Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics
Rovero, Francesco ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Sheil, Douglas ; Alvarez, Patricia ; Boekee, Kelly ; Espinosa, Santiago ; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; O'Brien, Timothy G. ; Salvador, Julia ; Santos, Fernanda ; Rosa, Melissa ; Zvoleff, Alexander ; Sutherland, Chris ; Tenan, Simone - \ 2019
Ecography (2019). - ISSN 0906-7590
The understanding of global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110–200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g. habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here, we used standardized camera trapping data and a novel analytical method that accounts for imperfect detection to assess how the functional composition of terrestrial mammal communities for two traits – trophic guild and body mass – varies across 16 protected areas in tropical forests and three continents, in relation to the extent of protected habitat and anthropogenic pressures. We found that despite their taxonomic differences, communities generally have a consistent trophic guild composition, and respond similarly to these factors. Insectivores were found to be sensitive to the size of protected habitat and surrounding human population density. Body mass distribution varied little among communities both in terms of central tendency and spread, and interestingly, community average body mass declined with proximity to human settlements. Results indicate predicted trait convergence among assemblages at the coarse scale reflects consistent functional composition among communities at the local scale, suggesting that broadly similar habitats and selective pressures shaped communities with similar trophic strategies and responses to drivers of change. These similarities provide a foundation for assessing assemblages under anthropogenic threats and sharing conservation measures.
Environmental impact assessment of water-saving irrigation systems across 60 irrigation construction projects in northern China
Chen, Xiuzhi ; Thorp, Kelly R. ; Oel, Pieter R. van; Xu, Zhenci ; Zhou, Bo ; Li, Yunkai - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526
Carbon footprint - Environmental impact - Irrigation project - Life cycle assessment - Scenario - Water footprint

With increasing water shortages partly due to increasing demands, water has become a globally relevant issue especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Water-saving irrigation technologies provide new ways for improving the efficiency of water use for agricultural production. Although efficient irrigation management could lead to water savings and increased yields, the water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions during the construction of irrigation projects also puts pressure on environmental health. However, little research has considered the environmental impact of the construction process and materials. To fill this gap, the water footprint (WF) and carbon footprint (CF) of irrigation projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA) methods. The results for sixty typical irrigation projects in northern China showed that the WF accounted for only 0.2–1.5% of the total agricultural WF and 2.3–8.8% of the water saved. When the WF to construct modern irrigation systems is not considered, the water-saving effects of these systems are generally overestimated by 13%. The CF for irrigation projects was 42.0% of all agricultural activities. Due to the difficulty to obtain detailed information for irrigation projects, this paper established the relationship between financial investment or area and CF for three kinds of irrigation projects. It provided a simple quantitative method for assessing its environmental impacts. By comparing environmental impacts and production benefits under different scenarios, using drip irrigation over the long-term could increase crop yield and reduce water footprint, but carbon footprint was increased at the same time. This study suggests that it is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of irrigation construction projects from a life cycle perspective rather focusing only on yield increases and reductions in irrigation amounts.

Workshopbericht: Das Erbe der Gewalt in Französisch-Äquatorialafrika
Vries, Lotje de; Mangarella, Joseph - \ 2019
Afrika Spectrum (2019). - ISSN 0002-0397
French Equatorial Africa - history - instability - marginality - violence

This report offers an account of an international workshop held at the Omar Bongo University in Libreville, Gabon, from 23 November to 27 November 2018. Bringing together specialists on and from Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon, participants reflected on the ways in which different forms of violence have historically had – and continue to have – an impact on social fabrics and several dimensions of politics. The workshop also sought to relate these legacies of violence to the region’s economies of extraction. The region is confronted with social and political turmoil that receives little international attention. The combination of simmering and open instability and the relatively marginal position of the region vis-à-vis the wider continent risks propelling several countries into outright political strife with regional repercussions. The debates concluded that further thinking on how violence permeates every aspect of social and political life is much needed.

Rhizosphere and litter feedbacks to range-expanding plant species and related natives
Manrubia, Marta ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Weser, Carolin ; Veen, Ciska G.F. - \ 2019
Journal of Ecology (2019). - ISSN 0022-0477
litter feedback - novel communities - plant range expansion - plant–soil feedback - rhizosphere feedback

Plant–soil feedback (PSF) results from the net legacy effect that plants leave in the composition of soil communities and abiotic soil properties. PSF is induced by the rhizosphere and by litter inputs into the soil, however, we have little understanding of their individual contributions. Here, we examine feedback effects from the rhizosphere of living plants, decomposing litter and their combination. We used four pairs of climate warming-induced range-expanding plant species and congeneric natives, and examined PSF effects on plant biomass production, as well as on decomposition in their new range. We tested the hypothesis that the plant rhizosphere provides less negative feedback to range-expanders than to the congeneric natives, and that feedback mediated by litter decomposition does not provide such a difference because decomposers might be less specialized than pathogens. To determine PSF, we used soil from the congener species within each pair as an ‘away’ soil to indicate whether range-expanders may have lost their specialized soil biota upon arrival in the novel range. Our results show that although range-expanding plant species and their congeneric natives developed neutral PSF in both rhizosphere- and litter-conditioned soils, two of the four range-expanders produced more biomass than natives in soils conditioned by litter, that is, soils with high nutrient content. Shoot litter from two out of four range-expanding species decomposed more than that of natives, but decomposition was unaffected by soil conditioning. Synthesis. We compared PSF effects of range-expanders and congeneric natives mediated via both the rhizosphere and litter using the congeneric species as a control. Under those conditions, PSF effects were neutral and not affected by plant origin. Therefore, we conclude that studies not comparing within plant genera may overestimate the impact of plant origin on PSF. Still, even under those conditions range-expanders appeared to benefit more from high soil nutrient availability than natives, thus providing a possible advantage over congeneric natives.

High throughput cultivation-based screening on the MicroDish platform allows targeted isolation of antibiotic resistant human gut bacteria
Versluis, Dennis ; Bello Gonzalez, Teresita ; Zoetendal, Erwin ; Passel, Mark van; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2019
Wageningen University
PRJEB27463 - ERP109543
The emergence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to clinical antibiotics poses an increasing risk to human health. An important reservoir from which bacterial pathogens can acquire resistance is the human gut microbiota. However, thus far, a substantial fraction of the gut microbiota remains uncultivated and has been little-studied with respect to its resistance reservoir-function. Here, we aimed to isolate yet uncultivated resistant gut bacteria by a targeted approach. Therefore, faecal samples from 20 intensive care patients who had received the prophylactic antibiotic treatment selective digestive decontamination (SDD), i.e. tobramycin, polymyxin E, amphotericin B and cefotaxime, were inoculated anaerobically on MicroDish porous aluminium oxide chips placed on top of poor and rich agar media, including media supplemented with the SDD antibiotics. Biomass growing on the chips was analysed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, showing large inter-individual differences in bacterial cultivability, and enrichment of a range of taxonomically diverse operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Furthermore, growth of Ruminococcaceae (2 OTUs), Enterobacteriaceae (6 OTUs) and Lachnospiraceae (4 OTUs) was significantly inhibited by the SDD antibiotics. Strains belonging to 16 OTUs were candidates for cultivation to pure culture as they shared ≤95% sequence identity with the closest type strain and had a relative abundance of ≥2%. Six of these OTUs were detected on media containing SDD antibiotics, and as such were prime candidates to be studied regarding antibiotic resistance. One of these six OTUs was obtained in pure culture using targeted isolation. This novel strain was resistant to the antibiotics metrodinazole and imipenem. It was initially classified as member of the Ruminococcaceae, though later it was found to share 99% nucleotide identity with the recently published Sellimonas intestinalis BR72T. In conclusion, we show that high-throughput screening of growth communities can guide targeted isolation of bacteria that serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance.
Molecular Epidemiology of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Strains Causing Bacterial Wilt of Potato in Uganda
Abdurahman, Abdulwahab ; Parker, Monica L. ; Kreuze, Jan ; Elphinstone, John G. ; Struik, Paul C. ; Kigundu, Andrew ; Arengo, Esther ; Sharma, Kalpana - \ 2019
Phytopathology 109 (2019)11. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 1922 - 1931.
bacteriology - etiology - population biology

Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) is a serious threat to potato production in Uganda. However, little is known about the extent of the disease and the type of the pathogen strains involved. A nationwide survey was conducted to study BW prevalence and incidence in potato, and potato tuber and stem samples of potential alternative hosts were collected for pathogen isolation. DNA was extracted from pure cultures for genetic diversity studies. The pathogen was phylotyped by multiplex PCR; then, a subset of isolates was typed at sequevar level. Isolates of the same sequevar were then haplotyped using multilocus tandem repeat sequence typing (TRST) schemes. BW prevalence and incidence in potato farms were 81.4 and 1.7%, respectively. Three RSSC phylotypes were identified, with the majority of the strains belonging to Phylotype II (80%) followed by Phylotype I (18.5%) and III (1.5%). Phylotype I strains belonged to Sequevar 31, and Phylotype II strains belonged to Sequevar 1. Potato-associated Phylotype II Sequevar 1 strains were more diverse (27 TRST haplotypes) than nonpotato Phylotype I (5 TRST haplotypes). Mapping of TRST haplotypes revealed that three TRST haplotypes of Phylotype II Sequevar 1 strains play an important epidemiological role in BW of potato in Uganda being disseminated via latently infected seed.[Formula: see text]

The shufflon of IncI1 plasmids is rearranged constantly during different growth conditions
Brouwer, Mike ; Jurburg, Stephanie ; Harders, Frank ; Kant, Arie ; Mevius, Dik ; Roberts, Adam P. ; Bossers, Alex - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research
PRJEB30618 - ERP113093 - Escherichia coli
One of the factors that can affect conjugation of IncI1 plasmids, amongst others, is the genetic region known as the shufflon. This multiple inversion system modifies the pilus tip proteins used during conjugation, thus affecting the affinity for different recipient cells. Although recombination is known to occur in in vitro conditions, little is known about the regulation and the extend of recombination that occurs. To measure the recombination of the shufflon, we have amplified the entire shufflon region and sequenced the amplicons using nanopore long-read sequencing. This method was effective to determine the order of the segments of the shufflon and allow for the analysis of the shufflon variants that are present in a heterogeneous pool of templates. Analysis was performed over different growth phases and after addition of cefotaxime. Furthermore, analysis was performed in different E. coli host cells to determine if recombination is likely to be influenced. Recombination of the shufflon was constantly ongoing in all conditions that were measured, although no differences in the amount of different shufflon variants or the rate at which novel variants were formed could be found. As previously reported, some variants were abundant in the population while others were scarce. This leads to the conclusion that the shufflon is continuously recombining at a constant rate, or the method used here was not sensitive enough to detect differences in this rate. For one of the plasmids, the host cell appears to have an effect on the specific shufflon variants that were formed which were not predominant in another host, indicating that host factors may be involved. As previously reported, the pilV-A and pilV-A’ ORFs are formed at higher frequencies than other pilV ORFs. These results demonstrate that the recombination that occurs within the shufflon is not random. While any regulation of the shufflon affected by these in vitro conditions could not be revealed, the method of amplifying large regions for long-read sequencing for the analysis of multiple inversion systems proved effective.
Competing for kayabo: gendered struggles for fish and livelihood on the shore of Lake Victoria
Medard, Modesta ; Dijk, Han Van; Hebinck, Paul - \ 2019
Maritime Studies (2019). - ISSN 1872-7859 - 13 p.
The dry-salted trade of Nile perch or kayabo is important for many along the shores of Lake Victoria. The kayabo trade started in the 1990s and has been increasingly restructured due to changing regional and global trade relationships. This shift has led to the emergence of hierarchical trading relations, which create an exploitative network in which powerful middlemen control the access of trade for women from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and marginalizes the Tanzanian women, changing the organization from a poly-centric to a more centralized trade organization in the hands of a small group of powerful business men. We show in this paper that whereas the women traders from the DRC manoeuvred themselves in positions from which they could manipulate the network through bribery and conniving to derive substantial capital gains from the kayabo trade, their Tanzanian counterparts however are excluded from the decision-making processes, access to fish resources, financial capital, and negotiation power. They persevere by operating in increasingly competitive markets, relying on illegal fish that they sell with little profit at local and domestic markets. They survive in jobs that are insecure and risky by nature.
A dynamic vulnerability approach for tourism destinations
Student, J.R. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Amelung, S.B. - \ 2019
Journal of Sustainable Tourism (2019). - ISSN 0966-9582 - 22 p.
vulnerability - dynamic approach - systems thinking - comparion modelling - human-environmental dynamics - coastal tourism destination - sea level rise (SLR)
Tourism destinations are vulnerable to increasing environmental change. The available scientific knowledge, however, is of little practical use as it is too aggregate, too conceptual, or too static. Various authors have called for dynamic vulnerability assessments, but the principles for dynamic vulnerability assessments have not been specified nor is it clear how to operationalise these principles. This paper formulates five principles: human agency, heterogeneity, feedbacks, uncertainty, and iteration. To address these principles, it proposes a dynamic approach that involves stakeholders. The approach’s proposed methodological tools enable system integration as well as the opportunity for both researchers and stakeholders to experience and experiment with dynamic vulnerabilities, which is key to moving beyond aggregate and static assessments. To demonstrate some of the approach’s added value for tourism destinations, a short illustration is provided of the critical challenge of sea level rise for coastal tourism in the Caribbean islands of Barbados and Curaçao. Future application of the approach can extend well beyond Caribbean coastal destinations to any other tourism destination vulnerable to environmental change.
Global distribution of earthworm diversity
Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Guerra, Carlos A. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Crowther, Thomas W. ; Ferlian, Olga ; Gongalsky, Konstantin B. ; Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Krebs, Julia ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Routh, Devin ; Schwarz, Benjamin ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bennett, Joanne ; Brose, Ulrich ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Russell, David ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Thakur, Madhav P. ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Arai, Miwa ; Ayuke, Fredrick O. ; Baker, Geoff H. ; Beauséjour, Robin ; Bedano, José C. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Blanchart, Eric ; Blossey, Bernd ; Bolger, Thomas ; Bradley, Robert L. ; Callaham, Mac A. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Caulfield, Mark E. ; Choi, Amy ; Crotty, Felicity V. ; Dávalos, Andrea ; Diaz Cosin, Darío J. ; Dominguez, Anahí ; Duhour, Andrés Esteban ; Eekeren, Nick Van; Emmerling, Christoph ; Falco, Liliana B. ; Fernández, Rosa ; Fonte, Steven J. ; Fragoso, Carlos ; Franco, André L.C. ; Fugère, Martine ; Fusilero, Abegail T. ; Gholami, Shaieste ; Gundale, Michael J. ; Gutiérrez Lopez, Monica ; Hackenberger, Davorka K. ; Hernández, Luis M. ; Hishi, Takuo ; Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Hopfensperger, Kristine N. ; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Huhta, Veikko ; Hurisso, Tunsisa T. ; Iannone, Basil V. ; Iordache, Madalina ; Joschko, Monika ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kanianska, Radoslava ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Kelly, Courtland A. ; Kernecker, Maria L. ; Klaminder, Jonatan ; Koné, Armand W. ; Kooch, Yahya ; Kukkonen, Sanna T. ; Lalthanzara, H. ; Lammel, Daniel R. ; Lebedev, Iurii M. ; Li, Yiqing ; Jesus Lidon, Juan B. ; Lincoln, Noa K. ; Loss, Scott R. ; Marichal, Raphael ; Matula, Radim ; Moos, Jan Hendrik ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Mor n-Ríos, Alejandro ; Muys, Bart ; Neirynck, Johan ; Norgrove, Lindsey ; Novo, Marta ; Nuutinen, Visa ; Nuzzo, Victoria ; Mujeeb Rahman, P. ; Pansu, Johan ; Paudel, Shishir ; Pérès, Guénola ; Pérez-Camacho, Lorenzo ; Piñeiro, Raúl ; Ponge, Jean François ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Rebollo, Salvador ; Rodeiro-Iglesias, Javier ; Rodríguez, Miguel ; Roth, Alexander M. ; Rousseau, Guillaume X. ; Rozen, Anna ; Sayad, Ehsan ; Schaik, Loes Van; Scharenbroch, Bryant C. ; Schirrmann, Michael ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Schröder, Boris ; Seeber, Julia ; Shashkov, Maxim P. ; Singh, Jaswinder ; Smith, Sandy M. ; Steinwandter, Michael ; Talavera, José A. ; Trigo, Dolores ; Tsukamoto, Jiro ; Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Virto, Iñigo ; Wackett, Adrian A. ; Warren, Matthew W. ; Wehr, Nathaniel H. ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Wironen, Michael B. ; Wolters, Volkmar ; Zenkova, Irina V. ; Zhang, Weixin ; Cameron, Erin K. ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
Science 366 (2019)6464. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 480 - 485.

Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.

Soil functional responses to drought under range-expanding and native plant communities
Manrubia, Marta ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Weser, Carolin ; Hooven, Freddy C. ten; Martens, Henk ; Brinkman, Pernilla ; Geisen, Stefan ; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Veen, G.F. - \ 2019
Functional Ecology (2019). - ISSN 0269-8463
litter mass loss - plant range expansion - saprophytic soil fungi - soil functioning - soil rewetting - summer drought

Current climate warming enables plant species and soil organisms to expand their range to higher latitudes and altitudes. At the same time, climate change increases the incidence of extreme weather events such as drought. While it is expected that plants and soil organisms originating from the south are better able to cope with drought, little is known about the consequences of their range shifts on soil functioning under drought events. Here, we test how range-expanding plant species and soil communities may influence soil functioning under drought. We performed a full-factorial outdoor mesocosm experiment with plant communities of range expanders or related natives, with soil inocula from the novel or the original range, with or without summer drought. We measured litter decomposition, carbon mineralization and enzyme activities, substrate-induced respiration and the relative abundance of soil saprophytic fungi immediately after drought and at 6 and 12 weeks after rewetting. Drought decreased all soil functions regardless of plant and soil origin except one; soil respiration was less reduced in soils of range-expanding plant communities, suggesting stronger resistance to drought. After rewetting, soil functioning responses depended on plant and soil origin. Soils of native plant communities with a history of drought had more litter mass loss and higher relative abundance of saprophytic fungi than soils without drought and soils of range expanders. Functions of soil from range expanders recovered in a more conservative manner than soils of natives, as litter mass loss did not exceed the control rates. At the end of the experiment, after rewetting, most soil functions in mesocosms with drought history did not differ anymore from the control. We conclude that functional consequences of range-expanding plants and soil biota may interact with effects of drought and that these effects are most prominent during the first weeks after rewetting of the soil. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.

Defining resilient pigs after a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) challenge using activity and feeding data from accelerometers
Zande, L.E. Van Der; Dunkelberger, J.R. ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Mathur, P.K. ; Cairns, W.J. ; Keyes, M.C. ; Eggert, J.M. ; Little, E.A. ; Dee, S.A. ; Knol, E.F. - \ 2019
In: Precision Livestock Farming 2019. - Teagasc (Precision Livestock Farming 2019 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2019 ) - ISBN 9781841706542 - p. 471 - 475.
Accelerometers - Behaviour - Pig - PRRS - Resilience - RMSE

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious viral disease in pigs. PRRS causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory infections in growing pigs. To improve pig health and minimise economic losses, resilient pigs are preferred within the herd. Resilient pigs still become infected, yet are able to recover following infection, showing less variation in activity and feeding. In this study, 232 commercial crossbred pigs were equipped with individual accelerometer ear tags to monitor the number of active, feeding, and hyperactive events per individual per hour. At eight weeks of age, pigs were inoculated with PRRS virus 1-7-4. Data from accelerometers were collected 23 days prior to challenge and 42 days post-infection (dpi). Expected levels of activity, feeding, and hyperactivity were estimated by regressing behavioural traits on observed datapoints prior to challenge. This regression line was extended to 42 dpi. Then, deviations from the regression line were quantified as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for each individual during the following time periods: pre-challenge, 0-13 dpi, and 13-42 dpi. All traits decreased and RMSE increased post-challenge. These results are consistant with clinical signs of PRRS, including lethargy and loss of appetite. In addition, association of these traits with survival was also investigated. RMSE prior to PRRS-infection was not predictive of survival after infection. However, RMSE of feeding and activity during the peak challenge period (0-13 dpi) was predictive of survival, where pigs with less deviation in behaviour were more resilient to the PRRS challenge.

Preconception lifestyle and cardiovascular health in the offspring of overweight and obese women
Elten, Tessa M. van; Beek, Cornelieke van de; Geelen, Anouk ; Gemke, Reinoud J.B.J. ; Groen, Henk ; Hoek, Annemieke ; Mol, Ben Willem ; Poppel, Mireille N.M. van; Roseboom, Tessa J. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)10. - ISSN 2072-6643
Offspring anthropometry - Offspring blood pressure - Offspring pulse wave velocity - Preconception dietary intake - Preconception physical activity

Women’s lifestyle has important implications for the development and health of their offspring. Yet little is known about the association between women’s preconception dietary intake and physical activity with cardiovascular health of the offspring. We therefore examined this association in a group of Dutch women with overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 29 kg/m2) and infertility, who participated in a 6-month randomized preconception lifestyle intervention trial, and their offspring (n = 46). Preconception dietary intake and physical activity were assessed during the 6-month intervention using a food frequency questionnaire and the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH), respectively. Offspring cardiovascular health (i.e., BMI, waist:height ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fat and fat free mass, and pulse wave velocity) was measured at age 3–6 years. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations between preconception lifestyle and offspring cardiovascular health. Higher preconception vegetable intake (per 10 g/day) was associated with lower offspring diastolic blood pressure (Z-score: −0.05 (−0.08; −0.01); p = 0.007) and higher preconception fruit intake (per 10 g/day) was associated with lower offspring pulse wave velocity (−0.05 m/s (−0.10; −0.01); p = 0.03). Against our expectations, higher preconception intake of sugary drinks was associated with a higher offspring fat free mass (0.54 kg (0.01; 1.07); p = 0.045). To conclude, preconception dietary intake is associated with offspring health.

DPA shows comparable chemotherapy sensitizing effects as EPA upon cellular incorporation in tumor cells
Dijk, Francina J. ; Dijk, Miriam Van; Dorresteijn, Bram ; Norren, Klaske Van - \ 2019
Oncotarget 10 (2019)57. - ISSN 1949-2553 - p. 5983 - 5992.
Cancer - Chemotherapy - DPA - Fish oil - Nutrition

Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells towards chemotherapy. Most enhancing effects are described for ω-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA; less evidence is available with the intermediate DPA. We studied the chemotherapy enhancing effects of EPA, DPA and DHA in murine colon C26 adenocarcinoma cells and showed that DPA displayed similar chemosensitizing effects as EPA. Moreover, EPA supplementation increased cellular DPA content. In a C26 tumor-bearing mouse model, we studied the incorporation of ω-3 PUFA in tumor and skeletal muscle after a diet with different ω-3 PUFA sources. Although little DPA was present in the fatty acid food sources, in those that contained considerable EPA concentrations, DPA levels were higher in tumor and muscle tissue. From these studies, we conclude that EPA and DPA show chemosensitizing effects and that intake of EPA or EPA-containing nutrition leads to increased cellular DPA content by elongation. These findings support the use of ω-3 PUFA containing nutritional supplementations in cancer patients during chemotherapy treatment.

Reframing the sustainable seafood narrative
Tlusty, Michael ; Tyedmers, Peter ; Bailey, M.L. ; Ziegler, Friederike ; Henriksson, Patrik J.G. ; Bene, Christophe ; Bush, S.R. ; Newton, Richard ; Asche, Frank ; Little, David C. ; Troell, Max ; Jonell, Malin - \ 2019
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 59 (2019). - ISSN 0959-3780 - 6 p.
The dominant sustainable seafood narrative is one where developed world markets catalyze practice improvements by fisheries and aquaculture producers that enhance ocean health. The narrow framing of seafood sustainability in terms of aquaculture or fisheries management and ocean health has contributed to the omission of these important food production systems from the discussion on global food system sustainability. This omission is problematic. Seafood makes critical contributions to food and nutrition security, particularly in low income countries, and is often a more sustainable and nutrient rich source of animal sourced-food than terrestrial meat production. We argue that to maximize the positive contributions that seafood can make to sustainable food systems, the conventional narratives that prioritize seafood's role in promoting ‘ocean health’ need to be reframed and cover a broader set of environmental and social dimensions of sustainability. The focus of the narrative also needs to move from a producer-centric to a ‘whole chain’ perspective that includes greater inclusion of the later stages with a focus on food waste, by-product utilization and consumption. Moreover, seafood should not be treated as a single aggregated item in sustainability assessments. Rather, it should be recognized as a highly diverse set of foods, with variable environmental impacts, edible yield rates and nutritional profiles. Clarifying discussions around seafood will help to deepen the integration of fisheries and aquaculture into the global agenda on sustainable food production, trade and consumption, and assist governments, private sector actors, NGOs and academics alike in identifying where improvements can be made.
The Arachnids (Arachnida) of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao
Crews, Sarah C. ; Debrot, A.O. ; Hoorn, Gijs van; Galvis, William ; Espodito, Lauren A. - \ 2019
Caribbean Journal of Science 49 (2019)2-3. - ISSN 0008-6452 - p. 125 - 140.
Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (ABC Islands) are located at the southern margin of the Caribbean Plate, just north of South America. Little is known of the arachnid fauna of these islands, and the only work on spiders was published over a century ago. Here we provide a list of arachnids opportunistically collected from the islands, including Klein Bonaire and Klein Curaçao, over approximately 2 months. More than 750 specimens from 4 arachnid orders, (Amblypygi, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Araneae) were collected and identified. We recovered 1 species of amblypygid, 2 species of pseudoscorpions, 1 species of scorpion, and 76 species of spiders. Additionally, we compared species diversity between urban and natural areas. The number of species is relatively low given the proximity to South America, but this likely reflects that collecting only took place for a short time and was opportunistic as opposed to systematic. Nevertheless, we found 25 new records and >20 likely undescribed species for the islands, providing insights into the spider fauna of northern South America and indicating that additional surveys of the area are warranted.
Literature update on effective environmental enrichment and light provision in broiler chickens
Souza da Silva, C. ; Jong, I.C. de - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen Livestock Research 1204) - 46
The results of a literature study to the effect of different types of environmental enrichment and light conditions on broiler chickens welfare are described, in order to attempt to provide an environment to slow-growing broiler chickens that better meets their behavioural requirements. With respect to environmental enrichment, a review paper has been used as a starting point and more recent information has been collected and summarised. With respect to lighting, in consultation with stakeholders we chose to limit the literature study to a fewpotential interesting areas of research (e.g. natural light provisionand its variation across the broiler house). There are several research questions in relation to enrichment provision, e.g., optimal perch design, multiple use of enrichments and the actual number of enrichments that should be provided. Currently, little is known about the need for light in slow-growing broiler chickens and how this interacts with the environmental enrichment offered. Future research priorities include theoptimization of methods of natural light provision (which is often applied in higher welfare indoor systems with slow-growing breeds), testing effects of ultraviolet wavelengths on chicken behaviour,and light colour preferences in slow-growing breeds.
Food or furniture: Separating trophic and non-trophic effects of Spanish moss to explain its high invertebrate diversity
Borst, Annieke C.W. ; Angelini, Christine ; Berge, Anne ten; Lamers, Leon ; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous ; Heide, Tjisse van der - \ 2019
Ecosphere 10 (2019)9. - ISSN 2150-8925
brown food web - detritus - feeding guilds - food provisioning - foundation species - habitat complexity - habitat structure - non-trophic interactions - patch size - species richness - surface area

Foundation species are typically suggested to enhance community diversity non-trophically by increasing habitat structure and mitigating physical stress, while their trophic role is considered of minor importance. Yet, there is little experimental evidence on the relative importance of trophic and non-trophic effects and the interaction with patch size. Here, we transplanted different festoon sizes of living Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) and structural mimics assessing the trophic and non-trophic roles of this habitat-forming epiphyte in mediating the invertebrate community. Compared to bare branches, mimics enhanced species and feeding guild richness and abundances, but living festoons even more so, demonstrating that trophic and non-trophic effects jointly stimulated the community. Specifically, our results show that, independent of patch size, 40% of the total species richness and 46% of total guild richness increase could be contributed to habitat structure alone, while Spanish moss trophically stimulated these metrics by another 60% and 54%. As detritivores were particularly enhanced in living festoons, our findings suggest that trophic stimulation occurred primarily through the provisioning of Spanish moss detritus. Our results highlight that foundation species can facilitate their associated communities through both trophic and non-trophic pathways, calling for studies addressing their indirect trophic role via the brown food web.

Production Diseases Reduce the Efficiency of Dairy Production: A Review of the Results, Methods, and Approaches Regarding the Economics of Mastitis
Hogeveen, Henk ; Steeneveld, Wilma ; Wolf, Christopher A. - \ 2019
Annual Review of Resource Economics 11 (2019). - ISSN 1941-1340 - p. 289 - 312.
agricultural economics - dairy farm - mastitis - natural resource economics - production disease

Mastitis is the most important production disease in dairy farming, leading to considerable inefficiency in production. In 1992, an important paper describing a simple but very useful economic framework for production diseases in animal farming was published. In a systemic literature search, 77 articles were found on the economics of mastitis. Throughout the years, little progress has been made to improve the economic framework regarding production diseases in animal farming, but methodological progress was made in the biological aspect of bioeconomic models. Research focused on the failure costs of mastitis and cost-benefit analyses of cow-level decisions (treatments). The average failure costs of mastitis were $US131 per cow per year. Future economic research should focus more on the utilization of currentlyavailable large databases. The economic framework should be extended toward mastitis as an externality of dairy production (welfare), the externalities of optimal use of chemical and pharmaceutical compounds (antimicrobials), and explaining farmers decisions regarding mastitis.

Reducing unnecessary vitamin testing in general practice : Barriers and facilitators according to general practitioners and patients
Hofstede, H. ; Burg, H.A.M. Van Der; Mulder, B.C. ; Bohnen, A.M. ; Bindels, P.J.E. ; Wit, N.J. de; Schepper, E.I.T. de; Vugt, S.F. Van - \ 2019
BMJ Open 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2044-6055
Diagnostic tests [Mesh] - General practice [Mesh] - Qualitative Research [Mesh] - Vitamin B 12 [Mesh] - Vitamin D [Mesh]

Objective There has been an increase in testing of vitamins in patients in general practice, often based on irrational indications or for non-specific symptoms, causing increasing healthcare expenditures and medicalisation of patients. So far, there is little evidence of effective strategies to reduce this overtesting in general practice. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to explore the barriers and facilitators for reducing the number of (unnecessary) vitamin D and B 12 laboratory tests ordered. Design and setting This qualitative study, based on a grounded theory design, used semistructured interviews among general practitioners (GPs) and patients from two primary care networks (147 GPs, 195 000 patients). These networks participated in the Reducing Vitamin Testing in Primary Care Practice (REVERT) study, a clustered randomized trial comparing two de-implementation strategies to reduce test ordering in primary care in the Netherlands. Participants Twenty-one GPs, with a maximum of 1 GP per practice who took part in the REVERT study, and 22 patients (who were invited by their GP during vitamin-related consultations) were recruited, from which 20 GPs and 19 patients agreed to participate in this study. Results The most important factor hampering vitamin-test reduction programmes is the mismatch between patients and medical professionals regarding the presumed appropriate indications for testing for vitamin D and B 12. In contrast, the most important facilitator for vitamin-test reduction may be updating GPs' knowledge about test indications and their awareness of their own testing behaviour. Conclusion To achieve a sustainable reduction in vitamin testing, guidelines with clear and uniform recommendations on evidence-based indications for vitamin testing, combined with regular (individual) feedback on test-ordering behaviour, are needed. Moreover, the general public needs access to clear and reliable information on vitamin testing. Further research is required to measure the effect of these strategies on the number of vitamin test requests.

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