Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Author Correction : Tree mode of death and mortality risk factors across Amazon forests
    Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Chao, Kuo Jung ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Higuchi, Niro ; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanne ; Lloyd, Jon ; Liu, Haiyan ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Poorter, Lourens ; Silveira, Marcos ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Dávila, Esteban Alvarez ; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon del; Almeida, Everton ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Baisie, Michel ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Blanc, Lilian ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Boot, René ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerome ; Comiskey, James ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Costa, Antonio Lola da; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Erwin, Terry ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Herrera, Rafael ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Killeen, Timothy ; Laurance, Susan ; Laurance, William ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Ladvocat, Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaço ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Meir, Patrick ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Morandi, Paulo ; Neill, David ; Nogueira Lima, Adriano José ; Vargas, Percy Nuñez ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Pardo, Guido ; Peacock, Julie ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Prieto, Adriana ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Quesada, Carlos ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Rejou-Machain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Rudas, Agustín ; Salomão, Rafael ; Serrano, Julio ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Silva, Natalino ; Singh, James ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Swamy, Varun ; Talbot, Joey ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Toledo, Marisol ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Meer, Peter van der; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Vos, Vincent ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zuidema, Pieter ; Galbraith, David - \ 2021
    Nature Communications 12 (2021)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    The original version of this Article contained an error in Table 2, where the number of individuals in the “All Amazonia” row was reported as 11,6431 instead of 116,431. Also, the original version of this Article contained an error in the Methods, where the R2 for the proportion of broken/uprooted dead trees increase per year was reported as 0.12, the correct value being 0.06. The original version of this Article contained errors in the author affiliations. The affiliation of Gerardo A. Aymard C. with UNELLEZGuanare, Herbario Universitario (PORT), Portuguesa, Venezuela Compensation International Progress S.A. Ciprogress–Greenlife.

    ForestGEO : Understanding forest diversity and dynamics through a global observatory network
    Davies, Stuart J. ; Abiem, Iveren ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Aguilar, Salomón ; Allen, David ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina ; Andrade, Ana ; Arellano, Gabriel ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Baker, Patrick J. ; Baker, Matthew E. ; Baltzer, Jennifer L. ; Basset, Yves ; Bissiengou, Pulchérie ; Bohlman, Stephanie ; Bourg, Norman A. ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Burslem, David F.R.P. ; Cao, Min ; Cárdenas, Dairon ; Chang, Li Wan ; Chang-Yang, Chia Hao ; Chao, Kuo Jung ; Chao, Wei Chun ; Chapman, Hazel ; Chen, Yu Yun ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Chu, Chengjin ; Chuyong, George ; Clay, Keith ; Comita, Liza S. ; Condit, Richard ; Cordell, Susan ; Dattaraja, Handanakere S. ; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de; Ouden, Jan den; Detto, Matteo ; Dick, Christopher ; Du, Xiaojun ; Duque, Álvaro ; Ediriweera, Sisira ; Ellis, Erle C. ; Obiang, Nestor Laurier Engone ; Esufali, Shameema ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Fernando, Edwino S. ; Filip, Jonah ; Fischer, Gunter A. ; Foster, Robin ; Giambelluca, Thomas ; Giardina, Christian ; Gilbert, Gregory S. ; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika ; Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. ; Gunatilleke, C.V.S. ; Hao, Zhanqing ; Hau, Billy C.H. ; He, Fangliang ; Ni, Hongwei ; Howe, Robert W. ; Hubbell, Stephen P. ; Huth, Andreas ; Inman-Narahari, Faith ; Itoh, Akira ; Janík, David ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Jiang, Mingxi ; Johnson, Daniel J. ; Jones, Andrew ; Kanzaki, Mamoru ; Kenfack, David ; Kiratiprayoon, Somboon ; Král, Kamil ; Krizel, Lauren ; Lao, Suzanne ; Larson, Andrew J. ; Li, Yide ; Li, Xiankun ; Litton, Creighton M. ; Liu, Yu ; Liu, Shirong ; Lum, Shawn K.Y. ; Luskin, Matthew S. ; Lutz, James A. ; Luu, Hong Truong ; Ma, Keping ; Makana, Jean Remy ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Martin, Adam ; McCarthy, Caly ; McMahon, Sean M. ; McShea, William J. ; Memiaghe, Hervé ; Mi, Xiangcheng ; Mitre, David ; Mohamad, Mohizah ; Monks, Logan ; Muller-Landau, Helene C. ; Musili, Paul M. ; Myers, Jonathan A. ; Nathalang, Anuttara ; Ngo, Kang Min ; Norden, Natalia ; Novotny, Vojtech ; O'Brien, Michael J. ; Orwig, David ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos ; Parker, Geoffrey G. ; Pérez, Rolando ; Perfecto, Ivette ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pongpattananurak, Nantachai ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Ren, Haibo ; Reynolds, Glen ; Rodriguez, Lillian J. ; Russo, Sabrina E. ; Sack, Lawren ; Sang, Weiguo ; Shue, Jessica ; Singh, Anudeep ; Song, Guo Zhang M. ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sun, I.F. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu S. ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Tan, Sylvester ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Thomas, Duncan ; Thompson, Jill ; Turner, Benjamin L. ; Uowolo, Amanda ; Uriarte, María ; Valencia, Renato ; Vandermeer, John ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Visser, Marco ; Vrska, Tomas ; Wang, Xugao ; Wang, Xihua ; Weiblen, George D. ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wolf, Amy ; Wright, Joseph ; Xu, Han ; Yao, Tze Leong ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Ye, Wanhui ; Yu, Mingjian ; Zhang, Minhua ; Zhu, Daoguang ; Zhu, Li ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Zuleta, Daniel - \ 2021
    Biological Conservation 253 (2021). - ISSN 0006-3207
    Capacity strengthening - Demography - Forest plots - Network science - Species diversity - Tree growth and mortality - Tropical forests

    ForestGEO is a network of scientists and long-term forest dynamics plots (FDPs) spanning the Earth's major forest types. ForestGEO's mission is to advance understanding of the diversity and dynamics of forests and to strengthen global capacity for forest science research. ForestGEO is unique among forest plot networks in its large-scale plot dimensions, censusing of all stems ≥1 cm in diameter, inclusion of tropical, temperate and boreal forests, and investigation of additional biotic (e.g., arthropods) and abiotic (e.g., soils) drivers, which together provide a holistic view of forest functioning. The 71 FDPs in 27 countries include approximately 7.33 million living trees and about 12,000 species, representing 20% of the world's known tree diversity. With >1300 published papers, ForestGEO researchers have made significant contributions in two fundamental areas: species coexistence and diversity, and ecosystem functioning. Specifically, defining the major biotic and abiotic controls on the distribution and coexistence of species and functional types and on variation in species' demography has led to improved understanding of how the multiple dimensions of forest diversity are structured across space and time and how this diversity relates to the processes controlling the role of forests in the Earth system. Nevertheless, knowledge gaps remain that impede our ability to predict how forest diversity and function will respond to climate change and other stressors. Meeting these global research challenges requires major advances in standardizing taxonomy of tropical species, resolving the main drivers of forest dynamics, and integrating plot-based ground and remote sensing observations to scale up estimates of forest diversity and function, coupled with improved predictive models. However, they cannot be met without greater financial commitment to sustain the long-term research of ForestGEO and other forest plot networks, greatly expanded scientific capacity across the world's forested nations, and increased collaboration and integration among research networks and disciplines addressing forest science.

    Perpetual Bluetooth Communications for the IoT
    Liu, Qingzhi ; Ijntema, Wieger ; Drif, Anass ; Pawelczak, Przemyslaw ; Zuniga, Marco ; Yildirim, Kasim Sinan - \ 2021
    IEEE Sensors Journal 21 (2021)1. - ISSN 1530-437X - p. 829 - 837.
    Bluetooth - energy harvesting - Internet of Things - radio frequency

    Battery-powered beacon devices introduce high maintenance costs due to the finite operation time dictated by the fixed capacity of their batteries. To tackle this problem we propose FreeBLE: an indoor beacon system aimed at operating perpetually without batteries. We propose three methods to increase the utilization efficiency of harvested Radio Frequency (RF) energy in the beacon system, by which the energy consumption level becomes low enough to fit within the energy harvesting budget. We implement FreeBLE using off-the-shelf Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and RF energy harvesting devices, and test FreeBLE in a laboratory environment. Our results show that FreeBLE enables perpetual operation in an indoor deployment of RF-powered BLE beacon devices.

    Keeping modelling notebooks with TRACE : Good for you and good for environmental research and management support
    Ayllón, Daniel ; Railsback, Steven F. ; Gallagher, Cara ; Augusiak, Jacqueline ; Baveco, Hans ; Berger, Uta ; Charles, Sandrine ; Martin, Romina ; Focks, Andreas ; Galic, Nika ; Liu, Chun ; Loon, E.E. van; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob ; Piou, Cyril ; Polhill, J.G. ; Preuss, Thomas G. ; Radchuk, Viktoriia ; Schmolke, Amelie ; Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita ; Thorbek, Pernille ; Grimm, Volker - \ 2021
    Environmental Modelling & Software 136 (2021). - ISSN 1364-8152
    Environmental modelling - Model documentation - Modelling cycle - Reproducible research - Scientific communication - Standards

    The acceptance and usefulness of simulation models are often limited by the efficiency, transparency, reproducibility, and reliability of the modelling process. We address these issues by suggesting that modellers (1) “trace” the iterative modelling process by keeping a modelling notebook corresponding to the laboratory notebooks used by empirical researchers, (2) use a standardized notebook structure and terminology based on the existing TRACE documentation framework, and (3) use their notebooks to compile TRACE documents that supplement publications and reports. These practices have benefits for model developers, users, and stakeholders: improved and efficient model design, analysis, testing, and application; increased model acceptance and reuse; and replicability and reproducibility of the model and the simulation experiments. Using TRACE terminology and structure in modelling notebooks facilitates production of TRACE documents. We explain the rationale of TRACE, provide example TRACE documents, and suggest strategies for keeping “TRACE Modelling Notebooks.”

    Genomics of tailless bacteriophages in a complex lactic acid bacteria starter culture
    Alexeeva, Svetlana ; Liu, Yue ; Zhu, Jingjie ; Kaczorowska, Joanna ; Kouwen, Thijs R.H.M. ; Abee, Tjakko ; Smid, Eddy J. - \ 2021
    International Dairy Journal 114 (2021). - ISSN 0958-6946

    Our previous study on a model microbial community originating from an artisanal cheese fermentation starter revealed that bacteriophages not only co-exist with bacteria but also are highly abundant. Here we describe the genomic content of phage particles released by 6 different strains in the starter culture. The identified prophages belong to three different subgroups of the Siphoviridae P335 phage group. Remarkably, most analysed prophages show disruptions in different tail encoding genes, explaining the common tailless phenotype. Furthermore, a number of potentially beneficial features for the host carried by prophages were identified. The prophages carry up to 3 different phage defence systems per genome that are potentially functional in protecting the host from foreign phage infection. We suggest that the presumably defective prophages are a result of bacteria-phage coevolution and could convey advantages to host bacteria.

    Rod-shaped polypeptide nanoparticles for siRNA delivery
    Li, Dan ; Li, Xin ; Bai, Jie ; Liu, Ying ; Vries, Renko de; Li, Yuan - \ 2021
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 166 (2021). - ISSN 0141-8130 - p. 401 - 408.
    Nanoparticles - Polypeptide - siRNA delivery

    Rod-shaped nanoparticles have been reported to exhibit improved cellular uptake, intracellular processing and transport through tissues and organs, as compared to spherical nanoparticles. We use C-S-B triblock polypeptides composed of a collagen-like block (C), a silk-like block (S) and an oligolysine domain (B) for one-dimensional co-assembly with siRNA into rod-shaped nanoparticles. Here we investigate these siRNA encapsulating rod-shaped nanoparticles as a gene delivery system. Uptake experiments for C-S-B and C-S-B/siPlk1 particles indicate that these rod-shaped nanoparticles can efficiently deliver siPlk1 into HeLa cells. Moreover, C-S-B/siPlk1 complexes display significant mPlk1 gene knockdown in a dose-dependent manner, causing apoptosis as intended. The lower effectiveness of C-S-B/siPlk1 in inducing cell death as compared to cationic lipid-based formulations is explained by the high lysosome-C-S-B/siPlk1 co-localization ratio, which will need to be addressed in a future redesign of polypeptide sequence. Overall, the non-toxic and unique rod-shaped C-S-B nanoparticles deserve further optimization as a new siRNA delivery system for cancer therapy.

    Are the planning targets of liquid biofuel development achievable in China under climate change?
    Yan, Dan ; Liu, Litao ; Li, Jinkai ; Wu, Jiaqian ; Qin, Wei ; Werners, Saskia E. - \ 2021
    Agricultural Systems 186 (2021). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Climate change - Liquid biofuels - Marginal land - Non-grain energy crops
    Liquid biofuels from non-grain energy crops on marginal land could become an important substitute of gasoline in the transport sector, and offer the possibility to reduce competition with food crops for land resources. However, the cultivation of energy crops is facing profound challenges due to changing temperature and precipitation in the future. To assess the impact of climate change on the potential of liquid biofuels on marginal land in China, this study used a geographic information system-based approach combined with multiple factor analysis to identify the spatial distribution of marginal land suitable for nine major energy crops in China. Climate scenarios were generated based on bias-corrected results of five different climate models under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and 8.5). Results show that climate change is projected to have a substantial impact on the land availability for biofuel production in the 2050s under both RCPs. The total amount of marginal land suitable for energy crops was 170.2 million hectares for the period of 2010–2019, and would increase in the 2050s under both RCPs. The changing pattern of area are similar under both RCP 2.6 and 8.5, only the magnitude is different. All the species are projected to have a northward spread in China. The amount of marginal land suitable for all the energy crops is projected to increase in the 2050s, except for Miscanthus floridulus, and Miscanthus lutarioriparius under RCP 8.5. However, the potential productivity of the energy crops is projected to have a substantial decrease in the 2050s. The average yields of the energy crops are only about one fourth of their yields in the 2010s due to climate change. Combined with high costs of producing biofuels and numerous ecological tradeoffs, it is likely that liquid biofuels development using 1.5 and 2-generation energy crops does not have an optimistic perspective in China.
    Bee abundance and soil nitrogen availability interactively modulate apple quality and quantity in intensive agricultural landscapes of China
    Wu, Panlong ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Westphal, Catrin ; Wang, Meina ; Olhnuud, Aruhan ; Xu, Huanli ; Yu, Zhenrong ; Werf, Wopke van der; Liu, Yunhui - \ 2021
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 305 (2021). - ISSN 0167-8809
    Ecological intensification - Landscape composition - Pollinator - Robinia forests
    Bees provide important pollination services for crops, but pollination limitation is a common problem in agricultural landscapes worldwide. To promote ecological intensification in fruit production, more knowledge is needed concerning the interacting effects of insect pollination services and soil fertility on crop quality and quantity. We investigated the effects of three pollination treatments (open, self and hand pollination) on apple quantity and quality parameters. We also analyzed the effects of bee abundance (wild bees and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera)) and soil nitrogen on fruit quantity and quality, and the responses of bee abundance and species richness to landscape metrics. Apple fruit set and yield of open pollinated flowers increased by 57 % and 25 t/ha (compared to bagged controls), respectively. Hand pollination further enhanced yields by 7 t/ha (compared to open pollination; i.e. to 39 t/ha), indicating pollination limitation in the orchards. Seed number was highest in open pollinated fruits, and increased with bee abundance if soil nitrogen was low, but decreased with bee abundance at high nitrogen levels, possibly due to higher flower density resulting in pollinator dilution effects. Higher seed numbers reduced the proportion of deformed apples and thus increased fruit quality. The percent of surrounding semi-natural habitats positively affected species richness of wild bees in apple orchards. We conclude that yield and quality of apples may benefit from ecological intensification comprising the augmentation of wild bees by semi-natural habitat and lowering of fertilizer inputs.
    CropBooster-P Deliverable No. D2.3 Consumer impact working paper
    Cornelissen, M. ; Davies, J.A.C. ; Duchesne, R. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Guichaoua, A. ; Jorasch, P. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Lemarie, S. ; Liu, L. ; Małyska, Aleksandra ; Menary, J. ; Nair, A. ; Nanda, Amrit Kaur ; Rufino, M.C. ; Stetkiewicz, S. ; Wilhelm, R. - \ 2020
    CropBooster-P Deliverable No. D2.2 Business Impact Working
    Cornelissen, M. ; Davies, J.A.C. ; Duchesne, R. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Guichaoua, A. ; Jorasch, P. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Lemarie, S. ; Liu, L. ; Małyska, Aleksandra ; Menary, J. ; Nair, A. ; Nanda, Amrit Kaur ; Rufino, M.C. ; Stetkiewicz, S. ; Wilhelm, R. - \ 2020
    CropBooster-P Deliverable No. D2.1 Agricultural production impact working paper
    Cornelissen, M. ; Davies, J.A.C. ; Duchesne, R. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Guichaoua, A. ; Jorasch, P. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Lemarie, S. ; Liu, L. ; Małyska, Aleksandra ; Menary, J. ; Nair, A. ; Nanda, Amrit Kaur ; Rufino, M.C. ; Stetkiewicz, S. ; Wilhelm, R. - \ 2020
    携手共创生鲜冷链的创新答案 / Finding innovation answer together for fresh cold chain
    Liu, Zhen - \ 2020
    This is invited speak at Global Cold Chain Summit on 5th of August 2020, which is organized by Cold Chain Logistic Committee of China Federation of Logistics & Purchasing. The speak aims to introduce the role and technologies that WUR contribute to the industrial collaboration in cold chain logisitc.
    产业视角下技术如何赋能生鲜农产品供应链
    Liu, Zhen - \ 2020
    China is largest vegetable and fruit production country and also face the challenge of largest food loss and reduce, the Netherlands is strong in the horticultural sector with strong technology solutions in the whole fresh chain. This talk is to share the successful example how the post-harvest technologies from WFBR can help to improve and bring competitive strengths to the Dutch horticultural sector/
    Metabolomics reveals the within-plant spatial effects of shading on tea plants
    Zhang, Qunfeng ; Liu, Meiya ; Mumm, R. ; Vos, C.H. de; Ruan, Jianyun - \ 2020
    Tree Physiology (2020). - ISSN 0829-318X
    It is well known that green tea made from fully developed leaves located at the base of young shoots is of lower quality than that made from the still developing leaves located on the top of the shoot. It has additionally been shown that plant shading can significantly improve green tea quality. Here, we aimed to get more insight into the effects of shading on the overall metabolome in different parts of the tea shoots. To do this, field-grown tea plants were shaded by coverage with either a straw layer or a black net, both blocking the daylight intensity for more than 90%. Both the first (i.e. still developing) leaf and the fourth (i.e. fully developed) leaf, as well as the stem of young shoots were harvested and subjected to complementary untargeted metabolomics approaches, using accurate mass LC-Orbitrap-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) for profiling both semi-polar and lipid-soluble compounds and GC-TOF-MS for profiling polar compounds. In total, 1419 metabolites were detected. Shading resulted in a decreased ratio of polyphenols to amino acids (which improves the quality of green tea) and lower levels of galloylated catechins in the shoots. The positive effect of shading on the amino acid/catechin ratio was more pronounced in the fully developed (fourth) than in the developing (first) leaves. Furthermore, many metabolites, especially organic acids, carbohydrates and amino acids, showed differential or opposite responses to the shading treatments between the three shoot tissues investigated, suggesting a within-plant spatial regulation or transport/redistribution of carbon and nitrogen resources between the tissues of the growing young shoots. This work provides new insight into the spatial effects of shading on tea plants, which could further help to increase tea quality by improving cultivation measures for plant shading.
    Determination and Metrics for Emerging Risks Identification DEMETER: Final Report
    Meijer, Nathan ; Filter, Matthias ; Józwiak, Ákos ; Willems, Don ; Frewer, Lynn ; Fischer, Arnout ; Liu, Ningjing ; Bouzembrak, Yamine ; Valentin, Lars ; Fuhrmann, Marcel ; Mylord, Teresa ; Kerekes, Kata ; Farkas, Zsuzsa ; Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni ; Clark, Beth ; Coles, David ; Comber, Rob ; Simpson, Emma ; Marvin, Hans - \ 2020
    EFSA Supporting Publications 17 (2020)7. - ISSN 2397-8325
    Identification of emerging risks in the food chain is essential if EFSA is to anticipate future needs in risk assessment, in relation to both data and methodology. The objectives and research proposed in the DEMETER project were specifically designed to support current (and future) EFSA procedures for emerging issue and risks identification by providing community resourcesto allow EFSA and EU Member State authorities to share data, knowledge and methods on emerging risks identification in a rapid and effective manner through a digital platform. To this end, an “Emerging Risk Knowledge Exchange Platform (ERKEP)” was developed as a prototype technical solution. Its design is based on a consultation on end‐users needs and the analysis of existing knowledge sharing solutions. ERKEP consists of three main components: 1) A content management system (CMS) providing the end‐user's “entry point” and Graphical User Interface (GUI) to ERKEP; 2) A web‐based data analytics platform (DAP) for sharing and executing data analytics workflows (DAWs), based on the KNIME Server infrastructure; 3) External web‐based services hosted by 3rd party service providers. Different DAWs were developed and added to the platform, these are: 1) Emerging risk identification system for the milk supply chain based on automated data retrieval; 2) NewsRadar; 3)Trending topics in news based on text mining and network analysis, and;4) Patent network analysis. Methodologies were identified to integrate social science information and data, into the emerging risk identification framework. Systematic reviews of the literature wereconducted in the areas of expert elicitation, citizen science, and behavioural science and a framework to incorporate data from Citizen Science into the EKREP platform was proposed. Finally, sustainability and maintenance of the project's outputs were conceptualized to enable use thereof beyond project DEMETER.
    Interindividual Differences in Human Intestinal Microbial Conversion of (-)-Epicatechin to Bioactive Phenolic Compounds
    Liu, Chen ; Vervoort, Jacques ; Beekmann, Karsten ; Baccaro, Marta ; Kamelia, Lenny ; Wesseling, Sebas ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2020
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)48. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 14168 - 14181.
    (-)-epicatechin - interindividual differences - microbial metabolism - microbiota - phenyl-γ-valerolactones

    To quantify interindividual differences in the human intestinal microbial metabolism of (-)-epicatechin (EC), in vitro anaerobic incubations with fecal inocula from 24 healthy donors were conducted. EC-derived colonic microbial metabolites were qualitatively and quantitively analyzed by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-TQ-MS) and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Quantitative microbiota characterization was achieved by 16S rRNA analysis. The results obtained show 1-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2″,4″,6″-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propanol (3,4-diHPP-2-ol) and 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (3,4-diHPV) to be key intermediate microbial metabolites of EC and also revealed the substantial interindividual differences in both the rate of EC conversion and the time-dependent EC metabolite pattern. Furthermore, substantial differences in microbiota composition among different individuals were detected. Correlations between specific microbial phylotypes and formation of certain metabolites were established. It is concluded that interindividual differences in the intestinal microbial metabolism of EC may contribute to interindividual differences in potential health effects of EC-abundant dietary foods or drinks.

    Global Carbon Budget 2020
    Friedlingstein, Pierre ; O'Sullivan, Michael ; Jones, Matthew W. ; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Hauck, Judith ; Olsen, Are ; Peters, Glen P. ; Peters, Wouter ; Pongratz, Julia ; Sitch, Stephen ; Quéré, Corinne Le; Canadell, Josep G. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Alin, Simone ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Arneth, Almut ; Arora, Vivek ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Becker, Meike ; Benoit-Cattin, Alice ; Bittig, Henry C. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bultan, Selma ; Chandra, Naveen ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise P. ; Evans, Wiley ; Florentie, Liesbeth ; Forster, Piers M. ; Gasser, Thomas ; Gehlen, Marion ; Gilfillan, Dennis ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Gregor, Luke ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Harris, Ian ; Hartung, Kerstin ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Jain, Atul K. ; Joetzjer, Emilie ; Kadono, Koji ; Kato, Etsushi ; Kitidis, Vassilis ; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Liu, Zhu ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Marland, Gregg ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Munro, David R. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro ; Niwa, Yosuke ; O'Brien, Kevin ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Palmer, Paul I. ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Resplandy, Laure ; Robertson, Eddy ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Schwinger, Jörg ; Séférian, Roland ; Skjelvan, Ingunn ; Smith, Adam J.P. ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Tanhua, Toste ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Werf, Guido Van Der; Vuichard, Nicolas ; Walker, Anthony P. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Watson, Andrew J. ; Willis, David ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Yuan, Wenping ; Yue, Xu ; Zaehle, Sönke - \ 2020
    Earth System Science Data 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 3269 - 3340.

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate the "global carbon budget" is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1s. For the last decade available (2010 2019), EFOS was 9.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 excluding the cement carbonation sink (9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 1.6 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1. For the same decade, GATM was 5.1 ± 0.02 GtC yr-1 (2.4 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.6 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.4 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of -0.1 GtC yr-1 indicating a near balance between estimated sources and sinks over the last decade. For the year 2019 alone, the growth in EFOS was only about 0.1 % with fossil emissions increasing to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 excluding the cement carbonation sink (9.7 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 1.8 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, for total anthropogenic CO2 emissions of 11.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1 (42.2 ± 3.3 GtCO2). Also for 2019, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1 (2.5 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.6 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.1 ± 1.2 GtC yr-1, with a BIM of 0.3 GtC. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 409.85 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2019. Preliminary data for 2020, accounting for the COVID-19-induced changes in emissions, suggest a decrease in EFOS relative to 2019 of about -7 % (median estimate) based on individual estimates from four studies of -6 %, -7 %, -7 % (-3 % to -11 %), and -13 %. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959 2019, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from diverse approaches and observations shows (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land-use change emissions over the last decade, (2) a persistent low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) an apparent discrepancy between the different methods for the ocean sink outside the tropics, particularly in the Southern Ocean. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Friedlingstein et al., 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, a, 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2020 (Friedlingstein et al., 2020).

    Soil nutrients, canopy gaps and topography affect liana distribution in a tropical seasonal rain forest in southwestern China
    Liu, Q. ; Sterck, F.J. ; Medina Vega, J.A. ; Qing Sha, Li ; Cao, Min ; Bongers, F. ; Zhang, Jiao Lin ; Poorter, L. - \ 2020
    Journal of Vegetation Science (2020). - ISSN 1100-9233
    Questions Lianas are a conspicuous element of tropical forests but have largely been ignored in species‐level vegetation surveys. As a result, there is limited understanding of how environmental factors structure liana communities. Location A 20‐ha forest dynamics plot in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, southwestern China. Methods We evaluated the distribution of the 50 most abundant liana species, comprising >18,000 individuals, in the 20‐ha forest plot. Ordination analysis and generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate how species distribution and abundance are associated with soil pH, soil phosphorus (P), soil nitrogen (N), and soil potassium (K), canopy gaps and topography. We calculated the average weighted distribution as a proxy for the optimum resource condition for each species. Results The first two axes of a canonical correspondence analysis explained 65% of the variation in liana species composition, with pH and P being the strongest drivers and highly correlated with each other. We modelled the responses of liana species to soil nutrients, and found a negative, unimodal or positive response of liana abundance with increasing soil nutrient concentrations. Forty‐six of the 50 species occurred under significantly higher or lower soil nutrient conditions than expected at random. Lianas mainly separated along the P gradient, whereas for N and K most liana species tended to occupy locations with high nutrient concentrations. Conclusions Although lianas are thought to be notoriously light‐demanding, soil conditions were stronger drivers of liana species distribution than gaps. Species differences in distributions were mainly driven by soil gradients in pH and P, highlighting the importance of soil nutrient status for liana niche partitioning in wet tropical forests on highly weathered soils. Most liana species had high resource requirements for N, K and light, which come along with their fast growth and acquisitive resource use strategy. Hence, below‐ground resource availability plays an important role in shaping the assembly of liana communities.
    Orsay virus infection reduces outcrossing behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans males
    Sluijs, Lisa van; Liu, Jie ; Schrama, Mels ; Hamond, Sanne van; Vromans, Sophie ; Scholten, Marèl ; Žibrat, Nika ; Riksen, Joost ; Sterken, Mark ; Pijlman, Gorben ; Kammenga, Jan - \ 2020
    Atmosphere-ocean interactions and their footprint on heat transport variability in the northern hemisphere
    Liu, Yang ; Attema, Jisk ; Hazeleger, Wilco - \ 2020
    Journal of Climate 33 (2020)9. - ISSN 0894-8755 - p. 3691 - 3710.

    Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean play a crucial role in redistributing energy, thereby maintaining the energy balance of the climate system. Here, we examine the compensation between the atmosphere and ocean's heat transport variations. Motivated by previous studies with mostly numerical climate models, this so-called Bjerknes compensation is studied using reanalysis datasets. We find that atmospheric energy transport (AMET) and oceanic energy transport (OMET) variability generally agree well among the reanalysis datasets. With multiple reanalysis products, we show that Bjerknes compensation is present at almost all latitudes from 40° to 70°N in the Northern Hemisphere from interannual to decadal time scales. The compensation rates peak at different latitudes across different time scales, but they are always located in the subtropical and subpolar regions. Unlike some experiments with numerical climate models, which attribute the compensation to the variation of transient eddy transports in response to the changes of OMET at multidecadal time scales, we find that the response of mean flow to the OMET variability leads to the Bjerknes compensation, and thus the shift of the Ferrel cell at midlatitudes at decadal time scales in winter. This cell itself is driven by the eddy momentum flux. The oceanic response to AMET variations is primarily wind driven. In summer, there is hardly any compensation and the proposed mechanism is not applicable. Given the short historical records, we cannot determine whether the ocean drives the atmospheric variations or the reverse.

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