Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Best practice examples : Deliverable 3.4
    Marcos Gonzalez, Javier ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Hatvani, Nora ; Yuan, Bomin - \ 2020
    POWER4BIO - 62 p.
    The bioeconomy transition is routed in new opportunities with high potential of replication at EU level. To this end, it is important to identify which measures could potentially have a high impact on the biobased economy. Theoretically, several measures have been agreed to support stable and appealing markets for biobased products, such as fossil carbon tax, a CO2 tax, quotas, tax credits, removal of fossil subsidies and, mandates and bans. Nevertheless, there are also other actions, namely “soft measures” which could also be very fruitful in the development of sustainable activities towards long-term bioeconomy initiatives in the field of increasing public awareness. These “soft” measures are regarded as easy to implement in the current political climate. Among others, the adoption of bio-based products can answer the call from the public and politicians for concrete measures from the EU and its Member States for more climate-friendly products. An enhanced bio-based economy has an important role to play in meeting the ambition of the 2015 Paris Agreement and in delivering the European Green Deal. The POWER4BIO project counts on learning from experiences. Examples and references might speed up the decision made at national and regional level, which will enable a stronger commitment towards solutions under the concept of bioeconomy. To this end, policy makers urge to gain access to reliable reference sources of information to use these sources in their internal procedures. Furthermore, the detailed description of existing cases is an instrumental key to learn and inspire new initiatives. The regions oversee the state of the art and point out the value of being informed of initiatives which are successful with new business model. As a matter of fact, the POWER4BIO regions have arisen the need of a catalogue of technologies in real production cases (Deliverable D3.3) but in some specific cases, more technical information is required to foster and boost regional bioeconomy actions. This is the aim of this deliverable D3.4, were a thorough analysis, selection and description of the best practices of biorefineries worldwide is included. In the context of the POWER4BIO project, best practices are industrial production sites, which use specific biomass sources to produce biobased products. This deliverable pays special attention to two elements: rural application of the selected biorefineries and their competitivity. Furthermore, aligned with deliverables D3.3 and D4.1 of the project, the solutions are classified in 4 categories, in view to its application, such as, bioenergy, biochemicals, feed&food and biomaterials. This classification allows for an easy to understand and use of the cases detailed depicted in this document. In total, 12 EU best practices, 3 of each of the 4 categories are included in this report. The information per best practices include the minimum information to illustrate the cases. They provide the reader with information to consider its potential for replicability. Lastly, all the cases have been harmonised content-wise so as to facilitate the understanding and comparison of examples. POWER4BIO project (818351) Page 6 of 62 Deliverable 3.4: Best practice examples Version 1.0, 27/03/2020 POWER4BIO collaborates with the Horizon 2020 project BE-Rural, which also assesses technology options and business models for regional and local bio-based economies. A joint guidance document will summarise the relevant outputs of the two projects and provide concrete recommendations for policy-makers regarding the application of bio-based technology options and business models in specific regional contexts. The present report will contribute to this joint output. For further complementary information from the BE-Rural project, we encourage the reader to visit: https://be-rural/results/
    Deep Learning for an Improved Prediction of Rainfall Retrievals From Commercial Microwave Links
    Pudashine, Jayaram ; Guyot, Adrien ; Petitjean, Francois ; Pauwels, Valentijn R.N. ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Seed, Alan ; Prakash, Mahesh ; Walker, Jeffrey P. - \ 2020
    Water Resources Research 56 (2020)7. - ISSN 0043-1397
    commercial microwave links - deep learning - opportunistic sensing - precipitation - rainfall

    Commercial microwave links (CMLs) have proven useful for providing rainfall information close to the ground surface. However, large uncertainties are associated with these retrievals, partly due to challenges in the type of data collection and processing. In particular, the most common case is when only minimum and maximum received signal levels (RSLs) over a given time interval (hereafter 15 min) are stored by mobile network operators. The average attenuation and the corresponding rainfall rate are then calculated based on a weighted average method using the minimum and maximum attenuation. In this study, an alternative to using a constant weighted average method is explored, based on a machine learning model trained to produce actual attenuation from minimum/maximum values. A rainfall retrieval deep learning model was designed based on a long short-term memory (LSTM) model architecture and trained with disdrometer data in a form that is comparable to the data provided by mobile network operators. A first evaluation used only disdrometer data to mimic both attenuation from a CML and corresponding rainfall rates. For the test data set, the relative bias was reduced from 5.99% to 2.84% and the coefficient of determination (R2) increased from 0.86 to 0.97. The second evaluation used this disdrometer-trained LSTM to retrieve rainfall rates from an actual CML located nearby the disdrometer. A significant improvement in the overall rainfall estimation compared to existing microwave link attenuation models was observed. The relative bias reduced from 7.39% to −1.14% and the R2 improved from 0.71 to 0.82.

    Project Narratives: Investigating Participatory Conservation in the Peruvian Andes
    Cieslik, Katarzyna ; Dewulf, Art ; Buytaert, Wouter - \ 2020
    Development and Change 51 (2020)4. - ISSN 0012-155X - p. 1067 - 1097.

    This article shares findings from a participatory assessment study of a community-based environmental monitoring project in the Peruvian Andes. The objective of the project was to generate evidence to support sustainable livelihoods through participatory knowledge generation. With the use of narrative framing, the study retrospectively reconstructs the project's trajectory as perceived by the three stakeholder groups: the community, the researchers, and the implementing NGO. This analysis reveals discrepancies between the stakeholder groups both in their view of the course of events and their understanding of the purpose of the intervention. However, while the storylines depict differing project trajectories, they often agree in terms of long-term goals. The study also uncovers some neglected positive externalities that are of considerable significance to local stakeholders. These include community-to-community knowledge transfer, inter-generational knowledge sharing and ecosystem knowledge revival. The article illustrates how assumptions and expectations about participatory projects are encapsulated in narratives of positive change despite the limited level of agreement among stakeholders about what such a change should comprise. It sheds light on development narratives and their power to shape stakeholders’ perceptions in accordance with their beliefs and priorities. This is of special importance for ecosystem governance projects, which are sensitive to normative differences and subject to competing claims.

    Back to the Roots: Revisiting the Use of the Fiber-Rich Cichorium intybusL. Taproots
    Puhlmann, Marie Luise ; Vos, Willem M. de - \ 2020
    Advances in Nutrition 11 (2020)4. - ISSN 2161-8313 - p. 878 - 889.
    chicory roots - dietary fiber - human nutrition - inulin - traditional medicine

    Fibers are increasingly recognized as an indispensable part of our diet and vital for maintaining health. Notably, complex mixtures of fibers have been found to improve metabolic health. Following an analysis of the fiber content of plant-based products, we found the taproot of the chicory plant (Cichorium intybusL.) to be 1 of the vegetables with the highest fiber content, comprising nearly 90% of its dry weight. Chicory roots consist of a mixture of inulin, pectin, and (hemi-)cellulose and also contain complex phytochemicals, such as sesquiterpene lactones that have been characterized in detail. Nowaday, chicory roots are mainly applied as a source for the extraction of inulin, which is used as prebiotic fiber and food ingredient. Chicory roots, however, have long been consumed as a vegetable by humans. The whole root has been used for thousands of years for nutritional, medicinal, and other purposes, and it is still used in traditional dishes in various parts of the world. Here, we summarize the composition of chicory roots to explain their historic success in the human diet. We revisit the intake of chicory roots by humans and describe the different types of use along with their various methods of preparation. Hereby, we focus on the whole root in its complex, natural form, as well as in relation to its constituents, and discuss aspects regarding legal regulation and the safety of chicory root extracts for human consumption. Finally, we provide an overview of the current and future applications of chicory roots and their contribution to a fiber-rich diet.

    Trade-off between local transmission and long-range dispersal drives infectious disease outbreak size in spatially structured populations
    Benincà, Elisa ; Hagenaars, Thomas ; Boender, Gert Jan ; Kassteele, Jan van de; Boven, Michiel van - \ 2020
    PLoS Computational Biology 16 (2020)7. - ISSN 1553-734X - p. e1008009 - e1008009.

    Transmission of infectious diseases between immobile hosts (e.g., plants, farms) is strongly dependent on the spatial distribution of hosts and the distance-dependent probability of transmission. As the interplay between these factors is poorly understood, we use spatial process and transmission modelling to investigate how epidemic size is shaped by host clustering and spatial range of transmission. We find that for a given degree of clustering and individual-level infectivity, the probability that an epidemic occurs after an introduction is generally higher if transmission is predominantly local. However, local transmission also impedes transfer of the infection to new clusters. A consequence is that the total number of infections is maximal if the range of transmission is intermediate. In highly clustered populations, the infection dynamics is strongly determined by the probability of transmission between clusters of hosts, whereby local clusters act as multiplier of infection. We show that in such populations, a metapopulation model sometimes provides a good approximation of the total epidemic size, using probabilities of local extinction, the final size of infections in local clusters, and probabilities of cluster-to-cluster transmission. As a real-world example we analyse the case of avian influenza transmission between poultry farms in the Netherlands.

    Copepod Prey Selection and Grazing Efficiency Mediated by Chemical and Morphological Defensive Traits of Cyanobacteria
    Rangel, Luciana M. ; Silva, Lúcia H.S. ; Faassen, Elisabeth J. ; Lürling, Miquel ; Ger, Kemal Ali - \ 2020
    Toxins 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 2072-6651
    cyanotoxin - functional trait - harmful algal bloom - neurotoxin - predator defense

    Phytoplankton anti-grazer traits control zooplankton grazing and are associated with harmful blooms. Yet, how morphological versus chemical phytoplankton defenses regulate zooplankton grazing is poorly understood. We compared zooplankton grazing and prey selection by contrasting morphological (filament length: short vs. long) and chemical (saxitoxin: STX- vs. STX+) traits of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium (Raphidiopsis) offered at different concentrations in mixed diets with an edible phytoplankton to a copepod grazer. The copepod selectively grazed on the edible prey (avoidance of cyanobacteria) even when the cyanobacterium was dominant. Avoidance of the cyanobacterium was weakest for the "short STX-" filaments and strongest for the other three strains. Hence, filament size had an effect on cyanobacterial avoidance only in the STX- treatments, while toxin production significantly increased cyanobacterial avoidance regardless of filament size. Moreover, cyanobacterial dominance reduced grazing on the edible prey by almost 50%. Results emphasize that the dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria such as Raphidiopsis can interfere with copepod grazing in a trait specific manner. For cyanobacteria, toxin production may be more effective than filament size as an anti-grazer defense against selectively grazing zooplankton such as copepods. Our results highlight how multiple phytoplankton defensive traits interact to regulate the producer-consumer link in plankton ecosystems.

    Pathologists and entomologists must join forces against forest pest and pathogen invasions
    Jactel, Hervé ; Desprez-Loustau, Marie Laure ; Battisti, Andrea ; Brockerhoff, Eckehard ; Santini, Alberto ; Stenlid, Jan ; Björkman, Christer ; Branco, Manuela ; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina ; Douma, Jacob C. ; Drakulic, Jassy ; Drizou, Fryni ; Eschen, René ; Franco, José Carlos ; Gossner, Martin M. ; Green, Samantha ; Kenis, Marc ; Klapwijk, Maartje J. ; Liebhold, Andrew M. ; Orazio, Christophe ; Prospero, Simone ; Robinet, Christelle ; Schroeder, Martin ; Slippers, Bernard ; Stoev, Pavel ; Sun, Jianghua ; Dool, Robbert van den; Wingfield, Michael J. ; Zalucki, Myron P. - \ 2020
    NeoBiota 58 (2020). - ISSN 1619-0033 - p. 107 - 127.
    Capacity building - Detection - Disease - Exotic - Forest health - Fungi - Identification - Insects - Interdisciplinarity - Management

    The world's forests have never been more threatened by invasions of exotic pests and pathogens, whose causes and impacts are reinforced by global change. However, forest entomologists and pathologists have, for too long, worked independently, used different concepts and proposed specific management methods without recognising parallels and synergies between their respective fields. Instead, we advocate increased collaboration between these two scientific communities to improve the long-term health of forests. Our arguments are that the pathways of entry of exotic pests and pathogens are often the same and that insects and fungi often coexist in the same affected trees. Innovative methods for preventing invasions, early detection and identification of non-native species, modelling of their impact and spread and prevention of damage by increasing the resistance of ecosystems can be shared for the management of both pests and diseases. We, therefore, make recommendations to foster this convergence, proposing in particular the development of interdisciplinary research programmes, the development of generic tools or methods for pest and pathogen management and capacity building for the education and training of students, managers, decision-makers and citizens concerned with forest health.

    Urinary Excretion of N1-Methylnicotinamide and N1-Methyl-2-Pyridone-5-Carboxamide and Mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients
    Deen, Carolien P.J. ; Veen, Anna van der; Gomes-Neto, António W. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Borgonjen van den Berg, Karin J. ; Heiner-Fokkema, M.R. ; Kema, Ido P. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 2072-6643
    dietary intake - mortality - N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide - N1-methylnicotinamide - niacin status - renal transplantation - tryptophan - urinary excretion - vitamin B3

    It is unclear whether niacin nutritional status is a target for improvement of long-term outcome after renal transplantation. The 24-h urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1-MN), as a biomarker of niacin status, has previously been shown to be negatively associated with premature mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). However, recent evidence implies higher enzymatic conversion of N1-MN to N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2Py) in KTR, therefore the need exists for interpretation of both N1-MN and 2Py excretion for niacin status assessment. We assessed niacin status by means of the 24-h urinary excretion of the sum of N1-MN and 2Py (N1-MN + 2Py), and its associations with risk of premature mortality in KTR. N1-MN + 2Py excretion was measured in a longitudinal cohort of 660 KTR with LS-MS/MS. Prospective associations of N1-MN + 2Py excretion were investigated with Cox regression analyses. Median N1-MN + 2Py excretion was 198.3 (155.9-269.4) µmol/day. During follow-up of 5.4 (4.7-6.1) years, 143 KTR died, of whom 40 due to an infectious disease. N1-MN + 2Py excretion was negatively associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.47-0.79; p < 0.001), and infectious mortality specifically (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.75; p = 0.002), independent of potential confounders. Secondary analyses showed effect modification of hs-CRP on the negative prospective association of N1-MN + 2Py excretion, and sensitivity analyses showed negative and independent associations of N1-MN and 2Py excretion with risk of all-cause mortality separately. These findings add further evidence to niacin status as a target for nutritional strategies for improvement of long-term outcome in KTR.

    Multiple and flexible roles of facultative anaerobic bacteria in microaerophilic oleate degradation
    Duarte, M.S. ; Salvador, Andreia F. ; Cavaleiro, Ana J. ; Stams, Alfons J.M. ; Pereira, M.A. ; Alves, M.M. - \ 2020
    Environmental Microbiology (2020). - ISSN 1462-2912

    Anaerobic degradation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) involves syntrophic bacteria and methanogens, but facultative anaerobic bacteria (FAB) might have a relevant role as well. Here we investigated oleate degradation by a syntrophic synthetic co-culture of Syntrophomonas zehnderi (Sz) and Methanobacterium formicicum (Mf) and FAB (two oleate-degrading Pseudomonas spp. I1 + I2). Sz + Mf were first cultivated in a continuous bioreactor under strict anaerobic conditions. Thereafter, I1 + I2 were inoculated and microaerophilic conditions were provided. Methane and acetate were the main degradation products by Sz + Mf in anaerobiosis and by Sz + Mf + I1 + I2 in microaerophilic conditions. However, acetate production from oleate was higher in microaerophilic conditions (5% O2) with the four microorganisms together (0.41 ± 0.07 mmol day−1) than in anaerobiosis with Sz + Mf (0.23 ± 0.05 mmol day−1). Oleate degradation in batch assays was faster by Sz + Mf + I1 + I2 (under microaerophilic conditions) than by Sz + Mf alone (under strict anaerobic conditions). I1 + I2 were able to grow with oleate and with intermediates of oleate degradation (hydrogen, acetate and formate). This work highlights the importance of FAB, particularly Pseudomonas sp., in anaerobic reactors treating oleate-based wastewater, because they accelerate oleate conversion to methane, by protecting strict anaerobes from oxygen toxicity and also by acting as alternative hydrogen/formate and acetate scavengers for LCFA-degrading anaerobes.

    Examining Health of Wetlands with Multiple Ecosystem Services as Targets in China’s Coastal Regions
    Zhou, Yangming ; Dou, Yuehan ; Yu, Xiubo ; Zhang, Li ; Huang, Chong ; Wang, Yuyu ; Li, Xiaowei ; Li, He ; Jia, Yifei ; Bakker, Martha ; Carsjens, Gerrit Jan ; Zhou, Yan ; Duan, Houlang - \ 2020
    Chinese Geographical Science 30 (2020)4. - ISSN 1002-0063 - p. 600 - 613.
    coastal zones - ecosystem services - Wetland Health Index (WHI) - wetland utilization

    Coastal zones are key interconnectors of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Due to the degradation and fragmentation of coastal wetlands, there is an urgent need to develop assessment methodology to compare the health of wetland ecosystems at different spatial scales. This will help efficiently develop and implement protections using easy-to-access ecosystem health data. This study aims to understand the spatial distribution of coastal and inland wetland health for China’s coastal regions. A Wetland Health Index (WHI) was developed to provide a basis for policy and decision making. Four utilization models—Long Term Model, Open Model, Nature Reserve Model, and Protected and Economic Model—were defined in the context of China’s coastal regions to specifically examine wetland health. Results show that the average WHI score was 63.6 with the range of 44.8–84.3 for 35 National Nature Reserves (NNRs), and the southern NNRs generally performed better than the northern NNRs. The wetlands in the southern provinces/municipalities are relatively healthier than their northern counterparts. The competent authority has slight influence on WHI scores but duration of conservation establishment does not show a clear correlation. With increasing economic activity, the differences in health conditions (WHI scores) of China’s coastal regions also increase. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or economic intensification does not relate to WHI scores. Appropriate trade-offs between wetland management and economic development could contribute to improve health conditions, conservation and utilization of coastal and inland wetlands.

    The global abundance of tree palms
    Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography (2020). - ISSN 1466-822X
    above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density

    Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.

    Arsenic in Latin America : New findings on source, mobilization and mobility in human environments in 20 countries based on decadal research 2010-2020
    Bundschuh, Jochen ; Armienta, Maria Aurora ; Morales-Simfors, Nury ; Alam, Mohammad Ayaz ; López, Dina L. ; Delgado Quezada, Valeria ; Dietrich, Sebastian ; Schneider, Jerusa ; Tapia, Joseline ; Sracek, Ondra ; Castillo, Elianna ; Marco Parra, Lue Meru ; Altamirano Espinoza, Maximina ; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto ; Sosa, Numa Nahuel ; Niazi, Nabeel Khan ; Tomaszewska, Barbara ; Lizama Allende, Katherine ; Bieger, Klaus ; Alonso, David L. ; Brandão, Pedro F.B. ; Bhattacharya, Prosun ; Litter, Marta I. ; Ahmad, Arslan - \ 2020
    Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology (2020). - ISSN 1064-3389 - p. 1 - 139.
    Environmental and health impacts - geogenic arsenic in Latin America - sources and mobilization

    Today (year 2020), the globally recognized problem of arsenic (As) contamination of water resources and other environments at toxic levels has been reported in all of the 20 Latin American countries. The present review indicates that As is prevalent in 200 areas across these countries. Arsenic is naturally released into the environment and mobilized from geogenic sources comprising: (i) volcanic rocks and emissions, the latter being transported over thousands of kilometers from the source, (ii) metallic mineral deposits, which get exposed to human beings and livestock through drinking water or food chain, and (iii) As-rich geothermal fluids ascending from deep geothermal reservoirs contaminate freshwater sources. The challenge for mitigation is increased manifold by mining and related activities, as As from mining sites is transported by rivers over long distances and even reaches and contaminates coastal environments. The recognition of the As problem by the authorities in several countries has led to various actions for remediation, but there is a lack of long-term strategies for such interventions. Often only total As concentration is reported, while data on As sources, mobilization, speciation, mobility and pathways are lacking which is imperative for assessing quality of any water source, i.e. public and private.

    The NORMAN Association and the European Partnership for Chemicals Risk Assessment (PARC): let’s cooperate!
    Dulio, Valeria ; Koschorreck, Jan ; Bavel, Bert van; Brink, Paul van den; Hollender, Juliane ; Munthe, John ; Schlabach, Martin ; Aalizadeh, Reza ; Agerstrand, Marlene ; Ahrens, Lutz ; Allan, Ian ; Alygizakis, Nikiforos ; Barcelo, Damia ; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla ; Boutroup, Susanne ; Brack, Werner ; Bressy, Adèle ; Christensen, Jan H. ; Cirka, Lubos ; Covaci, Adrian ; Derksen, Anja ; Deviller, Geneviève ; Dingemans, Milou M.L. ; Engwall, Magnus ; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo ; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo ; Hernández, Félix ; Herzke, Dorte ; Hilscherová, Klára ; Hollert, Henner ; Junghans, Marion ; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara ; Keiter, Steffen ; Kools, Stefan A.E. ; Kruve, Anneli ; Lambropoulou, Dimitra ; Lamoree, Marja ; Leonards, Pim ; Lopez, Benjamin ; López de Alda, Miren ; Lundy, Lian ; Makovinská, Jarmila ; Marigómez, Ionan ; Martin, Jonathan W. ; McHugh, Brendan ; Miège, Cécile ; O’Toole, Simon ; Perkola, Noora ; Polesello, Stefano ; Posthuma, Leo ; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara ; Roessink, Ivo ; Rostkowski, Pawel ; Ruedel, Heinz ; Samanipour, Saer ; Schulze, Tobias ; Schymanski, Emma L. ; Sengl, Manfred ; Tarábek, Peter ; Hulscher, Dorien Ten; Thomaidis, Nikolaos ; Togola, Anne ; Valsecchi, Sara ; Leeuwen, Stefan van; Ohe, Peter von der; Vorkamp, Katrin ; Vrana, Branislav ; Slobodnik, Jaroslav - \ 2020
    Environmental Sciences Europe 32 (2020)1. - ISSN 2190-4707
    Chemical risk assessment and prioritisation - Contaminants of emerging concern - Effect-based methods - Environmental monitoring - High-resolution mass spectrometry - Non-target screening - NORMAN network - Suspect screening

    The Partnership for Chemicals Risk Assessment (PARC) is currently under development as a joint research and innovation programme to strengthen the scientific basis for chemical risk assessment in the EU. The plan is to bring chemical risk assessors and managers together with scientists to accelerate method development and the production of necessary data and knowledge, and to facilitate the transition to next-generation evidence-based risk assessment, a non-toxic environment and the European Green Deal. The NORMAN Network is an independent, well-established and competent network of more than 80 organisations in the field of emerging substances and has enormous potential to contribute to the implementation of the PARC partnership. NORMAN stands ready to provide expert advice to PARC, drawing on its long experience in the development, harmonisation and testing of advanced tools in relation to chemicals of emerging concern and in support of a European Early Warning System to unravel the risks of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and close the gap between research and innovation and regulatory processes. In this commentary we highlight the tools developed by NORMAN that we consider most relevant to supporting the PARC initiative: (i) joint data space and cutting-edge research tools for risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern; (ii) collaborative European framework to improve data quality and comparability; (iii) advanced data analysis tools for a European early warning system and (iv) support to national and European chemical risk assessment thanks to harnessing, combining and sharing evidence and expertise on CECs. By combining the extensive knowledge and experience of the NORMAN network with the financial and policy-related strengths of the PARC initiative, a large step towards the goal of a non-toxic environment can be taken.

    Congruence of Transcription Programs in Adult Stem Cell-Derived Jejunum Organoids and Original Tissue During Long-Term Culture
    Hee, Bart van der; Madsen, Ole ; Vervoort, Jacques ; Smidt, Hauke ; Wells, Jerry M. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 8 (2020). - ISSN 2296-634X
    gastrointestinal - intestinal organoids - IPEC-J2 - organoid stability - porcine organoids

    The emergence of intestinal organoids, as a stem cell-based self-renewable model system, has led to many studies on intestinal development and cell-cell signaling. However, potential issues regarding the phenotypic stability and reproducibility of the methodology during culture still needs to be addressed for different organoids. Here we investigated the transcriptomes of jejunum organoids derived from the same pig as well as batch-to-batch variation of organoids derived from different pigs over long-term passage. The set of genes expressed in organoids closely resembled that of the tissue of origin, including small intestine specific genes, for at least 17 passages. Minor differences in gene expression were observed between individual organoid cultures. In contrast, most small intestine-specific genes were not expressed in the jejunum cell line IPEC-J2, which also showed gene expression consistent with cancer phenotypes. We conclude that intestinal organoids provide a robust and stable model for translational research with clear advantages over transformed cells.

    Long-term effect of composted tannery sludge on soil chemical and biological parameters
    Araujo, Ademir Sergio Ferreira ; Melo, Wanderley José de; Araujo, Fabio Fernando ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2020
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2020). - ISSN 0944-1344
    Environmental contamination - Industrial waste - Metals - Soil quality

    Composting has been recommended as a suitable alternative for recycling wastes and could improve tannery sludge (TS) before its use. However, the long-term application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) may bring concerns about its effects on soil properties and, consequently, on plants and environment, mainly when considering Cr contamination. In this study, we summarize the responses of soil chemical and biological parameters in a 10-year study with yearly applications of CTS. Chemical and biological parameters were assessed in soil samples, and the multivariate analysis method principal response curve (PRC) was used to show the temporal changes in all the biological and chemical properties caused by CTS. The PRC analysis showed different long-term response patterns of chemical and biological parameters according to the rates of CTS. Interestingly, Cr content increased strongly in the first 5 years and only increased slightly in the following 5 years. The yearly applications of CTS changed the biological and chemical parameters of the soil, negatively and positively, respectively. Organic matter, K and P, increased during the 10 years of application, while soil pH and Cr concentration increased, and soil microbial biomass and enzymes activity decreased.

    Effectiveness of re-vegetated forest and grassland on soil erosion control in the semi-arid Loess Plateau
    Liu, Yi Fan ; Liu, Yu ; Shi, Zhi Hua ; López-Vicente, Manuel ; Wu, Gao Lin - \ 2020
    Catena 195 (2020). - ISSN 0341-8162
    Afforestation policy - Re-vegetation type - Runoff reduction benefit - Sediment reduction benefit - Understory grasses

    Afforestation reduces soil loss and minimizes landslide risk worldwide, but little is known on the effectiveness of afforestation policies to control soil erosion with different vegetation types in semi-arid areas. Understanding the effectiveness of distinct re-vegetation types under different physiographic conditions (slope gradient, percentage of vegetation cover and rainfall depth) is essential for better policy formulation. This study examines the benefits of soil erosion control in forests and grasslands using published data. This analysis proves that the benefits of vegetation restoration increase with increasing the vegetation cover and tend to be stable when the coverage exceeds 60%. The benefits on sediment yield reduction are more sensitive (vs. runoff reduction benefit) to rainfall intensity. Regarding slopes and soil erosion control, the highest efficiencies appear in forests on 20–25° slopes and in grasslands on 15–20° slopes. Grasslands can effectively reduce soil erosion, as well as forests with understory grasses. For long-term restoration, a 60% vegetation cover maximizes the benefits of reducing soil erosion and maintaining enough soil water supply that prevents possible soil drought. We propose that future afforestation policies should evaluate in advance the appropriate re-vegetation type; meanwhile, suitable vegetation coverage and local physiographic conditions should be considered. Importantly, promotion of grassland and preservation of forest understory grasses must be enforced in land use policies when considering afforestation to minimize soil erosion. We suggest further research to quantify the efficiency of understory vegetation on soil erosion control, which might provide scientific and practical guidance for afforestation policy in semi-arid areas.

    Fifty Years of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Research at Cabauw Serving Weather, Air Quality and Climate
    Bosveld, Fred C. ; Baas, Peter ; Beljaars, Anton C.M. ; Vilà-guerau De Arellano, Jordi ; De Wiel, Bas J.H. Van - \ 2020
    Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2020). - ISSN 0006-8314 - 30 p.
    An overview is given of 50-year Cabauw observations and research on the structure and dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer. It is shown that over time this research site with its 200-m meteorological tower has grown into an atmospheric observatory with a comprehensive observational program encompassing almost all aspects of the atmospheric column including its boundary conditions. This is accomplished by the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) a consortium of research institutes. CESAR plays an important role in the educational programs of the CESAR universities. The current boundary-layer observational program is described in detail, and other parts of the CESAR observational program discussed more briefly. Due to an open data policy the CESAR datasets are used by researchers all over the world. Examples are given of the use of the long time series for model evaluation, satellite validation, and process studies. The role of tall towers is discussed in relation to the development of more and better ground-based remote sensing techniques. CESAR is now incorporated into the Ruisdael observatory, the large-scale atmospheric research infrastructure in the Netherlands. With Ruisdael the embedding of the Dutch atmospheric community in national policy landscape, and in the European atmospheric research infrastructures is assured for the coming decade
    Impactos de la progresiva expansión urbana en las temperaturas del subsuelo de la ciudad de Amsterdam (Países Bajos)
    Visser, Philip W. ; Kooi, Henk ; Bense, Victor ; Boerma, Emiel - \ 2020
    Hydrogeology Journal 28 (2020). - ISSN 1431-2174 - p. 1755 - 1772.
    Geothermal potential - Groundwater temperature - Numerical modeling - Subsurface urban heat island - The Netherlands

    Subsurface temperatures are substantially higher in urban areas than in surrounding rural environments; the result is a subsurface urban heat island (SUHI). SUHIs and their drivers have received attention in studies world-wide. In this study, a well-constrained data set of subsurface temperatures from Amsterdam, The Netherlands, is presented. The study demonstrates that, through modeling of centuries-long (from fourteenth to twenty-first century) urban development and climate change, along with the history of both the surface urban heat-island temperatures and ground surface temperatures, it is possible to simulate the development and present state of the Amsterdam SUHI. The results provide insight into the drivers of long-term SUHI development, which makes it possible to distinguish subterranean heat sources of more recent times that are localized drivers (such as geothermal energy systems, sewers, boiler basements, subway stations or district heating) from larger-scale drivers (mainly heat loss from buildings and raised ground-surface temperatures due to pavements). Because these findings have consequences for the assessment of the shallow geothermal potential of the SUHIs, it is proposed to distinguish between (1) a regional, long-term SUHI that has developed over centuries due to the larger-scale drivers, and (2) local anomalies caused by anthropogenic heat sources less than one century old.

    Shock interactions, coping strategy choices and household food security
    Ansah, I.G.K. ; Gardebroek, C. ; Ihle, R. - \ 2020
    Climate and Development (2020). - ISSN 1756-5529
    Asset depletion - food security - incremental effects - shock interactions - Ghana
    Agriculture-based livelihoods in developing countries are often challenged by a multitude of unforeseeable shocks, but economic research mostly focuses on single shocks. This paper investigates how climate, health, pest and price shocks individually and in combination relate to farm households’ coping strategy choices. First, we use binary probit models to examine how interactions from coinciding shocks relate to coping strategy choices. Next, we assess how coping strategies relate to household food security in a recursive framework. We find that when shocks are considered individually, the nature of shocks and their duration affect the likelihood of using savings. However, when climate shocks interact with health, pest or price shocks, there are incremental effects that increase the probability of depleting household assets to cope. Our findings suggest that governmental and non-governmental organizations should support rural farm households in managing the effects of multiple shocks through the provision and enhancement of markets for labour, insurance and outputs as well as formal safety nets. This support will help them to protect their assets and foster long-term wealth creation for escaping chronic poverty and food insecurity.
    A micro-solid phase extraction device to prepare a molecularly imprinted porous monolith in a facile mode for fast protein separation
    Mehta, Riddhi ; Beek, T.A. van; Tetala, K.K.R. - \ 2020
    Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1627 (2020). - ISSN 0021-9673
    A molecularly imprinted polymeric monolith was synthesized in an aqueous environment in 15 min via UV-irradiation. The imprinted monolith was composed of hydroxyethyl methacrylate as monomer, dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate as functional monomer, methylene bisacrylamide and piperazine di- acrylamide as crosslinkers and human serum albumin as template molecule. The synthesis took place in a PDMS-based device (2.5 cm long) yielding a micro-solid phase extraction column (3 ×5 mm) with two built-in fingertight connectors for an infusion pump and fraction collector. The imprinted monolith displayed the characteristic features of a porous polymeric monolith, had dimethyl amino ethyl methacry- late and human serum albumin as functional groups within the monolith and showed high permeability (0.51 ×10 −13 m 2 ). 85% of the imprinted cavities were readily available for rebinding of human serum albumin with an imprinting factor of 1.3. In comparison to a non-imprinted monolith, molecular imprint- ing increased human serum albumin adsorption by > 30%. Imprinted monolith displayed selectivity for human serum albumin over other competing proteins (human transferrin, ovalbumin and carbonic an- hydrase) with similar or different isoelectric points and size. Human serum albumin was adsorbed (in dynamic mode) with > 98% selectivity from diluted human plasma using the imprinted monolith de- vice. Device to device reproducibility and reusability of the device for 5 cycles showcase the imprinted monolith micro-device efficiency.
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