Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Conquering the state, subordinating society : a Kurdish perspective on the development of AKP authoritarianism in Turkey
Jongerden, J.P. - \ 2020
In: Erdoğan’s ‘New’ Turkey / Christofis, Nikos, London : Routledge - ISBN 9780367352509 - p. 200 - 215.
Comparison of smoking-related DNA methylation between newborns from prenatal exposure and adults from personal smoking
Sikdar, Sinjini ; Joehanes, Roby ; Joubert, Bonnie R. ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Vives-Usano, Marta ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Felix, Janine F. ; Ward, James M. ; Guan, Weihua ; Richmond, Rebecca C. ; Brody, Jennifer A. ; Küpers, Leanne K. ; Baïz, Nour ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Smith, Jennifer A. ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Aslibekyan, Stella ; Hoyo, Cathrine ; Dhingra, Radhika ; Markunas, Christina A. ; Xu, Tao ; Reynolds, Lindsay M. ; Just, Allan C. ; Mandaviya, Pooja R. ; Ghantous, Akram ; Bennett, Brian D. ; Wang, Tianyuan ; Consortium, The Bios ; Bakulski, Kelly M. ; Melen, Erik ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Jin, Jianping ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Meurs, Joyce Van; Taylor, Jack A. ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Murphy, Susan K. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica Cheng ; Deary, Ian J. ; Nystad, Wenche ; Waldenberger, Melanie ; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella ; Conneely, Karen ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Arnett, Donna ; Snieder, Harold ; Kardia, Sharon L.R. ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Ong, Ken K. ; Ewart, Susan ; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia ; Romieu, Isabelle ; Sotoodehnia, Nona ; Fornage, Myriam ; Motsinger-Reif, Alison ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Levy, Daniel ; London, Stephanie J. - \ 2019
Epigenomics 11 (2019)13. - ISSN 1750-1911 - p. 1487 - 1500.
cigarette smoking - epigenetics - infant - maternal exposure - methylation

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

Healing gardens as therapeutic landscapes
Veen, E.J. ; Doughty, Karolina - \ 2019
Although survival rates for cancer are improving, survivors suffer an increased risk of chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and depression. In order to prevent patients from developing these diseases, lifestyle guidelines have been developed. Adherence to these guidelines, however, is low and short-lived. Many patients lack the aspiration, capacity or energy to make lifestyle changes. In this paper we explore a communal ‘healing garden’ as a potential alternative to these lifestyle guidelines, exploring whether it may function as a ‘therapeutic landscape’ for cancer survivors, particularly in stimulating physical activity and healthy eating, but also in facilitating social peer support. Our paper discusses a pilot project in the Netherlands, in which five participants gardened together one-and-a-half hours a week, under supervision, in ten square foot gardening containers. Using a series of physical tests and semi-structured interviews with participants (before, during and after the project), we show that physically the gardening experience did not meet expectations. Nevertheless, the gardening activity was highly satisfying for participants, for a variety of reasons (the activity as such, the harvest, the pleasure of manual labour, and mental rest). Participants reported that the gardening group formed a supportive environment. However, they did not agree on whether that is sufficient to consider the gardening activity a form of social peer support. We conclude that even though the project did not have measurable physical results, it can be regarded a therapeutic landscape for its social benefits.
Dolfsma, Wilfred ; Negru, Ioana - \ 2019
In: The Ethical Formation of Economists London : Routledge - ISBN 9781138487062 - 6 p.
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book describes interest in the ethics of economists and to advance a moral conception of the economic science. It focuses on the ethical behavior of economists and thus mainly concerned with deontology and professional economics ethics. The book discusses the education and training of the ‘ethical economist’: what it means to train and educate an ethical economist and what is needed for economics to become an ethical profession. It examines the ethics of econometric research and the categorical mistake made by some economists when considering that ethics is to be left for business, government and policymakers and not for the econometrician. The book presents the philosophical arguments for the removal of normativity and normative analysis from economics and what the implications of this issue are on the personal responsibility of economists.
Economics for the twenty-first century : A celebration of John B. Davis's conribution to economics
Dolfsma, Wilfred ; Hands, D.W. ; McMaster, Robert - \ 2019
In: History, Methodology and Identity for a 21st Century Social Economics / Dolfsma, W., Hands, D.W., McMaster, R., London : Routledge - ISBN 9780367111069 - 14 p.
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book is concerned with topics in the history of economic thought and economic philosophy. It discusses John Davis’s work in history of economic thought and economic philosophy and describes his work in social economics and related topics. The book examines aspects of Davis’s approach to “seeking justice: the promotion of care and capabilities”. It explores the impact that computer simulation has had on economic methodology. Davis’s roots in political economy and social economics suggest that as with other social sciences and science generally, economics is unavoidably value-laden. All in all, Davis has generated an extraordinarily prodigious scholarly output on an extremely wide range of important topics, and this only takes into account his work directly related to the history of economic thought and economic philosophy.
History, Methodology and Identity for a 21st Century Social Economics
Dolfsma, Wilfred ; Hands, D.W. ; McMaster, Robert - \ 2019
London : Routledge - ISBN 9780429200748 - 164 p.
The Ethical Formation of Economists
Dolfsma, Wilfred ; Negru, Ioana - \ 2019
London : Routledge (SCEME Studies in Economic Methodology ) - ISBN 9781138487062 - 190 p.
Economists' role in society has always been an uneasy one, and in recent years the ethicality of the profession and its practitioners has been questioned more than ever. This collection of essays is the first to investigate the multifaceted nature of what forms economists' ethical and economic views.

Bringing together work from international contributors, The Ethical Formation of Economists explores the ways in which economists are influenced in their training and career, examining how this can explain their individual ethical stances as economists. The book suggests that if we can better understand what is making economists think and act as they do, considering ethicality in the process, we might all be better placed to implement changes. The intent is not to exonerate economists from personal responsibility, but to highlight how considering the circumstances that have helped shape economists' views can help to address issues. It is argued that it is important to understand these influences, as without such insights, the demonization of economists is too easily adapted as a stance by society as well as too easily dismissed by economists.

This book will be of great interest to those studying and researching in the fields of economics, ethics, philosophy and sociology. It also seeks to bring an ethical debate within and about economics and to cause change in the practical reasoning of economists.
RGS-IBG Annual International Conference (2013)
Ormond, M.E. - \ 2019
'Roots Guide: Tourism, guidebooks and counter-mapping', in 'Conveying Geographical Collaborations: Display, Curate and Create' session
Listening to public narratives on science: ancient and modern
Macnaghten, Philip - \ 2019
Digital food design of cereal products by means of Additive Manufacturing (3D printing)
Noort, Martijn - \ 2019
Cultural significance of Lepidoptera in sub-Saharan Africa
Huis, Arnold Van - \ 2019
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 15 (2019)1. - ISSN 1746-4269
Art - Butterflies - Caterpillars - Entomophagy - Ethno-entomology - Ethno-medicine - Literature - Metamorphosis - Moths - Proverbs

Background: The taxon Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread and recognisable insect orders with 160,000 species worldwide and with more than 20,000 species in Africa. Lepidoptera have a complete metamorphosis and the adults (butterflies and moths) are quite different from the larvae (caterpillars). The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how butterflies/moths and caterpillars are utilised, perceived and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa. Method: Ethno-entomological information on Lepidoptera in sub-Saharan Africa was collected by (1) interviews with more than 300 people from about 120 ethnic groups in 27 countries in the region; and (2) library studies in Africa, London, Paris and Leiden. Results: Often the interviewees indicated that people from his or her family or ethnic group did not know that caterpillars turn into butterflies and moths (metamorphosis). When known, metamorphosis may be used as a symbol for transformation, such as in female puberty or in literature regarding societal change. Vernacular names of the butterfly/moth in the Muslim world relate to religion or religious leaders. The names of the caterpillars often refer to the host plant or to their characteristics or appearance. Close to 100 caterpillar species are consumed as food. Wild silkworm species, such as Borocera spp. in Madagascar and Anaphe species in the rest of Africa, provide expensive textiles. Bagworms (Psychidae) are sometimes used as medicine. Ancestors may be associated with certain dark nocturnal moths, but these are also considered to be responsible for armyworms plagues. The appearance of butterflies/moths can be associated with seasons or serve as predictor of events. There are many proverbs, songs and stories related to butterflies and moths. Lepidoptera are also an inspiration in art expressions. In dance, the movements of caterpillars are used as examples, while certain cocoons are used as rattles. Conclusion: Lepidoptera are found very appealing because of the striking appearance of the adults, their dramatic metamorphosis and the provision of silk and nutritious food. Besides, they are an inspiration in art and literature.

Governing genetically modified crops and agricultural sustainability
Macnaghten, Philip - \ 2019
In: Environment and Sustainability in a Globalising World / Nightingale, Andrea J., London : Routledge - ISBN 9780765646446 - p. 182 - 200.
Agricultural sustainability is at the heart of debates about environment and sustainability in a globalizing world. This chapter examines the impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops and offers an analysis of the dynamics of controversy that could contribute to the development of a particular pathway towards agricultural sustainability. GM crops and foods represent a fascinating case to examine the contested and historically contingent character of sustainability discourses. A range of new plant breeding techniques is being developed by agricultural scientists that offer radical prospects of genetic “improvement” that extend beyond genetic modification involving the transfer of genes across species boundaries. Genetic modification techniques offer the potential to “speed up” traditional plant breeding by introducing selected novel genes into a crop plant in the laboratory. For some of the Indian participants, particularly from rural areas, the actual gene used in the genetic modification of plants was seen as relevant.
Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies in neonates reveals widespread differential DNA methylation associated with birthweight
Küpers, Leanne K. ; Monnereau, Claire ; Sharp, Gemma C. ; Yousefi, Paul ; Salas, Lucas A. ; Ghantous, Akram ; Page, Christian M. ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Wilcox, Allen J. ; Czamara, Darina ; Starling, Anne P. ; Novoloaca, Alexei ; Lent, Samantha ; Roy, Ritu ; Hoyo, Cathrine ; Breton, Carrie V. ; Allard, Catherine ; Just, Allan C. ; Bakulski, Kelly M. ; Holloway, John W. ; Everson, Todd M. ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Plaat, Diana A. van der; Wielscher, Matthias ; Merid, Simon Kebede ; Ullemar, Vilhelmina ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Lahti, Jari ; Dongen, Jenny van; Langie, Sabine A.S. ; Richardson, Tom G. ; Magnus, Maria C. ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Xu, Zongli ; Duijts, Liesbeth ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Zhang, Weiming ; Plusquin, Michelle ; DeMeo, Dawn L. ; Solomon, Olivia ; Heimovaara, Joosje H. ; Jima, Dereje D. ; Gao, Lu ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Perron, Patrice ; Wright, Robert O. ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Zhang, Hongmei ; Karagas, Margaret R. ; Gehring, Ulrike ; Marsit, Carmen J. ; Beilin, Lawrence J. ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Bergström, Anna ; Örtqvist, Anne K. ; Ewart, Susan ; Villa, Pia M. ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Standaert, Arnout R.L. ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Taylor, Jack A. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Yang, Ivana V. ; Kechris, Katerina ; Nawrot, Tim S. ; Silver, Matt J. ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Kogevinas, Manolis ; Litonjua, Augusto A. ; Eskenazi, Brenda ; Huen, Karen ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; Maguire, Rachel L. ; Dwyer, Terence ; Vrijheid, Martine ; Bouchard, Luigi ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Croen, Lisa A. ; Karmaus, Wilfried ; Anderson, Denise ; Vries, Maaike de; Sebert, Sylvain ; Kere, Juha ; Karlsson, Robert ; Arshad, Syed Hasan ; Hämäläinen, Esa ; Routledge, Michael N. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Feinberg, Andrew P. ; Newschaffer, Craig J. ; Govarts, Eva ; Moisse, Matthieu ; Fallin, M.D. ; Melén, Erik ; Prentice, Andrew M. ; Kajantie, Eero ; Almqvist, Catarina ; Oken, Emily ; Dabelea, Dana ; Boezen, H.M. ; Melton, Phillip E. ; Wright, Rosalind J. ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; Trevisi, Letizia ; Hivert, Marie France ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica C. ; Murphy, Susan K. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Wiemels, Joseph ; Holland, Nina ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Binder, Elisabeth B. ; Davey Smith, George ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Lie, Rolv T. ; Nystad, Wenche ; London, Stephanie J. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Snieder, Harold ; Felix, Janine F. - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from −183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (P Bonferroni < 1.06 x 10 −7 ). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10 −74 ) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10 −3 ), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.

On- and off-line evaluation of the single-layer urban canopy model in London summertime conditions
Tsiringakis, Aristofanis ; Steeneveld, Gert Jan ; Holtslag, Albert A.M. ; Kotthaus, Simone ; Grimmond, Sue - \ 2019
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society (2019). - ISSN 0035-9009
boundary layer - land–atmosphere interactions - single-layer urban canopy model - surface energy balance - urban meteorology - Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

Urban canopy models are essential tools for forecasting weather and air quality in cities. However, they require many surface parameters, which are uncertain and can reduce model performance if inappropriately prescribed. Here, we evaluate the model sensitivity of the single-layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to surface parameters in two different configurations, one coupled to the overlying atmosphere (on-line) in a 1D configuration and one without coupling (off-line). A two-day summertime period in London is used as a case study, with clear skies and low wind speeds. Our sensitivity tests indicate that the SLUCM reacts differently when coupled to the atmosphere. For certain surface parameters, atmospheric feedback effects can outweigh the variations caused by surface parameter settings. Hence, in order to fully understand the model sensitivity, atmospheric feedback should be considered.

Working together to strengthen collaboration on Mycoplasma bovis and compare available diagnostic tools
Ridley, A. ; Tardy, Florence ; Wisselink, H.J. ; Pelkonen, Sinikka ; Lauritsen, Klara T. ; Aspan, A. - \ 2019
Background: Different clinical presentations of disease caused by Mycoplasma bovis predominate in European countries with significant economic and welfare impacts. M. bovis disease control relies on good husbandry and early diagnosis, but lack of standardised approaches and diagnostic methods applied make comparisons of disease prevalence between countries difficult. Five CoVetLab National Veterinary institutes (SVA, WVBR, VET-DTU, APHA,ANSES) together with RUOKAVIRASTO joined forces to develop a network of scientists and share tools and expertise. Objectives included developing ring trials to evaluate available serological and PCR-based diagnostic tests.Methods: The sensitivity and specificity of two commercial ELISA systems (ID screen® ELISA (IDvet) and BIO K302ELISA (BIO-X Diagnostics)) for serodiagnosis of M. bovis in cattle serum were assessed by inter-laboratory comparisonusing a randomly blinded panel of bovine sera. Inclusion of Western blot analysis enabled statistical evaluation by latent class analysis. In addition, analytical specificity, sensitivity and comparability of seven different PCR methods used to identify presence of M. bovis organisms were assessed.Results: The ID Screen ELISA showed high agreement with Western blot analysis and performed with higher precisionand accuracy than the Bio K302 ELISA, also showing higher sensivity and specificity. In contrast the analytical specificity and overall performance of the different PCR methods was comparable, although limits of detection variedfrom 10 to 103 CFU/ml to 103 and 106 CFU/ml for the real-time and end-point assays, respectively.Conclusions: CoVetLab has facilitated improved collaboration between veterinary institutes in Europe undertaking M.bovis diagnostics. We believe this inter-laboratory comparison of these ELISAs is the first to include the ID Screen. The comparison of PCR tests has provided reassurance regarding the quality of diagnosis, despite the multiplicity of the methods.
Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 as a bile-modifying and immunomodulatory microbe
Ryan, Paul M. ; Stolte, Ellen H. ; London, Lis E.E. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Long, Sarah L. ; Joyce, Susan A. ; Gahan, Cormac G.M. ; Fitzgerald, Gerald F. ; Ross, R.P. ; Caplice, Noel M. ; Stanton, Catherine - \ 2019
BMC Microbiology 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2180
Bile acid - Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) - CVD - Exopolysaccharide - Hypercholesterolaemia

Background: Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 has previously demonstrated potentially cardio-protective properties, in the form of dyslipidaemia and hypercholesterolemia correction in an apolipoprotein-E deficient mouse model. This study aims to characterise the manner in which this microbe may modulate host bile pool composition and immune response, in the context of cardiovascular disease. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was assessed for bile salt hydrolase activity and specificity. The microbe was compared against several other enteric strains of the same species, as well as a confirmed bile salt hydrolase-active strain, Lactobacillus reuteri APC 2587. Results: Quantitative bile salt hydrolase assays revealed that enzymatic extracts from Lactobacillus reuteri APC 2587 and Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 demonstrate the greatest activity in vitro. Bile acid profiling of porcine and murine bile following incubation with Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 confirmed a preference for hydrolysis of glyco-conjugated bile acids. In addition, the purified exopolysaccharide and secretome of Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 were investigated for immunomodulatory capabilities using RAW264.7 macrophages. Gene expression data revealed that both fractions stimulated increases in interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 gene transcription in the murine macrophages, while the entire secretome was necessary to increase CD206 transcription. Moreover, the exopolysaccharide elicited a dose-dependent increase in nitric oxide and interleukin-10 production from RAW264.7 macrophages, concurrent with increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion at all doses. Conclusions: This study indicates that Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 modulates both bile pool composition and immune system tone in a manner which may contribute significantly to the previously identified cardio-protective phenotype.

Food beyond the city - Analysing foodsheds and self-sufficiency for different food system scenarios in European metropolitan regions
Zasada, Ingo ; Schmutz, Ulrich ; Wascher, Dirk ; Kneafsey, Moya ; Corsi, Stefano ; Mazzocchi, Chiara ; Monaco, Federica ; Boyce, Peter ; Doernberg, Alexandra ; Sali, Guido ; Piorr, Annette - \ 2019
City, Culture and Society 16 (2019). - ISSN 1877-9166 - p. 25 - 35.

The debate on urban resilience and metabolism has directed increasing attention to the ecological footprint of food consumption, self-sufficiency as a means of food security, and regionalisation of food systems for shortening supply chains. Recently, metropolitan regions have proposed food policies that aim to foster local food systems connected to their cities. Our research thus focused on the relationship between urban food demand and metropolitan land use.We have developed the Metropolitan Foodshed and Self-sufficiency Scenario (MFSS) model, which combines regional food consumption and agricultural production parameters in a data-driven approach to assess the spatial extent of foodsheds as well as the theoretical self-sufficiency of the communities they serve. The model differentiates between food groups, food production systems, levels of food loss and waste as well as food origin. With regard to future urban growth, we applied the model to current and future population projections.Results show substantial variations in the spatial extent of metropolitan foodsheds and self-sufficiency levels between the case study regions London, Berlin, Milan and Rotterdam, depending on population density and distribution, geographical factors and proximity to neighbouring urban agglomerations. The application of the model as a food planning tool offers a new perspective on the potential role of metropolitan regions for strengthening urban self-sufficiency. It also enables the ex-ante assessment of spatial consequences of changes within metropolitan food systems, on both demand and supply sides. In particular, we discuss possible dietary and consumption changes, but also production and supply chain alternatives.

Who is the Scientist Subject? : Affective History of the Gene
Shah, E. - \ 2018
London : Routledge - ISBN 9781138570337 - 186 p.
This book explores two disparate sets of debates in the history and philosophy of the life sciences: the history of subjectivity in shaping objective science and the history of dominance of reductionism in molecular biology. It questions the dominant conception of the scientist-subject as a neo-Kantian ideal self – that is, the scientist as a unified and wilful, self-determined, self-regulated, active and autonomous, rational subject wilfully driven by social and scientific ethos – in favour of a narrative that shows how the microcosm of reductionism is sustained, adopted, questioned, or challenged in the creative struggles of the scientist-subject. The author covers a century-long history of the concept of the gene as a series of "pioneering moments" through an engagement with life-writings of eminent scientists to show how their ways of being and belonging relate with the making of the science. The scientist-self is theorized as fundamentally a feeling, experiencing, and suffering subject split between the conscious and unconscious and constitutive of personality aspects that are emotional/psychological, "situated" (cultural and ideological), metaphysical, intersubjective, and existential at the same time.
Tenure, property rights and forest landscape restoration
Jong, Wil de; Zon, Marieke van der; Urushima, Andrea Flores ; Youn, Yeo Chang ; Liu, Jinlong ; Li, Ning - \ 2018
In: Forest Landscape Restoration London : Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9781138084292 - p. 158 - 175.
Legal tenure and related property rights are relevant and important in forest landscape restoration (FLR), although the assumption that ensuring legal tenure with full property rights is a decisive incentive in and of itself for forest restoration is not supported by empirical evidence. Legal tenure status over forest lands, and property rights derived from legal tenure, are diverse between countries, and even within countries. Case studies from China, Vietnam and Nepal show that even when legal tenure is held over forest land, the property rights derived from tenure may be severely constrained and not necessarily widely recognized, respected or protected. Legal tenure may be a less desired option in terms of rights that are granted, and other arrangements, that is, customary arrangements or other forms of non-statutory enforced arrangements, may result in more secure rights. When FLR is desired, legal tenure needs to be addressed, but what kind of tenure is provided to forest users, what rights the tenure implies, and what constraints are the most appropriate depend on the wider legal, political and social context in which forest restoration is being pursued.
Development of early warning systems to detect, predict and assess food fraud
Bouzembrak, Yamine - \ 2018
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