Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Harnessing the microbiome to control plant parasitic weeds
Masteling, Raul ; Lombard, Lorenzo ; Boer, Wietse de; Raaijmakers, Jos M. ; Dini-Andreote, Francisco - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Microbiology 49 (2019). - ISSN 1369-5274 - p. 26 - 33.

Microbiomes can significantly expand the genomic potential of plants, contributing to nutrient acquisition, plant growth promotion and tolerance to (a)biotic stresses. Among biotic stressors, root parasitic weeds (RPWs), mainly of the genera Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga, are major yield-limiting factors of a wide range of staple crops, particularly in developing countries. Here, we provide a conceptual synthesis of putative mechanisms by which soil and plant microbiomes could be harnessed to control RPWs. These mechanisms are partitioned in direct and indirect modes of action and discussed in the context of past and present studies on microbe-mediated suppression of RPWs. Specific emphasis is given to the large but yet unexplored potential of root-associated microorganisms to interfere with the chemical signalling cascade between the host plant and the RPWs. We further provide concepts and ideas for future research directions and prospective designs of novel control strategies.

Asgard archaea capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon cycling
Seitz, Kiley W. ; Dombrowski, Nina ; Eme, Laura ; Spang, Anja ; Lombard, Jonathan ; Sieber, Jessica R. ; Teske, Andreas P. ; Ettema, Thijs J.G. ; Baker, Brett J. - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723

Large reservoirs of natural gas in the oceanic subsurface sustain complex communities of anaerobic microbes, including archaeal lineages with potential to mediate oxidation of hydrocarbons such as methane and butane. Here we describe a previously unknown archaeal phylum, Helarchaeota, belonging to the Asgard superphylum and with the potential for hydrocarbon oxidation. We reconstruct Helarchaeota genomes from metagenomic data derived from hydrothermal deep-sea sediments in the hydrocarbon-rich Guaymas Basin. The genomes encode methyl-CoM reductase-like enzymes that are similar to those found in butane-oxidizing archaea, as well as several enzymes potentially involved in alkyl-CoA oxidation and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. We suggest that members of the Helarchaeota have the potential to activate and subsequently anaerobically oxidize hydrothermally generated short-chain hydrocarbons.

Proposal of the reverse flow model for the origin of the eukaryotic cell based on comparative analyses of Asgard archaeal metabolism
Spang, Anja ; Stairs, Courtney W. ; Dombrowski, Nina ; Eme, Laura ; Lombard, Jonathan ; Caceres, Eva F. ; Greening, Chris ; Baker, Brett J. ; Ettema, Thijs J.G. - \ 2019
Nature Microbiology 4 (2019). - ISSN 2058-5276 - p. 1138 - 1148.

The origin of eukaryotes represents an unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Current research suggests that eukaryotes evolved from a merger between a host of archaeal descent and an alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont. The discovery of the Asgard archaea, a proposed archaeal superphylum that includes Lokiarchaeota, Thorarchaeota, Odinarchaeota and Heimdallarchaeota suggested to comprise the closest archaeal relatives of eukaryotes, has helped to elucidate the identity of the putative archaeal host. Whereas Lokiarchaeota are assumed to employ a hydrogen-dependent metabolism, little is known about the metabolic potential of other members of the Asgard superphylum. We infer the central metabolic pathways of Asgard archaea using comparative genomics and phylogenetics to be able to refine current models for the origin of eukaryotes. Our analyses indicate that Thorarchaeota and Lokiarchaeota encode proteins necessary for carbon fixation via the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway and for obtaining reducing equivalents from organic substrates. By contrast, Heimdallarchaeum LC2 and LC3 genomes encode enzymes potentially enabling the oxidation of organic substrates using nitrate or oxygen as electron acceptors. The gene repertoire of Heimdallarchaeum AB125 and Odinarchaeum indicates that these organisms can ferment organic substrates and conserve energy by coupling ferredoxin reoxidation to respiratory proton reduction. Altogether, our genome analyses suggest that Asgard representatives are primarily organoheterotrophs with variable capacity for hydrogen consumption and production. On this basis, we propose the ‘reverse flow model’, an updated symbiogenetic model for the origin of eukaryotes that involves electron or hydrogen flow from an organoheterotrophic archaeal host to a bacterial symbiont.

Phylogeny and genetic diversity of the banana Fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in the Indonesian centre of origin
Maryani, N. ; Lombard, L. ; Poerba, Y.S. ; Subandiyah, S. ; Crous, P.W. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 155 - 194.
11 New taxa - Morphology - New species - Panama disease - Pathogenicity - Tropical Race 4

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt or Panama disease on banana, is one of the major constraints in banana production worldwide. Indonesia is the centre of origin for wild and cultivated bananas, which likely co-evolved with Foc. This study explored the widest possible genetic diversity of Foc by sampling across Indonesia at 34 geographically and environmentally different locations in 15 provinces at six islands. This resulted in a comprehensive collection of ∼200 isolates from 40 different local banana varieties. Isolates were identified and assessed using sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor-1alpha (tef1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2). Phylogenetic analyses of these genes allowed the identification of 180 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), and 20 isolates of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC), the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), and the Fusarium sambucinum species complex (FSSC). Further analyses, incorporating a worldwide collection of Foc strains, revealed nine independent genetic lineages for Foc, and one novel clade in the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC). Selected isolates from each lineage were tested on the banana varieties Gros Michel and Cavendish to characterise their pathogenicity profiles. More than 65 % of the isolates were diagnosed as Tropical Race 4 (Foc-TR4) due to their pathogenicity to Cavendish banana, which supports the hypothesis that Foc-TR4 is of Indonesian origin. Nine independent genetic lineages for Foc are formally described in this study. This biodiversity has not been studied since the initial description of Foc in 1919. This study provides a detailed overview of the complexity of Fusarium wilt on banana and its diversity and distribution across Indonesia.

Genera of phytopathogenic fungi : GOPHY 2
Marin-Felix, Y. ; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Akulov, A. ; Carnegie, A.J. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Gramaje, D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Guarnaccia, V. ; Halleen, F. ; Lombard, L. ; Luangsa-ard, J. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Moslemi, A. ; Mostert, L. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Spies, C.F.J. ; Thangavel, R. ; Taylor, P.W.J. ; Wilson, A.M. ; Wingfield, B.D. ; Wood, A.R. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 47 - 133.
26 new taxa - DNA barcodes - Fungal systematics - Six new typifications

This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA barcodes for the currently accepted species are included. This second paper in the GOPHY series treats 20 genera of phytopathogenic fungi and their relatives including: Allantophomopsiella, Apoharknessia, Cylindrocladiella, Diaporthe, Dichotomophthora, Gaeumannomyces, Harknessia, Huntiella, Macgarvieomyces, Metulocladosporiella, Microdochium, Oculimacula, Paraphoma, Phaeoacremonium, Phyllosticta, Proxypiricularia, Pyricularia, Stenocarpella, Utrechtiana and Wojnowiciella. This study includes the new genus Pyriculariomyces, 20 new species, five new combinations, and six typifications for older names.

State of Rebellion: Violence and Intervention in the Central African Republic by Louisa Lombard
Vries, Lotje De - \ 2017
The Journal of Modern African Studies 55 (2017)4. - ISSN 0022-278X - p. 713 - 714.
First Report of Neonectria candida Causing Postharvest Decay on ‘Conference’ Pears in the Netherlands
Wenneker, M. ; Pham, K.T.K. ; Lemmers, M.E.C. ; Boer, F.A. De; Lans, A.M. Van Der; Leeuwen, P.J. Van; Hollinger, T.C. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2016
Plant Disease 100 (2016)8. - ISSN 0191-2917 - p. 1787 - 1787.
Pear (Pyrus communis) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 349,000 tons in 2014, and ‘Conference’ is the main pear cultivar that occupies 75% of the total pear production area. In the Netherlands, pears are kept in controlled atmosphere cold storage up to 11 months after harvest. Occasionally, storage rots are observed when storage crates are contaminated with orchard soil. In a storage trial (2012 to 2013), boxes with ‘Conference’ pears were amended with soil particles from the same orchard from which the pears were harvested (four orchards), and stored for 11 months. Boxes without amended soil were included as controls. In contrast to the control boxes, up to 15% of the pears stored in boxes with soil particles showed typical rot symptoms (lesions) of an unknown causal agent. The lesions showed brown and watery circular necrosis, were slightly sunken, and displayed whitish to yellowish mycelia covering the lesions. To isolate the causal agent, fruit were rinsed with sterile water, lesions were sprayed with 70% ethanol until droplet runoff, the skin was removed aseptically with a scalpel, and tissue under the lesion was isolated and placed onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). The PDA plates were incubated at 20°C in the dark, and single spore isolates were transferred to fresh PDA plates. These isolates produced fast-growing colonies with white-yellowish mycelium. Conidia were hyaline, cylindrical, 1 to 3 septate, and 15.8 to 26.4 × 5.3 to 7.9 µm. The fungus was morphologically identical to Neonectria candida (syn. N. ramulariae; anamorph Cylindrocarpon obtusiusculum) (Lombard et al. 2015). The identity of a representative isolate (VTN10Bs3) was confirmed by means of multilocus gene sequencing. To this end, genomic DNA was extracted using the LGC Mag Plant Kit (Berlin, Germany) in combination with the Kingfisher method (Waltham, USA). Sequences of the ITS region, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), and actin (ACT2) loci were amplified, sequenced, and deposited in GenBank under accessions KU588183 (ITS), KU588186 (TEF1), and KU588184 (ACT2). MegaBLAST analysis revealed that our ITS, TEF1, and ACT2 sequences matched with >99 to 100% identity to N. candida isolates in GenBank (KM249079 and JF735314 [ITS], JF735791 and HM054091 [TEF1], and KM231146 [ACT2]). Subsequently, Koch’s postulates were performed on 15 ‘Conference’ pears. Surface sterilized fruits were inoculated with 20 µl of a suspension of 105 conidiospores ml–1 water, prepared from a 15-day-old PDA culture, after wounding with a needle. Inoculated fruits were sealed in a plastic bag and incubated in darkness at 20°C. Symptoms appeared after 7 days on 100% of the fruits while mock-inoculated controls with water remained symptomless. Fungal colonies isolated from the lesions and cultured on PDA morphologically resembled the original isolate from the infected pears. Moreover, symptoms observed on artificially inoculated ‘Conference’ pear fruit were identical to the decay observed on ‘Conference’ pears that were obtained from the cold storage experiment. The identity of the reisolations was confirmed as N. candida by sequencing. N. candida (syn. N. ramulariae) is known as a globally distributed soilborne fungus (Domsch et al. 2007), but only few studies have identified the fungus as plant pathogen (Hirooka 2012). This is the first report of N. candida causing storage rot of pears. Importantly, we note that the occurrence of storage rots may be enhanced by contamination of storage crates or fruit with orchard soil.
Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae
Lombard, L. ; Houbraken, J. ; Decock, C. ; Samson, R.A. ; Meijer, M. ; Réblová, M. ; Groenewald, Johannes Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2016
Persoonia 36 (2016)JUNE. - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 156 - 246.
Biodegraders - Generic concept - Human and plant pathogens - Indoor mycobiota - Multi-gene phylogeny - Species concept - Taxonomy

The family Stachybotriaceae was recently introduced to include the genera Myrothecium, Peethambara and Stachybotrys. Members of this family include important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. However, the generic boundaries in Stachybotriaceae are still poorly defined, as type material and sequence data are not readily available for taxonomic studies. To address this issue, we performed multi-locus phylogenetic analyses using partial gene sequences of the 28S large subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA (ITS), the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), calmodulin (cmdA), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) and β-tubulin (tub2) for all available type and authentic strains. Supported by morphological characters these data resolved 33 genera in the Stachybotriaceae. These included the nine already established genera Albosynnema, Alfaria, Didymostilbe, Myrothecium, Parasarcopodium, Peethambara, Septomyrothecium, Stachybotrys and Xepicula. At the same time the generic names Melanopsamma, Memnoniella and Virgatospora were resurrected. Phylogenetic inference further showed that both the genera Myrothecium and Stachybotrys are polyphyletic resulting in the introduction of 13 new genera with myrothecium-like morphology and eight new genera with stachybotrys-like morphology.

Caulicolous Botryosphaeriales from Thailand
Trakunyingcharoen, T. ; Lombard, L. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; To-Anun, C. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2015
Persoonia 34 (2015). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 87 - 99.
Aplosporella - Botryosphaeriaceae - Diplodia - Lasiodiplodia - Multigene phylogeny - Pseudofusicoccum - Sexual morph - Systematics

Members of Botryosphaeriales are commonly encountered as endophytes or pathogens of various plant hosts. The Botryosphaeriaceae represents the predominant family within this order, containing numerous species associated with canker and dieback disease on a wide range of woody hosts. During the course of routine surveys from various plant hosts in Thailand, numerous isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae, including Aplosporellaceae were collected. Isolates were subsequently identified based on a combination of morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of a combined dataset of the ITS and EF1-α gene regions. The resulting phylogenetic tree revealed 11 well-supported clades, correlating with different members of Botryosphaeriales. Other than confirming the presence of taxa such as Lasiodiplodia theobromae, L. pseudotheobromae and Neofusicoccum parvum, new records for Thailand include Pseudofusicoccum adansoniae and P. ardesiacum. Furthermore, four novel species are described, namely Diplodia neojuniperi from Juniperus chinensis, Lasiodiplodia thailandica from Mangifera indica, Pseudofusicoccum artocarpi and Aplosporella artocarpi from Artocarpus heterophyllus, while a sexual morph is also newly reported for L. gonubiensis. Further research is presently underway to determine the pathogenicity and relative importance of these species on different woody hosts in Thailand.

Proteomic and biochemical studies of lysine malonylation suggest its malonic aciduria-associated regulatory role in mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation
Colak, G. ; Pougovkina, O. ; Dai, L. ; Tan, M. ; Brinke, H. te; Huang, H. ; Wanders, R.J. ; Locasale, J.W. ; Lombard, D.B. ; Boer, V.C.J. de; Zhao, Y. - \ 2015
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics 14 (2015)11. - ISSN 1535-9476 - p. 3056 - 3071.
Proteomic - lysine malonylation - mitochondrial function - fatty acid oxydation
The protein substrates of sirtuin 5-regulated lysine malonylation (Kmal) remain unknown, hindering its functional analysis. In this study, we carried out proteomic screening, which identified 4042 Kmal sites on 1426 proteins in mouse liver and 4943 Kmal sites on 1822 proteins in human fibroblasts. Increased malonyl-CoA levels in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD)-deficient cells induces Kmal levels in substrate proteins. We identified 461 Kmal sites showing more than a 2-fold increase in response to MCD deficiency as well as 1452 Kmal sites detected only in MCD−/− fibroblast but not MCD+/+ cells, suggesting a pathogenic role of Kmal in MCD deficiency. Cells with increased lysine malonylation displayed impaired mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation, suggesting that lysine malonylation plays a role in pathophysiology of malonic aciduria. Our study establishes an association between Kmal and a genetic disease and offers a rich resource for elucidating the contribution of the Kmal pathway and malonyl-CoA to cellular physiology and human diseases.
Lineages in Nectriaceae: Generic status of Fusarium
Lombard, L. ; Merwe, N. van der; Groenewald, E. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2015
Gewasbescherming 46 (2015)1. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 18 - 18.
Lineages in Nectriaceae: re-evaluating the generic status of Ilyonectria and allied genera
Lombard, L. ; Merwe, N.A. Van Der; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
Phytopathologia Mediterranea 53 (2014)3. - ISSN 0031-9465 - p. 515 - 532.
black foot disease - cylindrocarpon-destructans - phylogenetic-relationships - multigene analysis - sp nov. - neonectria - rot - hypocreales - radicicola - grapevines
Genera with cylindrocarpon-like asexual morphs are important pathogens of various herbaceous and woody plant hosts globally. Recent multi-gene studies of this generic complex indicated that the genus Ilyonectria is paraphyletic. The present study was therefore initiated to re-evaluate the generic status of Ilyonectria and at the same time address some taxonomic irregularities in the genera Cylindrodendrum and Neonectria. Using multi-gene DNA data and morphological comparisons, the genus Dactylonectria is introduced with 10 new combinations, several of which were previously treated in Ilyonectria. Two new species, D. hordeicola and D. pinicola, are also described. Furthermore, one new combination is provided in the genus Cylindrodendrum, and three new combinations in the genus Neonectria, for species previously treated in the genera Acremonium, Cylindrocarpon, Nectria and Neonectria. The aquatic genus Heliscus is reduced to synonymy under Neonectria.
Diaporthe species associated with Vaccinium, with specific reference to Europe
Lombard, L. ; Leeuwen, G.C.M. van; Guarnaccia, V. ; Polizzi, G. ; Rijswick, P.C.J. van; Rosendahl, K.C.H.M. ; Gabler, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
Phytopathologia Mediterranea 53 (2014)2. - ISSN 0031-9465 - p. 287 - 299.
phomopsis-vaccinii - maximum-likelihood - south-africa - stem canker - blueberry - grapevines - cranberry - australafricana - inference - diseases
Species of the genus Vaccinium are commercially cultivated in Europe for their berries, which are highly valued for dietary and pharmaceutical properties. Cultivation is severely limited due to a range of fungal diseases, especially those caused by species of Diaporthe. A number of Diaporthe isolates have been collected from Vaccinium growing regions in Europe, and initially identified as D. vaccinii based on host association. Using DNA sequence inference of the combined ß-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA, along with morphological characteristics, six species were characterised. Diaporthe eres, D. vaccinii and D. viticola are known species and three novel taxa are described here as D. asheicola, D. baccae and D. sterilis. This study is the first confirmed report of D. vaccinii in Latvia and the Netherlands.
Botryosphaeriaceae associated with diseases of mango (Mangifera indica)
Trakunyingcharoen, T. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; To-anun, C. ; Crous, P.W. ; Niekerk, J.M. van; Lombard, L. - \ 2014
Australasian Plant Pathology 43 (2014)4. - ISSN 0815-3191 - p. 425 - 438.
1st report - south-africa - neofusicoccum-mediterraneum - phylogenetic inference - gene genealogies - fruit rot - lasiodiplodia - dieback - trees - morphology
Fungal species of Botryosphaeriaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution and are important pathogens of a wide range of plant hosts. This study aims to use phylogenetic inference to review the geographical distribution of botryosphaeriacous species that have been associated with diseases of mango (Mangifera indica) globally. The phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the combined sequence datasets of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA and a partial region of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-a) gene. The phylogenetic study revealed seven clades with distinct morphological characters from several countries, including Australia, Brazil, Egypt, Iran, Mali, Peru, South Africa, Taiwan and Thailand. Lasiodiplodia theobromae appears to be a dominant species on mango with the largest geographical distribution, whereas L. crassispora and Barriopsis iraniana have only been reported on mango in Brazil and Iran, respectively. These finding indicate that most of the species reported from mango are not restricted to specific geographical regions, although some genera appear to have a limited distribution.
Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum
Lombard, L. ; Serrato-Diaz, L.M. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; French-Monar, R.D. ; Decock, C. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
Persoonia 32 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 127 - 140.
nectriaceae hypocreales - 1st report - fruit rot - bionectriaceae - bulbilium - anamorph - rambutan - fungi
Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the ß-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (ß-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) and morphological comparisons, the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocephalotrichum was re-evaluated. As a result five species are newly described, namely G. humicola (Taiwan, soil), G. mexicanum (rambutan fruit from Mexico), G. nephelii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala), G. queenslandicum (Australia, endophytic isolations) and G. simmonsii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala). Although species of Gliocephalotrichum are generally not regarded as important plant pathogens, their ability to cause post-harvest fruit rot could have an impact on fruit export and storage.
Fungal Planet description sheets: 214–280
Crous, P.W. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Bank, M. van der; Zhang, Y. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Guarro, J. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Wood, A.R. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Braun, U. ; Cano-Lira, J.F. ; Garcia, D. ; Marin-Felix, Y. ; Alvarado, P. ; Andrade, J.P. ; Armengol, J. ; Assefa, A. ; Breeÿen, A. den; Camele, I. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Souza, J.T. De; Duong, T.A. ; Esteve-Raventós, F. ; Fournier, J. ; Frisullo, S. ; García-Jiménez, J. ; Gardiennet, A. ; Gené, J. ; Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Hirooka, Y. ; Hospenthal, D.R. ; King, A. ; Lechat, C. ; Lombard, L. ; Mang, S.M. ; Marbach, P.A.S. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Montaño-Mata, N.J. ; Moreno, G. ; Perez, C.A. ; Pérez Sierra, A.M. ; Robertson, J.L. ; Roux, J. ; Rubio, E. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Stchigel, A.M. ; Sutton, D.A. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Thompson, E.H. ; Vanderlinde, E. ; Walker, A.K. ; Walker, D.M. ; Wickes, B.L. ; Wong, P.T.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2014
Persoonia 32 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 184 - 306.
sp-nov - phylogeny reveals - eucalyptus-microfungi - host-associations - gene phylogeny - sequence data - diaporthales - morphology - gnomoniaceae - conioscypha
Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Marasmius vladimirii from leaf litter (India), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
Calonectria diseases on ornamental plants in Europe and the Mediterranean Basion: an overview
Vitale, A. ; Crous, P.W. ; Lombard, L. ; Polizzi, G. - \ 2013
Journal of plant pathology - Formerly Rivista di patologia vegetale 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 1125-4653 - p. 463 - 476.
cylindrocladium-crotalariae microsclerotia - forest tree nurseries - 1st report - root-rot - leaf-spot - crown rot - feijoa-sellowiana - soil-temperature - mastic tree - damping-off
Species of Calonectria and their cylindrocladium-like asexual morphs are important plant pathogens of agronomic and forestry crops, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Calonectria species have been associated with a wide range of disease symptoms on a large number of plant hosts. On horticultural crops, most records of Calonectria species come from the Northern Hemisphere, where they occur mainly in gardens and ornamental nurseries. In Europe and the Mediterranean basin, several species are widespread in nurseries and cause extensive damage to ornamental plants. In the past, identification of species was based on phenotypic characters and sexual compatibility using standardised media. More recently, morphological characteristics, phylogenetic studies (DNA sequence data of the ß-tubulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor-1a gene regions) and mating studies have revealed the presence of several cryptic species complexes that were formerly treated as single Calonectria species. These studies resulted in the introduction of several new species. Other studies aimed at understanding environmental sustainability focused attention on soil solarisation and biological control as means for controlling these pathogens. The potential use of biological control agents (BCAs) and chemicals for controlling Calonectria-induced diseases has recently been addressed. In this review we discuss the Calonectria species detected in Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and the disease management strategies. In view of the mandatory implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) for all European countries by 2014, this paper provides basic information as a platform for the adaptation of more sustainable integrated measures to control Calonectria diseases in European nurseries.
A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Phyllosticta (Botryosphaeriales)
Wikee, S. ; Lombard, L. ; Nakashima, C. ; Motohashi, K. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
Studies in Mycology 76 (2013)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 29.
citrus black spot - ribosomal dna - south-africa - fungus - banana - identification - eucalyptus - anamorph - vaccinii - nuclear
Phyllosticta is a geographically widespread genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a diverse host range. This study redefines Phyllosticta, and shows that it clusters sister to the Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales, Dothideomycetes), for which the older family name Phyllostictaceae is resurrected. In moving to a unit nomenclature for fungi, the generic name Phyllosticta was chosen over Guignardia in previous studies, an approach that we support here. We use a multigene DNA dataset of the ITS, LSU, ACT, TEF and GPDH gene regions to investigate 129 isolates of Phyllosticta, representing about 170 species names, many of which are shown to be synonyms of the ubiquitous endophyte P. capitalensis. Based on the data generated here, 12 new species are introduced, while epitype and neotype specimens are designated for a further seven species. One species of interest is P. citrimaxima associated with tan spot of Citrus maxima fruit in Thailand, which adds a fifth species to the citrus black spot complex. Previous morphological studies lumped many taxa under single names that represent complexes. In spite of this Phyllosticta is a species-rich genus, and many of these taxa need to be recollected in order to resolve their phylogeny and taxonomy.
Characterisation of Neofusicoccum species causing mango dieback in Italy
Ismail, A.M. ; Cirvilleri, G. ; Lombard, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Polizzi, G. - \ 2013
Journal of plant pathology - Formerly Rivista di patologia vegetale 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 1125-4653 - p. 549 - 557.
mangifera-indica - phylogenetic analysis - south-africa - 1st report - sp-nov - botryosphaeria - pathogenicity - lasiodiplodia - morphology - grapevine
Species of Botryosphaeriaceae are important fungal pathogens of mango worldwide. A survey of 11 mango orchards located in the provinces of Catania, Messina, Palermo and Ragusa (Sicily, southern Italy), resulted in the isolation of a large number (76) of Neofusicoccum isolates associated with decline and dieback symptoms. Isolates were identified based on morphology and DNA sequence data analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nrDNA and partial translation of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Two species of Neofusicoccum were identified, which included N. parvum and N. australe, the former of which was the dominant species. The high incidence in local orchards and the pathogenicity results indicate that N. parvum and N. australe are important pathogens of mango in Sicily where they may significantly limit mango production.
Phyllosticta capitalensis, a widespread endophyte of plants
Wikee, S. ; Lombard, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Nakashima, C. ; Motohashi, K. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Alias, S.A. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2013
Fungal Diversity 60 (2013)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 91 - 105.
citrus black spot - guignardia-citricarpa - fungal endophytes - natural-products - latent pathogens - musa-acuminata - woody-plants - diversity - thailand - banana
Phyllosticta capitalensis is an endophyte and weak plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution presently known from 70 plant families. This study isolated P. capitalensis from different host plants in northern Thailand, and determined their different life modes. Thirty strains of P. capitalensis were isolated as endophytes from 20 hosts. An additional 30 strains of P. capitalensis from other hosts and geographic locations were also obtained from established culture collections. Phylogenetic analysis using ITS, ACT and TEF gene data confirmed the identity of all isolates. Pathogenicity tests with five strains of P. capitalensis originating from different hosts were completed on their respective host plants. In all cases there was no infection of healthy leaves, indicating that this endophyte does not cause disease on healthy, unstressed host plants. That P. capitalensis is often isolated as an endophyte has important implications in fungal biology and plant health. Due to its endophytic nature, P. capitalensis is commonly found associated with lesions of plants, and often incorrectly identified as a species of quarantine importance, which again has implications for trade in agricultural and forestry production.
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