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A comparison study of five different methods to measure carotenoids in biofortified yellow cassava (Manihot esculenta)
Jaramillo, Angélica M. ; Londoño, Luis Fernando ; Orozco, Juan Camilo ; Patiño, Gelver ; Belalcazar, John ; Davrieux, Fabrice ; Talsma, Elise F. - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
The most commonly used method for measuring carotenoid concentration is high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nevertheless, easier, quicker, and less costly proxy methods exist. We aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of several proxy methods: the spectrophotometer, iCheck Carotene, and near-infrared spectroscopy using both a desktop (dNIRS) and a portable (pNIRS) device for the measurement of total carotenoid concentration (TCC) and all-trans-β-carotene concentration (trans-BC) in 30 fresh cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage roots in comparison with HPLC. The spectrophotometer presented the highest predictability for TCC, followed by iCheck, dNIRS, and pNIRS. The dNIRS showed the highest predictability and agreement for trans-BC. The pNIRS showed the poorest repeatability and greatest underestimations compared with HPLC. The agreement between all methods was lower for higher carotenoid concentration, with the exception of the spectrophotometer. According to our results, and for screening purposes, the measurement of carotenoids in fresh cassava roots can be carried out by spectrophotometer, iCheck Carotene and NIRS methods depending on the availability of equipment.
Scaling-up biofortified beans high in iron and zinc through the school-feeding program : A sensory acceptance study with schoolchildren from two departments in southwest Colombia
Beintema, Joni J.S. ; Gallego-Castillo, Sonia ; Londoño-Hernandez, Luis F. ; Restrepo-Manjarres, José ; Talsma, Elise F. - \ 2018
Food Science and Nutrition 6 (2018)4. - ISSN 2048-7177 - p. 1138 - 1145.
Beans - Biofortification - Colombia - Micronutrients - Sensory acceptability
Iron and zinc deficiencies are global health problems, affecting mostly pregnant women and young children. In 2016, biofortified iron and zinc beans were introduced in Colombia. The incorporation of biofortified beans into the national school-feeding program could facilitate adoption and potentially improve the nutritional status of large populations. However, biofortified beans have to be accepted in order to be consumed by populations. We therefore studied the sensory acceptability of two biofortified beans, BIO-101 and BIO-107, and local beans at schools with free feeding services in two departments of southwest Colombia. Measured on a five-point Likert scale, the mean overall scores were 3.88 ± 0.64, 3.79 ± 0.74, and 3.81 ± 0.76, for BIO-101, BIO-107, and the local bean varieties, respectively, without significant differences. The children in Piendamó (Cauca) slightly preferred BIO-107 over the local bean (p < .05) based on color, smell, and taste. The children in Caicedonia (Valle del Cauca) slightly favored the local bean over BIO-107 (p < .05), regarding size, smell, and taste. Overall acceptability in schoolchildren was good for all beans without significant differences. This study advocates incorporation of accepted biofortified beans in the school-feeding program, in order to reach large groups of schoolchildren and potentially improve their nutritional statuses.
Profiling of Nutritional and Health-Related Compounds in Oat Varieties
Broeck, H.C. van den; Londono Cardona, D.M. ; Timmer, R.D. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der - \ 2015
Foods — Open Access Food Science Journal 5 (2015)2. - ISSN 2304-8158 - 11 p.
The use of oats in the human diet has decreased over the past 70 years. This is an unfortunate development from the perspective of human health because oats have a high nutritional value and contain many compounds, including β-glucan, polyphenols, vitamins, and unsaturated fatty acids that are able to maintain or may even improve consumer’s health. In addition, oats fit into a gluten-free diet of celiac disease patients because they lack the T-cell stimulating epitopes from wheat, rye, and barley. We focused on the presence of health-related compounds in oats and how their levels vary among varieties in response to the type of soil. Ten oat varieties were grown in the Netherlands in sandy and clay soil and were analyzed for the presence and concentration of healthy compounds (β-glucan, fatty acids, vitamin E, and antioxidant activity), avenin composition, total protein and starch content, and agronomical characteristics. Principal component analysis showed that genetic background influenced the levels of all analyzed components. Protein, starch, β-glucan, and antioxidants were also affected by the type of soil. The obtained results showed that this kind of analysis can be used to profile oat varieties in general and enables the selection of specific varieties with specific compound characteristics.
Effect of kilning and milling on the dough-making properties of oat flour
Londono, D.M. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2015
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 63 (2015)2. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 960 - 965.
Oats are mostly used for porridges, flakes, and cereal breakfast. The current oat kilning and milling methods are suited for these purposes. Bread-making applications have been explored, but the bread quality results are far from optimal. The goals of this study were to determine whether infrared (IR) and steam kilning may impact dough rheology, and to assess if particle size distribution and bran content could impact dough properties. IR kilning had a negative effect on the dough-making properties of oat grains, resulting in a very stiff and short dough, while steam-kilned dough did not change the dough-making properties. Oat meal also resulted in a stiff and short dough, and re-milling did not change this pattern. In contrast, removing all the bran from the oat meal improved dough-making properties. Dough rheology was negatively impacted by the bran, and this effect was larger for large and medium size bran than for fine bran. This was attributed to their high content of beta-glucans. In conclusion, current kilning and milling methods are not suitable for bread-making purposes and these treatments must be optimized. Whole grain oat meal is not a proper material for bread applications in the absence of fractionation.
Understanding the role of oat ß-glucan in oat-based dough systems
Londono, D.M. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Cereal Science 62 (2015). - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 1 - 7.
rheological properties - celiac-disease - bread quality - pentosans - diet - formulations - yeast
B-glucan is one of the components that differentiate oats from other cereals and that contribute to the health-related value of oats. However, so far oats cannot easily be applied in bread-like products without loss of product quality. Here we have studied how the content and viscosity of oat ß-glucan affect the technological properties of oat dough in both a gluten-free and a gluten-containing system. In both systems, increasing the ß-glucan concentration resulted in an increase of dough stiffness and in a reduction of dough extensibility. ¿-glucan negatively impacted the elastic properties that additional wheat gluten conferred to oat dough. This effect was smaller for medium-viscosity ß-glucan than for high-viscosity ß-glucan. Interestingly, dough made from low ß-glucan flour (
Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread
Londoño, D.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser; Rob Hamer, co-promotor(en): Rene Smulders; Luud Gilissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570085 - 139
avena sativa - haver - deeg - bakkwaliteit - coeliakie - avenine - genen - genetische kartering - bèta-glucaan - wei-eiwit - plantenveredeling - avena sativa - oats - doughs - baking quality - coeliac syndrome - avenin - genes - genetic mapping - beta-glucan - whey protein - plant breeding
The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably beta-glucans) contribute to the reduction of blood cholesterol levels and of blood glucose rise after the meal. Oats also have a high content of (poly-) unsaturated fatty acids that contribute to maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels. One specific target group that would benefit from the development of good quality oat bread are people with celiac disease (CD). Oats is widely consumed by them, even though its safety has been subject of some debate for a long time. Two peptides from oat avenins can be recognized as T cell epitopes by few CD patients, and differential signals of gluten-specific monoclonal antibodies and in-vitro T cells to oat varieties have suggested the existence of differences in immunogenicity. These health and food safety issues have been addressed in the General Introduction.
Bread is consumed all over the world. So far, production of large-volume bread is only possible with wheat. The quality of existing oat bread is below to what consumers are used to with wheat bread. This is partly due to the lack of knowledge regarding the functionality of oats for other purposes than porridge and breakfast cereals, which are the most common applications. These applications do not represent a big technological challenge as bread does, because bread-making requires a system able to hold gas during proving and baking. In wheat, this is conferred by gluten proteins that form a viscoelastic network with the capacity to expand and to maintain itself after expansion. Oats lack gluten proteins with network-forming capacity. Current oat bread applications rely on batter systems and on the use of additives to increase viscosity for stabilization of gas cells.
This thesis consists of two parts. The first part concerns the safety of oats for people with celiac disease (Chapter 2). This was studied by cloning and sequencing avenin genes from 13 Avena species with combinations of the three genomes (A, C, D) that are also present in the hexaploid cultivated A. sativa. We identified up to 10 avenin genes in a single hexaploid oat plant. Avenin proteins clustered in four groups of which two contained the two avenin CD epitopes. All Avena species examined harbored avenins of these two groups, so it is unlikely to find oat cultivars that are devoid of the avenin CD epitopes. None of the internationally agreed gluten CD epitopes from wheat, rye and barley were found to be present in oat avenins. Some epitope variants with two and three amino acid substitutions occurred, but they were predicted to not resist proteolysis in the gastro-intestinal tract and will therefore not be of clinical relevance. Perfect recognition sites of antibodies R5 and G12 (which are used in commercial gluten detection kits) were also not present in avenins. Thus, monoclonal antibody signals to oat are probably due to cross-reactivity or promiscuous recognition of avenin peptides, and such signals should not be interpreted as differences in immunogenicity of oat varieties for CD patients.
The second part of this thesis focussed on the study of the technological properties of oats. Oats have been used as an addition to wheat-based dough or in an oat-based batter system. However, while for wheat the dough-making parameters necessary to obtain good quality bread have been defined through a long history of research, this is not the case for oats. To fill this gap, this thesis studied the technological properties of oats using a systematic approach. First, we developed a dough testing system that allowed us to assess the dough-making properties of oat flour in a standardized way (Chapter 3). For this we used wheat as a model. We reproduced various quality profiles of wheat flour using combinations of oat flour and vital gluten. Then, we selected a dough system made of 87.2% oat flour and 12.8% gluten as our standard dough test system. This dough system was sensitive to differences among oat cultivars. Thus, having developed a tool that could detect differences regarding dough-making properties among oat cultivars, the next step was to try to explain those differences in terms of compositional factors. We decided to start our exploration with beta-glucans, because these fibres are one of the oat components that attract interest because of their health benefits. We studied the impact of beta-glucans on dough rheology (Chapter 4) following two strategies: (i) using the developed standard dough system containing gluten; and (ii) by removing the gluten from the system and replacing these proteins by alternative network-forming compounds. In both systems, beta-glucans affected dough rheology. Increasing their concentration resulted in an increase of dough stiffness and in a reduction of dough extensibility. Beta-glucans negatively influenced the elastic properties that additional wheat gluten conferred to oat dough. Low beta-glucan (<2%) oat flour had better extensibility properties than oat meal dough or oat flour dough enriched with beta-glucans. The effect was governed by its concentration and its molecular weight (which determines viscosity). Medium-viscosity beta-glucans had a less negative impact than high-viscosity (high molecular weight) beta-glucans. Overall, our findings indicate that beta-glucans are a key component determining rheology of oat-based dough systems.
Chapter 5 addressed the effect of particle size distribution on dough-making properties. We found that oat meal is not the best material for bread-applications because it produces a very stiff and short dough. Re-milling did not change this pattern. In contrast, complete removal of the bran from the oat meal did improve dough-making properties, which indicated that dough rheology was negatively impacted by the bran. Large and medium size bran particles were more harmful than fine bran particles. Large and medium bran contained 8% beta-glucans, while fine bran contained 1.6% only. We concluded that oat meal is not appropriate for bread applications. Fractionation of the milled product is an interesting alternative to produce low-beta-glucan flour for bread-making purposes, and the bran can be used to enrich other food products with beta-glucans. This chapter also addressed whether kilning and milling methods applied to oat grains could affect bread-making purposes. Infrared (IR) and steam kilning both affected dough-making properties of oat grains in the standard dough system. The effect of steam kilning was on water absorption only. Non-kilned and steam-kilned grains showed similar extensibility behavior. In contrast, IR kilning affected water absorption and harmed completely the dough extensibility properties of oat grains. Flour from IR kilned grains made a very stiff and short dough. Thus, IR kilning is definitely not suitable for bread applications.
Finally, in Chapter 6, we addressed the need for good quality gluten-free oat bread. As further research is required for better understanding of the oat dough system, we studied the rheological properties of oat flour relevant for leavening with gluten alternatives. Whey protein particles (WPP) had appeared to be successful in enhancing viscoelastic properties of wheat starch dough, allowing loaves with specific volumes of ca 3.7 mL/g. We studied whether WPP could have a similar positive effect on oat flour dough. WPP increased the resistance to extension and the gas retention capacity of oat flour dough. However, in our small scale baking experiments, WPP did not increase loaf specific volume and had a negative effect on gas production. On the other hand, WPP improved crumb texture. WPP are promising as a structuring agent in oat dough, but the process should be further optimized.
In the General Discussion we pay attention to the food safety issue of oats for people with coeliac disease. Our analysis across the genus Avena of avenin genes and proteins produced an important new and supporting argument to the safety of oats, as they appeared to contain none of the generally agreed celiac disease-related gluten epitopes from wheat, barley and rye. With this analysis we also could explain the positive signals for the presence of gluten (as described in the literature for several oat varieties on the basis of the R5 and the G12 antibody assay and on T cell tests) as being the result of cross-reactivity or promiscuity, without having clinical relevance. The data in this thesis therefore support the advice to gradually introduce the consumption of oats into the daily diet of people with coeliac disease. Further, we discuss the results and the consequences of our technological research on oat flour dough. It appeared that beta-glucans have a serious negative effect on the rheology of the oat dough, which indicates the need for further research on improvement of the balance between optimum application of beta-glucans for health (high amounts and of high molecular weight is better) and for baking quality (low amounts and of low molecular weight is better). Also the pre-treatment of oat flour (notably kilning and milling) and the application of whey protein particles to replace gluten require further optimization. Here the developed standard oat flour dough model system will be a useful tool.
Development of a standard test for dough-making properties of oat cultivars
Londono Cardona, D.M. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2014
Journal of Cereal Science 59 (2014)1. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 56 - 61.
hydrostatic-pressure - celiac-disease - gluten - bread - quality - wheat - ultrastructure - batters
Bread is consumed all over the world. However, so far, production of large volume bread is only possible with wheat. Alternatives, such as oats, are less suitable but this is partly due to the lack of knowledge about their functionality for other purposes than porridge, which is their most common use. Existing standard tests for the dough making characteristics of wheat flour are not suitable for oat flour, hampering research to optimize oats for bread-making purposes. We therefore set out to develop a test to evaluate oat in relation to mixing and dough making properties using wheat as a model. It was possible to reproduce the profile of various qualities of wheat flour using mixtures of oat flour and gluten in different proportions. Our standard test was based on a dough system composed of 87.2% oat flour and 12.8% gluten and it presented similar properties to a wheat flour with regard to resistance to extension. This dough system was sensitive and reliable (coefficient of variation lower than 10%) for detecting differences among oat cultivars, and it can be used to screen oat varieties and individual oat components in relation to relevant properties for bread-making purposes.
|Oats and allergy/intolerances
Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Londono Cardona, D.M. ; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2013
Cereal Partners Australia Pty Ltd.
Avenin diversity analysis of the genus Avena (oat). Relevance for people with celiac disease
Londono, D.M. ; Westende, W.P.C. van 't; Goryunova, S.V. ; Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Broeck, H.C. van den; Meer, I.M. van der; Visser, R.G.F. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2013
Journal of Cereal Science 58 (2013)1. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 170 - 177.
gluten-free diet - t-cell epitopes - natural variation - oats - wheat - varieties - prolamins - gliadins - toxicity - proteins
Oat is widely consumed by people with celiac disease (CD). Its safety has been disputed because two peptides from oat avenins can be recognized as T cell epitopes by some CD patients. Differential signals of gluten-specific monoclonal antibodies and in-vitro T cells to oat varieties have suggested the existence of differences in immunogenicity. We aimed to clarify the nature of such responses by cloning avenin genes from 13 Avena species. A single oat plant contained up to 10 avenin genes. Avenin proteins clustered in four groups of which two contained the two avenin CD epitopes. All Avena species examined harbored avenins of these two groups, and as a consequence all contained avenins with the two avenin-specific epitopes, which makes it very unlikely to find oat cultivars that are devoid of these sequences. The established gluten epitopes from wheat, rye and barley were not present in oat avenins; some variants with two and three amino acid substitutions occurred, but they were predicted not to resist proteolysis in the gastro-intestinal tract. Perfect recognition sites of antibodies R5 and G12 were also not present in avenins. Thus, their signals to oat should not be interpreted as differences in immunogenicity for CD patients.
Oat avenins do not contain coeliac disease epitopes known from wheat, rye and barley
Londono, D.M. ; Westende, W.P.C. van 't; Goryunova, S.V. ; Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Broeck, H.C. van den; Meer, I.M. van der; Visser, R.G.F. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2012
Food-related strategies towards reduction of gluten intolerance and gluten sensitivity
Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Broeck, H.C. van den; Londono, D.M. ; Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Koning, F. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 25th Meeting Working Group on Prolamin Analysis and Toxicity (PWG), Felbach, Germany, September 29 - October 2, 2012. - - p. 29 - 35.
|Development of a standard test for dough-making properties of oat cultivars
Londono, D.M. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Hamer, R.J. ; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2012
|Development of a standard test for dough-making properties of oat
Londono Cardona, D.M. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Hamer, R. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the AACC International Annual Meeting, Hollywood, Florida, U.S.A., 30 September - 03 October 2012. - Cereal Foods World - p. A58 - A58.
Food -related strategies towards reduction of gluten intolerance and gluten sensitivity
Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Broek, H.C. van den; Londono, D.M. ; Salentijn, E.M.J. - \ 2011
Sensory Acceptability and Factors Predicting the Consumption of Grain Amaranth in Kenya
Macharia-Mutie, C.W. ; Wiel, A.M. van de; Moreno-Londono, A.M. ; Mwangi, A.M. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2011
Ecology of Food and Nutrition 50 (2011)5. - ISSN 0367-0244 - p. 375 - 392.
health belief model - planned behavior - older-adults - flour
This study investigated the effect of adding grain amaranth flour on sensory acceptability of maize porridge in Kenya. Factors influencing the intention of mothers to feed their children on grain amaranth were identified. A significant difference between the various porridge ratios (50:50, 70:30, and 100:0 amaranth:maize) either in unfermented or fermented form could be detected. Preference for the unfermented amaranth enriched maize porridge was observed. Intention significantly correlated and predicted grain amaranth consumption (p <.001). Knowledge and health value significantly predicted health behavior identity. Interaction between barriers and intention negatively influenced behavior. Findings suggest that unfermented amaranth enriched maize porridge is acceptable. Unfermented porridge with 70% amaranth can be considered for use in a program aimed at increasing dietary iron intake among children. Increasing awareness about micronutrient deficiencies and nutritional benefits of grain amaranth could enhance its consumption
Development of safe foods for celiac patients- A multidisciplinary approach.
Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Broeck, H.C. van den; Westende, W.P.C. van 't; Londono, D.M. ; Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2010
Food for thought : food science news, technology and development from the Netherlands 3 (2010). - p. 1 - 4.