Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Avian ecological epigenetics: pitfalls and promises
Sepers, Bernice ; Heuvel, Krista van den; Lindner, Melanie ; Viitaniemi, Heidi ; Husby, Arild ; Oers, Kees van - \ 2019
Journal of Ornithology (2019). - ISSN 2193-7192
Ecology - Evolution - Genetics - Ornithology - Phenotypic plasticity

Epigenetic mechanisms can alter gene expression without a change in the nucleotide sequence and are increasingly recognized as important mechanisms that can generate phenotypic diversity. Most of our current knowledge regarding the origin and role of epigenetic variation comes from research on plants or mammals, often in controlled rearing conditions. Epigenetic research on birds in their natural habitats is still in its infancy, but is needed to answer questions regarding the origin of epigenetic marks and their role in phenotypic variation and evolution. Here we review the potential for studying epigenetic variation in natural bird systems. We aim to provide insights into (1) the origin of epigenetic variation, (2) the relationship between epigenetic variation and trait variation, and (3) the possible role of epigenetic variation in adaptation to changing environments. As there is currently little research on epigenetics in wild birds, we examine how findings on other taxa such as plants and mammals relate to birds. We also examine some of the pros and cons of the most commonly used methods to study patterns of DNA methylation in birds, and suggest some topics we believe need to be addressed to develop the field of wild avian epigenetics further.

Correlating Infant Fecal Microbiota Composition and Human Milk Oligosaccharide Consumption by Microbiota of 1-Month-Old Breastfed Infants
Borewicz, Klaudyna ; Gu, Fangjie ; Saccenti, Edoardo ; Arts, I.C.W. ; Penders, John ; Thijs, Carel ; Leeuwen, Sander S. van; Lindner, Cordula ; Nauta, Arjen ; Leusen, Ellen van; Schols, Henk A. ; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2019
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2019). - ISSN 1613-4125
breastfeeding - human milk oligosaccharide - microbial clusters - microbiome

Scope: Understanding the biological functions of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in shaping gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota during infancy is of great interest. A link between HMOs in maternal milk and infant fecal microbiota composition is examined and the role of microbiota in degrading HMOs within the GI tract of healthy, breastfed, 1-month-old infants is investigated. Methods and results: Maternal breast milk and infant feces are from the KOALA Birth Cohort. HMOs are quantified in milk and infant fecal samples using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fecal microbiota composition is characterized using Illumina HiSeq 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The composition is associated with gender, delivery mode, and milk HMOs: Lacto-N-fucopentaose I and 2′-fucosyllactose. Overall, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Escherichia–Shigella, and Parabacteroides are predominating genera. Three different patterns in infant fecal microbiota structure are detected. GI degradation of HMOs is strongly associated with fecal microbiota composition, and there is a link between utilization of specific HMOs and relative abundance of various phylotypes (operational taxonomic units). Conclusions: HMOs in maternal milk are among the important factors shaping GI tract microbiota in 1-month-old breastfed infants. An infant's ability to metabolize different HMOs strongly correlates with fecal microbiota composition and specifically with phylotypes within genera Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus.

Spatial distribution of the potential forest biomass availability in Europe
Verkerk, P.J. ; Fitzgerald, Joanne Brighid ; Datta, Pawan ; Dees, M. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Lindner, M. ; Zudin, S. - \ 2019
Forest Ecosystems 6 (2019). - ISSN 2095-6355
Background
European forests are considered a crucial resource for supplying biomass to a growing bio-economy in Europe. This study aimed to assess the potential availability of forest biomass from European forests and its spatial distribution. We tried to answer the questions (i) how is the potential forest biomass availability spatially distributed across Europe and (ii) where are hotspots of potential forest biomass availability located?
Methods
The spatial distribution of woody biomass potentials was assessed for 2020 for stemwood, residues (branches and harvest losses) and stumps for 39 European countries. Using the European Forest Information SCENario (EFISCEN) model and international forest statistics, we estimated the theoretical amount of biomass that could be available based on the current and future development of the forest age-structure, growing stock and increment and forest management regimes. We combined these estimates with a set of environmental (site productivity, soil and water protection and biodiversity protection) and technical (recovery rate, soil bearing capacity) constraints, which reduced the amount of woody biomass that could potentially be available. We mapped the potential biomass availability at the level of administrative units and at the 10 km × 10 km grid level to gain insight into the spatial distribution of the woody biomass potentials.
Results
According to our results, the total availability of forest biomass ranges between 357 and 551 Tg dry matter per year. The largest potential supply of woody biomass per unit of land can be found in northern Europe (southern Finland and Sweden, Estonia and Latvia), central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, and southern Germany), Slovenia, southwest France and Portugal. However, large parts of these potentials are already used to produce materials and energy. The distribution of biomass potentials that are currently unused only partially coincides with regions that currently have high levels of wood production.
Conclusions
Our study shows how the forest biomass potentials are spatially distributed across the European continent, thereby providing insight into where policies could focus on an increase of the supply of woody biomass from forests. Future research on potential biomass availability from European forests should also consider to what extent forest owners would be willing to mobilise additional biomass from their forests and at what costs the estimated potentials could be mobilised.
The effect of prebiotic fortified infant formulas on microbiota composition and dynamics in early life
Borewicz, Klaudyna ; Suarez-Diez, Maria ; Hechler, Christine ; Beijers, Roseriet ; Weerth, Carolina de; Arts, Ilja ; Penders, John ; Thijs, Carel ; Nauta, Arjen ; Lindner, Cordula ; Leusen, Ellen Van; Vaughan, Elaine E. ; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota composition differs between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Today’s infant formulas are often fortified with prebiotics to better mimic properties of human milk with respect to its effect on GI microbiota composition and function. We used Illumina HiSeq sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments to investigate the composition of faecal microbiota in 2–12 week old infants receiving either breastmilk, infant formulas fortified with prebiotics, or mixed feeding. We compared these results with results from infants fed traditional formulas used in the Netherlands in 2002–2003, which contained no added prebiotics. We showed that today’s formulas supplemented with either scGOS (0.24–0.50 g/100 ml) or scGOS and lcFOS (at a 9:1 ratio; total 0.6 g/100 ml) had a strong bifidogenic effect as compared to traditional formulas, and they also resulted in altered patterns of microbial colonisation within the developing infant gastrointestinal tract. We identified three microbial states (or developmental stages) in the first 12 weeks of life, with a gradual transition pattern towards a bifidobacteria dominated state. In infants receiving only fortified formulas, this transition towards the bifidobacteria dominated state was accelerated, whereas in infants receiving mixed feeding the transition was delayed, as compared to exclusively breastfed infants.

Study on progress in implementing the EU Forest Strategy - Evaluation Study
Wolfslehner, B. ; Aggestam, F. ; Hurmekoski, E. ; Kulikova, E. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Pettenella, D. ; Pülzl, H. ; Giessen, L. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Hendriks, C.M.A. - \ 2018
European Forest Institute - ISBN 9789279864896 - 182 p.
The potential roles of bio-economy in the transition to equitable, sustainable, post fossil-carbon societies : Findings from this virtual special issue
Ingrao, Carlo ; Bacenetti, Jacopo ; Bezama, Alberto ; Blok, Vincent ; Goglio, Pietro ; Koukios, Emmanuel G. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Nemecek, Thomas ; Siracusa, Valentina ; Zabaniotou, Anastasia ; Huisingh, Donald - \ 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production 204 (2018). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 471 - 488.
Agriculture - Bio-economy - Bioenergy - Biomass - Comprehensive review - Forestry

Bio-economy can be defined as an economy where renewable biomasses are produced and converted into value-added materials, chemicals, foods, feeds, fuels and energy: therefore, it represents one valid, reliable way to transition to equitable, sustainable, post fossil-carbon societies. For this reason, it is increasingly gaining attention by scientists and academics worldwide, as is supported by this special issue developed within the Journal of Cleaner Production and presented in this editorial article. This Virtual Special Issue (VSI) was designed to highlight the importance of academic research in documenting the multiple greening effects that bio-economy has in multiple societal sectors. Therefore, the editors are confident that it will help to create the platform to exchange and to enhance knowledge on the evolving bio-economy. In this context, this editorial was designed to provide an overview of the papers contained in this special issue and to highlight their contributions to the bio-economy within five main research themes: biomass, biomaterials and bioenergy; agriculture; forestry; production and packaging of foods and feeds; and miscellaneous applications. Based upon the analysis of this VSI's papers, the authors found that there is an urgent need for research on: meta-studies of cross-country/regional interventions, to assess which interventions are more effective; more effective harmonisation solutions of methodological approaches for bio-economy assessments; and finally more interdisciplinary collaboration among technical and social scientists to identify and address the relevant questions for the bio-economy and to exchange and involve academics with all actors of the “innovation pipeline” of the bio-economy.

Towards a roadmap for sustainable land use in Europe
Metzger, Marc J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Pedroli, Bas - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 707 - 713.
A cross-scale impact assessment of European nature protection policies under contrasting future socio-economic pathways
Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Popp, Alexander ; Lindner, Marcus ; Verkerk, Pieter J. ; Moiseyev, Alexander ; Schrammeijer, Elizabeth ; Helming, John ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Schulp, Catharina J.E. ; Zanden, Emma H. van der; Lavalle, Carlo ; E Silva, Filipe Batista ; Walz, Ariane ; Bodirsky, Benjamin - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 751 - 762.
Cross-scale interaction - Impact assessment - Integrated modelling - Land use change - Nature protection
Protection of natural or semi-natural ecosystems is an important part of societal strategies for maintaining biodiversity, ecosystem services, and achieving overall sustainable development. The assessment of multiple emerging land use trade-offs is complicated by the fact that land use changes occur and have consequences at local, regional, and even global scale. Outcomes also depend on the underlying socio-economic trends. We apply a coupled, multi-scale modelling system to assess an increase in nature protection areas as a key policy option in the European Union (EU). The main goal of the analysis is to understand the interactions between policy-induced land use changes across different scales and sectors under two contrasting future socio-economic pathways. We demonstrate how complementary insights into land system change can be gained by coupling land use models for agriculture, forestry, and urban areas for Europe, in connection with other world regions. The simulated policy case of nature protection shows how the allocation of a certain share of total available land to newly protected areas, with specific management restrictions imposed, may have a range of impacts on different land-based sectors until the year 2040. Agricultural land in Europe is slightly reduced, which is partly compensated for by higher management intensity. As a consequence of higher costs, total calorie supply per capita is reduced within the EU. While wood harvest is projected to decrease, carbon sequestration rates increase in European forests. At the same time, imports of industrial roundwood from other world regions are expected to increase. Some of the aggregate effects of nature protection have very different implications at the local to regional scale in different parts of Europe. Due to nature protection measures, agricultural production is shifted from more productive land in Europe to on average less productive land in other parts of the world. This increases, at the global level, the allocation of land resources for agriculture, leading to a decrease in tropical forest areas, reduced carbon stocks, and higher greenhouse gas emissions outside of Europe. The integrated modelling framework provides a method to assess the land use effects of a single policy option while accounting for the trade-offs between locations, and between regional, European, and global scales.
Identifying pathways to visions of future land use in Europe
Verkerk, Pieter J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Pérez-Soba, Marta ; Paterson, James S. ; Helming, John ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Kuemmerle, Tobias ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Moiseyev, Alexander ; Müller, Daniel ; Popp, Alexander ; Schulp, Catharina J.E. ; Stürck, Julia ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Wolfslehner, Bernhard ; Zanden, Emma H. van der - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 817 - 830.
Explorative scenarios - Land use - Normative visions - Pathways

Plausible scenarios of future land use derived from model projections may differ substantially from what is actually desired by society, and identifying such mismatches is important for identifying policies to resolve them. This paper presents an approach to link explorative projections of future land use for the European Union to normative visions of desired land-use futures. We used the results of 24 scenario projections obtained from seven linked simulation models to explore uncertainty in future land-use developments. Land-use projections were linked to statements made by stakeholders for three normative visions of desired, future land use. The visions differed in the scale of multifunctionality of land use: at European (Best Land in Europe), regional (Regional Connected) or local (Local Multifunctional) level. To identify pathways to these visions, we analysed in which cases projected land-use changes matched with the land-use changes desired in the visions. We identified five pathways to the vision Regional Connected, two pathways to the vision Best Land in Europe, but no pathway to the vision Local Multifunctional. Our results suggest that policies have the ability to change the development of land use such that it is more in line with land-use futures desired by society. We believe our approach represents an interesting avenue for foresight studies on land use, as it combines the credibility from explorative scenarios with legitimacy and saliency of normative visions.

How can forest-based bioeconomy contribute to climate change adaptation and mitigation
Lindner, Marcus ; Hanewinkel, Marc ; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2017
In: Towards a sustainable European forest-based bioeconomy / Winkel, Georg, European Forest Institute (What Science can tell us 8) - ISBN 9789525982417 - p. 77 - 85.
A framework for modeling adaptive forest management and decision making under climate change
Yousefpour, Rasoul ; Temperli, Christian ; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl ; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark ; Meilby, Henrik ; Lexer, Manfred J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Bugmann, Harald ; Borges, Jose G. ; Palma, João H.N. ; Ray, Duncan ; Zimmermann, Niklaus E. ; Delzon, Sylvain ; Kremer, Antoine ; Kramer, Koen ; Reyer, Christopher P.O. ; Lasch-Born, Petra ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Hanewinkel, Marc - \ 2017
Ecology and Society 22 (2017)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
Behavioral adaptation - Europe - Forest management - Knowledge management - Mathematical programming - Process-based models - Spatial planning
Adapting the management of forest resources to climate change involves addressing several crucial aspects to provide a valid basis for decision making. These include the knowledge and belief of decision makers, the mapping of management options for the current as well as anticipated future bioclimatic and socioeconomic conditions, and the ways decisions are evaluated and made. We investigate the adaptive management process and develop a framework including these three aspects, thus providing a structured way to analyze the challenges and opportunities of managing forests in the face of climate change. We apply the framework for a range of case studies that differ in the way climate and its impacts are projected to change, the available management options, and how decision makers develop, update, and use their beliefs about climate change scenarios to select among adaptation options, each being optimal for a certain climate change scenario. We describe four stylized types of decision-making processes that differ in how they (1) take into account uncertainty and new information on the state and development of the climate and (2) evaluate alternative management decisions: the “no-change,” the “reactive,” the “trend-adaptive,” and the “forward-looking adaptive” decision-making types. Accordingly, we evaluate the experiences with alternative management strategies and recent publications on using Bayesian optimization methods that account for different simulated learning schemes based on varying knowledge, belief, and information. Finally, our proposed framework for identifying adaptation strategies provides solutions for enhancing forest structure and diversity, biomass and timber production, and reducing climate change-induced damages. They are spatially heterogeneous, reflecting the diversity in growing conditions and socioeconomic settings within Europe.
By 2050 the mitigation effects of EU forests could nearly double through climate smart forestry
Nabuurs, Gert Jan ; Delacote, Philippe ; Ellison, David ; Hanewinkel, Marc ; Hetemäki, Lauri ; Lindner, Marcus ; Ollikainen, Markku - \ 2017
Forests 8 (2017)12. - ISSN 1999-4907
Bio-energy - Carbon sequestration - Climate smart forestry - European forests - Harvested wood products
In July 2016, the European Commission (EC) published a legislative proposal for incorporating greenhouse gas emissions and removals due to Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) into its 2030 Climate and Energy Framework. The Climate and Energy Framework aims at a total emission reduction of 40% by 2030 for all sectors together as part of the Paris Agreement. The LULUCF proposal regulates a "no debit" target for LULUCF (Forests and Agricultural soils), and regulates the accounting of any additional mitigation potential that might be expected of it. We find that the forest share of the LULUCF sector can achieve much more than what is in the regulation now. We elaborate a strategy for unlocking European Union (EU) forests and forest sector potential based on the concept of "climate smart forestry" (CSF). We find that to-date, European policy has not firmly integrated forest potential into the EU climate policy framework. Nor have climate objectives been firmly integrated into those of the forest and forest sector at either the EU or national level. Yet a wide range of measures can be applied to provide positive incentives for more firmly integrating these climate objectives into the forest and forest sector framework. With the right set of incentives in place at EU and Member States levels, we find the current literature supports the view that the EU has the potential to achieve an additional combined mitigation impact through CSF of 441 Mt CO2/year by 2050. In addition, CSF, through reducing and/or removing greenhouse gas emissions, adapting and building forest resilience, and sustainably increasing forest productivity and incomes, tackles multiple policy goals.
Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?
Reyer, Christopher Paul Oliver ; Bathgate, Stephan ; Blennow, K. ; Borges, J.G. ; Bugmann, Harald ; Delzon, Sylvain ; Faias, Sonia P. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Gardiner, Barry ; Gonzalez-Olabarria, J.R. ; Gracia, Carlos ; Guerra Hernandez, Jordi ; Kellomaki, Seppo ; Kramer, K. ; Lexer, M.J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Maaten, Ernest van der; Maroschek, M. ; Muys, Bart ; Nicoll, B. ; Palahi, M. ; Palma, J.H.N. ; Paulo, Joana A. ; Peltola, H. ; Pukkala, T. ; Rammer, W. ; Ray, D. ; Sabaté, S. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Seidl, R. ; Temperli, Christian ; Tomé, Margarida ; Yousefpour, R. ; Zimmerman, N.E. ; Hanewinkel, Marc - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1748-9326
Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures.
Synergies among social safeguards in FLEGT and REDD + in Cameroon
Tegegne, Yitagesu T. ; Ramcilovic-Suominen, Sabaheta ; Fobissie, Kalame ; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Kanninen, Markku - \ 2017
Forest Policy and Economics 75 (2017). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 1 - 11.
Cameroon - Forest governance - Participatory management - Policy implementation - Tenure

Two key international policy processes have been developed to combat illegal logging and promote the contribution of forests to climate change mitigation in developing countries: the European Union's Action Plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) and its Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs), and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change policy on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD +). The implementation of these policies raises concerns about unintended adverse effects on the environment and local peoples’ livelihoods. To prevent such effects, both processes involve developing country-level safeguards, so that they ‘do no harm’. This paper presents (i) a comparison of the social safeguards of the FLEGT-VPA and REDD + processes and an explanation of their commonalities and differences, and (ii) an exploration of the potential synergies and the challenges to realizing them. The three main research methods used in the study were semi-structured interviews, content analysis of policy documents, and focus group discussions with local communities and indigenous peoples in south and east Cameroon. Our analysis shows that whereas FLEGT-VPA includes legality-based safeguards with legally binding monitoring and reporting obligations, REDD + adopts a right-based approach to safeguards. Potential synergies between the two approaches were identified. The synergies lie in the participatory nature of the process of designing benefit sharing mechanisms, strengthening forest and land tenure, and defining the criteria and indicators in FLEGT-VPA and REDD + safeguards. However, realizing the synergies is challenging, given the existing political economy of Cameroon.

Manual for the European Forest Information Scenario model (EFISCEN 4.1)
Verkerk, P.J. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Immonen, V. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Kiljunen, J. ; Lindner, M. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Suominen, T. ; Zudin, S. - \ 2016
European Forest Institute (EFI Technical report 99) - 49 p.
Agricultural and forest biomass for food, materials and energy: Bio-economy as the cornerstone to cleaner production and more sustainable consumption patterns for accelerating the transition towards equitable, sustainable, post fossil-carbon societies : call for papers
Ingrao, Carlo ; Bacenetti, Jacopo ; Bezama, Alberto ; Blok, Vincent ; Geldermann, Jutta ; Goglio, Pietro ; Koukios, Emmanuel G. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Nemecek, Thomas ; Siracusa, Valentina ; Zabaniotou, Anastasia ; Huisingh, Donald - \ 2016
Journal of Cleaner Production (2016). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 4 - 6.
Increasing carbon sinks in European forests: effect of afforestation and changes in mean growing stock volume
Vilén, T. ; Cienciala, E. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Verkerk, P.J. ; Lindner, M. ; Peltola, H. - \ 2016
Forestry 89 (2016)1. - ISSN 0015-752X - p. 82 - 90.
In Europe, both forest area and growing stock have increased since the 1950s, and European forests have acted as a carbon sink during the last six decades. However, the contribution of different factors affecting the sink is not yet clear. In this study, historical inventory data were combined with land-use modelling data to reconstruct the development of forest area and age-structure between 1950 and 2010 without afforestation in two case study countries, Finland and the Czech Republic. These reconstructions were then used in a scenario analysis to assess the effects of afforestation, development of mean growing stock volume and age structure of forests on the forest biomass carbon stock. The results show that afforestation has affected the development of the mean age of forests, but has not changed its trend. There have been large increases in the mean volume of growing stock over the study period in both countries; the increase has occurred both in younger and older age-classes, and in both coniferous and broadleaved species. As not many countries have sufficiently detailed inventory data available for such analysis, the presented case studies are valuable in demonstrating that these changes occurred under very different circumstances. In both countries, the increase in the mean volume of growing stock has been the dominant factor explaining the increase in the forest biomass carbon stock compared with the effect of afforestation.
A new role for forests and the forest sector in the EU post-2020 climate targets
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Delacote, Philippe ; Ellison, David ; Hanewinkel, Marc ; Lindner, Marcus ; Nesbit, Martin ; Ollikainen, Markku ; Savaresi, Annalisa - \ 2015
European Forest Institute (From Science to Policy 2) - ISBN 9789525980202 - 30 p.
forestry - environmental policy - land use - european union - carbon sequestration - forests - biomass production - biobased economy - bosbouw - milieubeleid - landgebruik - europese unie - koolstofvastlegging - bossen - biomassa productie
We are living in a time of accelerated changes and unprecedented global challenges: energy security, natural resource scarcity, biodiversity loss, fossil-resource dependence and climate change. Yet the challenges also demand new solutions and offer new opportunities. The cross-cutting nature of forests and the forest-based sector provides a strong basis to address these interconnected societal challenges, while supporting the development of a European bioeconomy. The |European Forest Institue is an unbiased, science-based international organisation that provides the best forest science knowledge and information for better informed policy making. EFI provides support for decision-takers, policy makers and institutions, bringing together cross-boundery scientific knowledge and expertise to strengthen science-policy dialogue.
European forests: facing the challenges of the coming 50 years
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Lindner, M. ; Verkerk, H. ; Hengeveld, G.M. - \ 2014
In: Proceedings of the XXIV IUFRO World Congress: sustaining forests, sustaining people: the role of research. - - p. 8 - 8.
European forests (177 Mha of forest and other wooded land in EU27) are mostly characterised as semi-natural, multi functional forests. European forests are highly diverse through centuries of management; each country with its own cultural historical objectives, and regional speci¿ c demands. These forests provide multiple goods (wood and non-wood) and services (capturing 10% of the European Union’s CO2 emissions, being the main host for biodiversity, providing high-quality water) to rural communities and society in general. Often, the current management trend is towards nature oriented management, aimed only partly at wood production, and hardly aimed at other services. For many of the 16 million small private owners, income from wood production is only a small part of their total income including other sources. These circumstances, plus a sluggish demand under the current economic crisis hamper any investment, or more rational forest operations, despite signals of the forest sector having to play a role in the green economy with new demands for bioenergy and biore¿ neries’ specialised products. Here we project the state of forest resources and wood supply with the EFISCEN (European Forest Information Scenario) model for the all EU forests. The analyses pay attention to provisioning functions as well as regulating services. We conclude with policy recommendations.
Comparative Analysis of the Interactions between the FLEGT and REDD+ Regimes in Cameroon and the Republic of Congo
Tegegne, Y.T. ; Ochieng, R.M. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Lindner, M. ; Fobissie, K.B. - \ 2014
International Forestry Review 16 (2014)6. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 602 - 614.
institutions
This paper aims to examine and compare the interactions between policy to combat illegal logging (FLEGT VPA) and avoiding deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo by applying an institutional interaction approach. Several interactions have occurred between the two regimes, and more interactions are expected. In both countries, the process for developing the VPA has served as a policy model for designing elements of REDD+. Overlaps in issue-areas and membership triggered these interactions. Implementation of the VPA is also expected to result in positive behavioural change among forest stakeholders that could in turn have positive impacts on REDD+. There are also disruptive interactions, such as the slow pace of VPA implementation affecting REDD+ progress in both countries. Furthermore, there is substantial similarity in terms of the nature and quality of interactions between Cameroon and Congo. Building understanding and exchange of information among stakeholders and request for assistance and jurisdictional delimitation could enhance synergies and mitigate disruptive interactions between the two regimes in both countries.
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