Types and characteristics of urban green & blue spaces having an impact on human mental health and wellbeing : Methods Protocol, Knowledge assessment and synthesis
Andreucci, Maria Beatrice ; Vries, S. de; Marselle, Melissa R. ; Olszewska-Guizzo, Agnieszka ; Keune, Hans ; O'Brien, L. ; Russo, A. ; Remmen, Roy ; Davies, Zoe ; Livoreil, Barbara ; Beute, Femke ; Lammel, Annamaria - \ 2019
EKLIPSE - 13 p.
Working Group (EKLIPSE EWG) was formed to answer the following question: “Which types of urban and suburban blue and green spaces and which characteristics (components) of such spaces have a significant impact on human mental health and wellbeing?”. The answer will be provided by examining the scientific literature. Financial support from the World Health Organization (WHO), adding to that initially provided by EKLIPSE, will allow the EWG to conduct two separate systematic reviews (one for blue spaces and one for green spaces).
Previous reviews have been focused on the local amount and availability of, or access to, green (and to a much lesser extent) blue space. The current systematic reviews will be unique in that they focus on the mental health benefits of the type of green (and blue) space and of its distinct characteristics (components).
Each systematic reviews will follow six consecutive stages: 1) eligibility criteria for the articles will be formulated, 2) a systematic search strategy will be employed to yield relevant articles, 3) meta-data will be extracted and coded for each eligible study, 4) each study will be critically appraised, 5) a narrative and descriptive synthesis will be performed, and 6) outcomes of the synthesis will be discussed.
The main deliverable of the project will be two reports (blue and green), but will also include dissemination via oral presentations and each systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The outcomes of the systematic reviews will be aimed to inform and provide recommendations to (future) decision makers in several domains, such as health promotion, nature management, spatial policy, urban planning, and design.
Selecting appropriate methods of knowledge synthesis to inform biodiversity policy
Pullin, Andrew ; Frampton, Geoff ; Jongman, Rob ; Kohl, Christian ; Livoreil, Barbara ; Lux, Alexandra ; Pataki, György ; Petrokofsky, Gillian ; Podhora, Aranka ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Santamaria, Luis ; Schindler, Stefan ; Sousa-pinto, Isabel ; Vandewalle, Marie ; Wittmer, Heidi - \ 2016
Biodiversity and Conservation 25 (2016)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1285 - 1300.
Responding to different questions generated by biodiversity and ecosystem services policy or management requires different forms of knowledge (e.g. scientific, experiential) and knowledge synthesis. Additionally, synthesis methods need to be appropriate to policy context (e.g. question types, budget, timeframe, output type, required scientific rigour). In this paper we present a range of different methods that could potentially be used to conduct a knowledge synthesis in response to questions arising from knowledge needs of decision makers on biodiversity and ecosystem services policy and management. Through a series of workshops attended by natural and social scientists and decision makers we compiled a range of question types, different policy contexts and potential methodological approaches to knowledge synthesis. Methods are derived from both natural and social sciences fields and reflect the range of question and study types that may be relevant for syntheses. Knowledge can be available either in qualitative or quantitative form and in some cases also mixed. All methods have their strengths and weaknesses and we discuss a sample of these to illustrate the need for diversity and importance of appropriate selection. To summarize this collection, we present a table that identifies potential methods matched to different combinations of question types and policy contexts, aimed at assisting teams undertaking knowledge syntheses to select appropriate methods.
The Network of Knowledge approach: improving the science and society dialogue on biodiversity and ecosystem services in Europe
Nesshöver, Carsten ; Vandewalle, Marie ; Wittmer, Heidi ; Balian, Estelle V. ; Carmen, Esther ; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R. ; Görg, Christoph ; Jongman, Rob ; Livoreil, Barbara ; Santamaria, Luis ; Schindler, Stefan ; Settele, Josef ; Sousa Pinto, Isabel ; Török, Katalin ; Dijk, Jiska Van; Watt, Allan D. ; Young, Juliette C. ; Zulka, Klaus Peter - \ 2016
Biodiversity and Conservation 25 (2016)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1215 - 1233.
The absence of a good interface between scientific and other knowledge holders and decision-makers in the area of biodiversity and ecosystem services has been recognised for a long time. Despite recent advancements, e.g. with the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), challenges remain, particularly concerning the timely provision of consolidated views from different knowledge domains. To address this challenge, a strong and flexible networking approach is needed across knowledge domains and institutions. Here, we report on a broad consultation process across Europe to develop a Network of Knowledge on biodiversity and ecosystem services (NoK), an approach aiming at (1) organising institutions and knowledge holders in an adaptable and responsive framework and (2) informing decision-makers with timely and accurate biodiversity knowledge. The consultation provided a critical analysis of the needs that should be addressed by a NoK and how it could complement existing European initiatives and institutions at the interface between policy and science. Among other functions, the NoK provides consolidated scientific views on contested topics, identification of research gaps to support relevant policies, and horizon scanning activities to anticipate emerging issues. The NoK includes a capacity building component on interfacing activities and contains mechanisms to ensure its credibility, relevance and legitimacy. Such a network would need to ensure credibility, relevance and legitimacy of its work by maximizing transparency and flexibility of processes, quality of outputs, the link to data and knowledge provision, the motivation of experts for getting involved and sound communication and capacity building.
Comparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol
Petrokofsky, Gillian ; Sist, Plinio ; Blanc, Lilian ; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Finegan, Bryan ; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie ; Healey, John R. ; Livoreil, Barbara ; Nasi, Robert ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Putz, Francis E. ; Zhou, Wen - \ 2015
Environmental Evidence 4 (2015). - ISSN 2047-2382 - 7 p.
Biodiversity - Conservation - Silviculture - Sustainable forest management - Tropical forests
Background: Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples. There has been a gradual impoverishment of forest resources inside selectively logged forests in which the volume of timber extracted over the first cutting cycle was mostly from large, old trees that matured over a century or more and grew in the absence of strong anthropological pressures. In forests now being logged for a second and third time, that volume has not been reconstituted due in part to the lack of implementation of post-logging silvicultural treatments. This depletion of timber stocks renders the degraded forests prone to conversion to other land uses. Although it is essential to preserve undisturbed primary forests through the creation of protected areas, these areas alone will not be able to ensure the conservation of all species on a pan-tropical scale, for social, economic and political reasons. The conservation of tropical forests of tomorrow will mostly take place within human-modified (logged, domesticated) forests. In this context, silvicultural interventions are considered by many tropical foresters and forest ecologists as tools capable of effectively conserving tropical forest biodiversity and ecosystem services while stimulating forest production. This systematic review aims to assess past and current evidence of the impact of silviculture on tropical forests and to identify silvicultural practices appropriate for the current conditions in the forests and forestry sectors of the Congo Basin, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. Methods: This systematic review will undertake an extensive search of literature to assess the relative effectiveness of different silvicultural interventions on timber production and the conservation value of forests, and to determine whether there is a relationship between sustainability of timber harvesting and the maintenance/conservation of other ecosystem services and biodiversity in production forests. Data will be extracted for meta-analysis of at least sub-sets of the review questions. Findings are expected to help inform policy and develop evidence-based practice guidelines on silvicultural practices in tropical forests.