliepaard, C. ; Neu, E. ; Linde, M. ; Paslier, M.C. Le; Bérard, A. ; Bounon, R. ; Clotault, J. ; Choisne, N. ; Quesneville, H. ; Kawamura, K. ; Aubourg, S. ; Sakr, S. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Schijlen, E. ; Bucher, E. ; Debener, T. ; Riek, J. De; Foucher, F. - \ 2018
Nature Plants 4 (2018). - ISSN 2055-026X - p. 473 - 484.
Rose is the world’s most important ornamental plant, with economic, cultural and symbolic value. Roses are cultivated worldwide and sold as garden roses, cut flowers and potted plants. Roses are outbred and can have various ploidy levels. Our objectives were to develop a high-quality reference genome sequence for the genus Rosa by sequencing a doubled haploid, combining long and short reads, and anchoring to a high-density genetic map, and to study the genome structure and genetic basis of major ornamental traits. We produced a doubled haploid rose line (‘HapOB’) from Rosa chinensis ‘Old Blush’ and generated a rose genome assembly anchored to seven pseudo-chromosomes (512 Mb with N50 of 3.4 Mb and 564 contigs). The length of 512 Mb represents 90.1–96.1% of the estimated haploid genome size of rose. Of the assembly, 95% is contained in only 196 contigs. The anchoring was validated using high-density diploid and tetraploid genetic maps. We delineated hallmark chromosomal features, including the pericentromeric regions, through annotation of transposable element families and positioned centromeric repeats using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The rose genome displays extensive synteny with the Fragaria vesca genome, and we delineated only two major rearrangements. Genetic diversity was analysed using resequencing data of seven diploid and one tetraploid Rosa species selected from various sections of the genus. Combining genetic and genomic approaches, we identified potential genetic regulators of key ornamental traits, including prickle density and the number of flower petals. A rose APETALA2/TOE homologue is proposed to be the major regulator of petal number in rose. This reference sequence is an important resource for studying polyploidization, meiosis and developmental processes, as we demonstrated for flower and prickle development. It will also accelerate breeding through the development of molecular markers linked to traits, the identification of the genes underlying them and the exploitation of synteny across Rosaceae.
Fluctuations in milk yield are heritable and can be used as a resilience indicator to breed healthy cows
Elgersma, G.G. ; Jong, G. de; Linde, R. van der; Mulder, H.A. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1240 - 1250.
Big data - Fluctuation - Health - Resilience - Variance
Automatic milking systems record an enormous amount of data on milk yield and the cow itself. These type of big data are expected to contain indicators for health and resilience of cows. In this study, the aim was to define and estimate heritabilities for traits related with fluctuations in daily milk yield and to estimate genetic correlations with existing functional traits, such as udder health, fertility, claw health, ketosis, and longevity. We used daily milk yield records from automatic milking systems of 67,025 lactations in the first parity from 498 herds in the Netherlands. We defined 3 traits related to the number of drops in milk yield using Student t-tests based on either a rolling average (drop rolling average) or a regression (drop regression) and the natural logarithm of the within-cow variance of milk yield (LnVar). Average milk yield was added to investigate the relationships between milk yield and these new traits. ASReml was used to estimate heritabilities, breeding values (EBV), and genetic correlations among these new traits and average milk yield. Approximate genetic correlations were calculated using correlations between EBV of the new traits and existing EBV for health and functional traits correcting for nonunity reliabilities using the Calo method. Partial genetic correlations controlling for persistency and average milk yield and relative contributions to reliability were calculated to investigate whether the new traits add new information to predict fertility, health, and longevity. Heritabilities were 0.08 for drop rolling average, 0.06 for drop regression, and 0.10 for LnVar. Approximate genetic correlations between the new traits and the existing health traits differed quite a bit, with the strongest correlations (-0.29 to -0.52) between LnVar and udder health, ketosis, persistency, and longevity. This study shows that fluctuations in daily milk yield are heritable and that the variance of milk production is best among the 3 fluctuations traits tested to predict udder health, ketosis, and longevity. Using the residual variance of milk production instead of the raw variance is expected to further improve the trait to breed healthy, resilient, and long-lasting dairy cows.
Shared Innovation Space for Sustainable Productivity of Grasslands in Europe : Inno4Grass deliverable no. 3.1
Golinski, P. ; Pol, A. van den; Golinska, B. ; Paszkowski, A. ; Nilsdotter-Linde, N. ; O'Donovan, M. ; Porqueddu, C. ; Czerwińska, A. ; Delaite, B. ; Bauer, A. ; Florian, C. ; Baste, F. ; Fradin, J. ; Gauder, P. ; Kort, H. de; Krause, A. - \ 2017
Inno4Grass - 17 p.
|The variance of daily milk production as predictor for health and resilience in dairy cattle
Mulder, H.A. ; Elgersma, G.G. ; Linde, R. van de; Jong, G. de - \ 2017
In: Book of Abstracts of the 68th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Book of abstracts 23) - ISBN 9789086863129 - p. 462 - 462.
Automatic milking systems (AMS) record an enormous amount of data on milk production and the cow itself. This type of big data is expected to contain indicators for health and resilience of cows. In this study, the aim was to define and estimate heritabilities for traits related with fluctuations in daily milk production and to estimate genetic correlations with existing functional traits such as udder health, fertility, claw health, ketosis and longevity. We used daily milk production records of AMS of 212,433 lactations in parities 1, 2 and 3 from 498 herds in the Netherlands. We defined several traits related to the number of drops in milk production using Student t-tests (DROP) as well as the natural logarithm of the within-cow variance of milk yield (LNvar). ASReml was used to estimate heritabilities and breeding values (EBV) for the new traits. Genetic correlations were estimated using correlations between EBV of the new traits and existing EBV for health and functional traits correcting for non-unity reliabilities using the Calo-method. Heritabilities for the DROP traits and LNvar were around 0.1, similar to heritabilities for health and functional traits. Genetic correlations between the new traits and the existing health traits differed a lot, the strongest correlations (0.4-0.6) were between LNvar and udder health, ketosis, persistency and longevity. LNvar was in this study the best trait, based on the combination of the heritability and the genetic correlations with health traits. Selection of the 20 bulls with the lowest EBV for LNvar, i.e. less fluctuations in milk production, showed that the daughters of these bulls have better udder health i.e. less mastitis, less ketosis, better fertility and stay 150 days longer in the farm than average. This study shows that the variance in daily milk production is heritable and can be used to breed healthy and resilient cows.
Marine communities : governing oil & gas activities and cruise tourism in the Arctic and the Caribbean
Bets, Linde K.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.P.M. van Tatenhove; A.P.J. Mol, co-promotor(en): M.A.J. Lamers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436571 - 207
oil and gas industry - oil spills - governance - international tourism - pollution by tourism - tourism impact - marine areas - marine environment - water pollution - environmental policy - caribbean - caribbean sea - arctic ocean - arctic regions - olie- en gasindustrie - olieverontreinigingen - governance - internationaal toerisme - verontreiniging door toerisme - impact van toerisme - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - milieubeleid - caribisch gebied - caribische zee - noordelijke ijszee - arctische gebieden
Oceans and seas are among the most ecologically vital and socio-economically important systems on the planet. Despite the acknowledged pristine nature of the marine environment, there is a growing interest in exploring the sea for human use such as offshore wind production, extraction of sand, oil and gas, deep sea mining, gene mining and aquaculture. This is the result of, among other things, the food and energy needs of the growing world population, globalisation processes and technological innovation. This intensified use of the sea has led to new governance initiatives to address the resulting environmental effects and risks for the marine environment.
Actors involved in governing maritime activities are not necessarily located in the same geographical place and may not even be in direct contact, but they increasingly interact through global and transnational institutions or networks. Globalisation results in communities characterised by the interplay between territorially defined actors (e.g. national states, port agencies and island communities) and less territorially defined actors (e.g. mobile and transnational industries). The community literature conceptualises communities as small spatial units, homogenous social structures or sets of shared norms. These conceptualisation of communities provide insufficient insights in the type of community involved in environmental governance of maritime activities.
This thesis, therefore, presents the marine community concept as a new analytical lens for studying environmental governance of maritime activities. A marine community is a community of socio-economic and policy actors and institutions organised around a certain maritime activity that influences or will be affected by the (marine) ecosystem in which the activity occurs.
The aim of this PhD thesis is twofold: first, to understand environmental governance of maritime activities by different marine communities, and second, to understand how different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community.
The central research question is: How can the marine community concept enrich our understanding of environmental governance of maritime activities in distinct maritime settings?
1. How are marine communities organised to govern environmental problems in different sectoral and geographical settings?
2. How do marine communities develop in relation to various institutional settings, and how do different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community?
A case study methodology and cross-case comparative analysis were chosen to study the research question. The selection of cases is based on two distinct marine regions (the Caribbean Netherlands and the European Arctic) and two different maritime activities (cruise tourism and oil & gas activities). The case studies are investigated through the collection of primary data from semi- structured interviews and (participatory) observations, supplemented with secondary data from literature, policy documents, social media, and newspapers.
Chapter 2 illustrates how the marine community of liquefied natural gas production in Hammerfest transforms from a local fisheries marine community into an international oil and gas marine community in Northern Norway, driven by a discourse on economic growth. This is implemented through a strong institutional coalition between the Norwegian State and Statoil in which both actors participate in the user and policy community. Although non-governmental organisations, Sámi indigenous people, fisheries and local inhabitants of Hammerfest engage in strategic and oppositional coalitions to strive for environmental and community development related to liquefied natural gas production, the success of these coalitions is constrained by centralised decision-making by the institutional coalition.
Chapter 3 illustrates the institutional change in the marine community of oil transhipment at St. Eustatius. Since 2010, St. Eustatius is a special municipality of the Netherlands, and since 2015, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure & Environment, instead of the island government, is responsible for the environmental management of the oil terminal at St. Eustatius. The Dutch Ministry relies on Dutch and European standards for environmental management, which deviate from the standards of small islands. This structural power change, however, is not perceived as legitimate by part of the local population of St. Eustatius. This chapter analyses the reversal of the existing power relationships from strong intertwinement of the user and policy community, stereotypical of small island developing states, to the user and policy community drifting apart.
In Chapter 4, the marine community of cruise tourism at Bonaire is situated between the transnational cruise network and the local tourism industry of Bonaire. This case study analyses how two interconnected flows of cruise ships and passengers are governed by this transnational-local interplay. An important conclusion is that the transnational cruise ship flow increasingly determines the local cruise passenger flow at Bonaire. As a result, the marine community, and the user community especially, increasingly connects and adapts to the requirements of the transnational cruise network.
Chapter 5 analyses the changes in the marine community of expedition cruise tourism at Svalbard changes because of the establishment of the self-governing Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators. Collective self-governance complements regulation by the Norwegian government through the implementation of an industry code of conduct and providing access to knowledge and information, such as statistical information and a track-and-trace system for cruise ships. At the same time, the demanding information generation and provision of collective self-governance creates distance between the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators and the Governor of Svalbard in the policy community and the expedition crew in the user community. Information generation and provision becomes a challenge for sustainable cruise tourism. Once information provision requires too much time and resources, self-interest is prioritised over collective interest.
In Chapter 6 the conclusions of the thesis are drawn, based on the cross-case comparative analysis. First, the comparison of environmental governance illustrates the use of different problem-solving styles in marine regions. The islands of Bonaire and St. Eustatius (in the Caribbean Netherlands) are eager for short- term economic growth. The lack of a strong government results in a curative problem-solving style in relation to urgent environmental problems. In the European Arctic the activities are more recent. Governance, therefore, attempts to prevent problems through stakeholder involvement and informed decision-making. Second, the analysis shows that environmental governance of maritime activities depends upon the mobility of the maritime activity and consequently the level at which regulations are developed and implemented. A difference is observed between governing through transnational regulations predominantly by the user community for cruise tourism and governing through territory-bound regulations predominantly by the policy community for oil and gas.
In the second part of the conclusion, marine communities as a governance arrangement is discussed in relation to theories on governance modes and shifts, policy styles and mobilities. In the first place, changes in governance modes illustrate a shift towards more contemporary modes, such as open co-governance and self-governance, with St. Eustatius being the exception because of its political situation. In this thesis the complexity of governance is further structured according to two analytical dimensions: the governance style, ranging from reactive to proactive, and the governance process, which distinguishes governance of the marine community from governance through the marine community. In the analysis it becomes clear that the spatial scale of the maritime activity is crucial as it defines the mobility of the activity and the marine community. Therefore, the thesis concludes that the maritime activity has a larger influence on environmental governance than the marine region. The chapter ends with methodological reflections, future research and policy implications for the new concept of marine community.