Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Droogte in zandgebieden van Zuid-, Midden- en Oost-Nederland : Rapportage fase 1: ontwikkeling van uniforme werkwijze voor analyse van droogte en tussentijdse bevindingen
    Eertwegh, Gé van den; Bartholomeus, Ruud ; Louw, Perry de; Witte, Flip ; Dam, Jos van; Deijl, Dion van; Hoefsloot, Peter ; Clevers, Sharon ; Hendriks, Dimmie ; Huijgevoort, Marjolein van; Hunink, Joachim ; Mulder, Niels ; Pouwels, Janneke ; Wit, Janine de - \ 2019
    Berg en Dal : KnowH2O - 95
    Hoe bepaal je de effecten van beregening op het watersysteem?
    Massop, H.T.L. ; Louw, Perry de - \ 2019
    Maaiveldafvoer: verkennend onderzoek naar een onderbelicht hydrologisch verschijnsel
    Worm, B. ; Louw, Perry de; Bakel, Jan van; Massop, H.T.L. - \ 2019
    Water Matters : Kenniskatern voor Waterprofessionals - Dutch edition (2019)april. - p. 32 - 35.
    Maaiveldafvoer is in Nederland slecht bekend. Om meer grip op dit verschijnsel te krijgen is in 2014 en 2015 op een aantal percelen nabij Ootmarsum een eerste meetonderzoek uitgevoerd. De uitkomsten zijn meegenomen in een theoretische vervolgstudie omtrent maatgevende afvoeren in het werkgebied van Waterschap Vechtstromen. Dat heeft geresulteerd in een set kaarten die de (theoretische) maaiveldafvoer gebiedsdekkend duiden. Het is de bedoeling om de waarde van deze kaarten (en de gehanteerde methode) te toetsen met aanvullende veldproeven.
    Het langetermijngeheugen van de zoet-zoutverdeling
    Louw, Perry de; Oude Essink, Gualbert ; Delsman, Joost ; Baaren, Esther S. van; America, Ilja ; Engelen, van, Joeri - \ 2019
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 43 - 60.
    Dit artikel beschrijft de ontwikkeling van de zoetzoutverdeling in het Nederlandse grondwater. Deze verdeling is sterk bepaald door de paleogeografische ontwikkeling gedurende het Holoceen en kent een groot langetermijngeheugen. Er worden twee typen grondwatersystemen beschreven: het West-Nederland systeem, waar autonome verzilting en wellen sleutelbegrippen zijn, en het Zeeuwse systeem, waar drie typen zoetwaterlenzen worden besproken. We laten aan de hand van de FRESHEM-Zeeland-resultaten zien dat airborne-elektromagnetische meettechnieken zeer geschikt zijn voor het in beeld brengen van de zoet-zoutverdeling. Vervolgens wordt ingegaan op het modelleren van de initiële zoet-zoutverdeling, waarbij de combinatie van paleomodellering en gebruik van metingen een geschikte methode lijkt. De initiële zoet-zoutverdeling is een belangrijke modelparameter bij het voorspellen van toekomstige veranderingen van zoete grondwatervoorraden als gevolg van ingrepen, klimaatverandering en zeespiegelstijging.
    Temperature buffering by groundwater in ecologically valuable lowland streams under current and future climate conditions
    Kaandorp, Vince P. ; Doornenbal, Pieter J. ; Kooi, Henk ; Peter Broers, Hans ; Louw, Perry G.B. de - \ 2019
    Journal of Hydrology 3 (2019). - ISSN 0022-1694
    Climate change - Distributed temperature sensing - Groundwater-surface water interaction - Radon-222 - Stream temperature - Stream temperature model

    Groundwater seepage influences the temperature of streams and rivers by providing a relatively cool input in summer and warm input in winter. Because of this, groundwater seepage can be a determining factor in the provision of suitable water temperatures for aquatic biota. Climate warming affects stream and groundwater temperatures, and changes the thermal characteristics of streams leading to the potential disappearance of habitats. In this study the importance of groundwater for the temperature of two Dutch lowland streams and its possible role in mitigating the effects of climate change was determined by combining field measurements and a modelling experiment. Stream temperature measurements using fibre optic cables (FO-DTS) and sampling of 222 Rn were done to map localized groundwater inflow. Several springs and seepage ‘hot-spots’ were located which buffered the water temperature in summer and winter. A stream temperature model was constructed and calibrated using the FO-DTS-measurements to quantify the energy fluxes acting on stream water. This way, the contribution to the stream thermal budget of direct solar radiation, air temperature and seepage were separated. The model was then used to simulate the effects of changes in shading, groundwater seepage and climate. Shading was shown to be an important control on summer temperature maxima. Groundwater seepage seemed to buffer the effect of climate warming, potentially making groundwater dominated streams more climate robust. Protecting groundwater resources in a changing climate is important for the survival of aquatic species in groundwater-fed systems, as groundwater seepage both sustains flow and buffers temperature extremes.

    GO-FRESH: Valorisatie kansrijke oplossingen voor een robuuste zoetwatervoorziening : Rendabel en duurzaam watergebruik in een zilte omgeving
    Veraart, J.A. ; Oude Essink, G. ; Pauw, P. ; Baaren, E. van; Zuurbier, K. ; Louw, P. de; MacAteer, E. ; Schoot, M. van der; Groot, N. ; Cappon, H. ; Waterloo, M. ; Hu-a-ng, K. ; Groen, M. - \ 2018
    Deltares - 187 p.
    Climate smart agriculture as an investable business model for financial institutions? : workshop within the SDG Conference 'Towards Zero Hunger: Partnerships for Impact', 30-31 August 2018, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Wattel, C.J. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Bolt, J.S. ; Ooms, Sonja ; Mensink, Mariel ; Ceccarelli, T. ; Louw, Corné de; Splinter, G.M. - \ 2018
    Wageningen University & Research (Workshop report Climate-Smart Agriculture as an investable business model ) - 33 p.
    Maaiveldafvoer in Beeld
    Bakel, P.J.T. van; Louw, P.G.B. de; Massop, H.T.L. ; Worm, B. - \ 2018
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 32 (2018)2. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 23 - 35.
    Maaiveldafvoer is één van de slechtst bekende hydrologische verschijnselen, terwijl het belang van meer kennis erover evident is voor iedereen die in het ruimtelijk domein werkzaam is. Van de boer en waterbeheerder tot de strategische planner. Immers, als we zowel het proces als de parameterisatie niet goed in de vingers hebben, hoe kunnen we dan goede voorspelmodellen maken? En hoe kunnen we een juiste afweging maken tussen maatregelen die geacht worden van invloed te zijn op die maaiveldafvoer om zo ingezet te worden tegen ongewenste overstromingen benedenstrooms? Maaiveldafvoer is bovendien een veelkoppig monster. Het kan namelijk leiden tot extreem hoge afvoeren, erosie en tot piekbelastingen met nutriënten en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen op het oppervlaktewater. De neerslaggebeurtenissen onder invloed van het klimaat worden ook extremer en daarmee nemen ook de kans en omvang van het optreden van deze grote onbekende toe. Aanleiding genoeg om het fenomeen maaiveldafvoer beter in beeld te brengen. In dit artikel geven wij allereerst enige achtergronden bij het proces maaiveldafvoer. Vervolgens geven we een samenvatting van een verkennend onderzoek waarbij gebiedsdekkend voor het waterschap Vechtstromen de maaiveldafvoer in beeld is gebracht. Ten slotte dalen we af van regionaal naar lokaal niveau door een praktische toepassing van kennis van maaiveldafvoer bij het Natura 2000-gebied Boetelerveld te beschrijven.
    Influence of tides, bathymetry, lithology and regional flows on the salinization process in nature area the Rammegors
    America, Ilja ; Louw, Perry de; Bier, George ; Zee, Sjoerd van der - \ 2018
    In: 25th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting (SWIM 2018). - EDP Sciences (E3S Web of Conferences ) - 6 p.

    Nature area Rammegors, which has recently been transformed from a fresh inner-dyke nature area to a salt tidal area. Due to this transformation, salt water is infiltrating in a fresh waterlens. This salinisation process is investigated in more detail by two- and three dimensional models together with mearsurements in the area. Zeeland project FRESHEM has provided detailed isohaline maps of the area and Deltares is making transient isohaline maps based on measurements made by an ERT-cable which is situated in Rammegors. These data has been and will be used to investigate which factors; bathymetry, lithology, tides or regional groundwater flow, will have the largest impact on the salinization process in Rammegors. This investigation shows that discretization size has an influence on the speed and spatial distribution of salt plumes. Lithology has the largest influence on the salinization process, followed by bathymetry. Spring and neap tides do differ from the normal tides situation only when bathymetry is not taken into account.

    Land subsidence by peat oxidation leads to enhanced salinization through boils in Dutch polders
    Louw, Perry G.B. de; Bootsma, Huite ; Kooi, Henk ; Kramer, Mark ; Erkens, Gilles - \ 2018
    In: 25th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting (SWIM 2018). - EDP Sciences (E3S Web of Conferences ) - 6 p.

    Peat oxidation in deep Dutch polders leads - in addition to subsidence - to the development of new saline boils, enhancing the salinization of these polders. This on-going process is studied in detail in the Middelburg-Tempelpolder. The objective of the study was to get more in-depth knowledge about this process and to assess it for the present situation and for future landscapes (after 10, 50, 100 and 500 years).

    Groundwater salinity mapping of the Belgian coastal zone to improve local freshwater storage availability
    Vandevelde, Dieter ; Baaren, Esther Van; Delsman, Joost ; Karaoulis, Marios ; Oude Essink, Gualbert ; Louw, Perry de; Vermaas, Tommer ; Pauw, Pieter ; Kleine, Marco De; Thofte, Sara ; Teilmann, Rasmus ; Walraevens, Kristine ; Camp, Marc Van; Dominique, Huits ; Dabekaussen, Willem ; Gunnink, Jan ; Vandenbohede, Alexander - \ 2018
    In: 25th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting (SWIM 2018). - EDP Sciences (E3S Web of Conferences ) - 6 p.

    In the European TOPSOIL project, countries around the North Sea are searching for solutions for climate related threats. They explore the possibilities of using the topsoil layer to solve current and future water challenges. The main objective is to improve the climate resilience of the water management of the topsoil and shallow aquifers in the North Sea region. TOPSOIL is supported by the Interreg VB North Sea Region program in line with priority 3 of the program: 'Sustainable North Sea Region, protecting against climate change and preserving the environment'. The Belgian part of this project, called FRESHEM for GO-FRESH Vlaanderen ('FREsh Salt groundwater distribution by Helicopter ElectroMagnetic survey for Geohydrological Opportunities FRESH water supply'), focuses on mapping the salinity distribution of groundwater using airborne electromagnetics and aims to look into a number of measures that could increase the availability of freshwater for agriculture in the polder area. Two pilot projects will evaluate the possibilities for freshwater storage and aims to specify what measures can be taken to achieve this. Together with the other water users and water managers, The Flanders Environment Agency wants to prepare a plan for the realization of one or more pilot projects that can improve the availability of freshwater.

    Impact of hydraulic and storage properties on river leakage estimates : A numerical groundwater flow model case study from southern Benin
    Kpegli, Kodjo Apelete Raoul ; Zee, Sjoerd E.A.T.M. van der; Alassane, Abdoukarim ; Bier, George ; Boukari, Moussa ; Leijnse, Anton ; Louw, Perry G.B. de; Mama, Daouda - \ 2018
    Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies 19 (2018). - ISSN 2214-5818 - p. 136 - 163.
    Benin - Discharge loss - Flow modelling - Groundwater recharge - Ouémé - River leakage

    Study area: The coastal sedimentary basin including the Zou and Ouémé rivers in Benin. Study focus: River discharge loss is known to occur on the Zou and Ouémé rivers in southern Benin since a couple of decades ago. The reason behind this discharge reduction remained so far unclear. In this study, we focus on creating a 3D-numerical model of the system and on evaluating the sensitivity of leakage between the rivers and aquifers to various parameters. New hydrological insights for the region: Results show that leakages along the Zou river and Ouémé stream are tiny (i.e., ∼3% of the discharge losses). This implies that the observed water loss from the Zou and Ouémé rivers is not likely caused by the leakage (infiltration) along these rivers into the subsurface. The streambed conductance is found to be among the factors that impact less the computed leakages in the study area. This study has ranked the different hydraulic and storage properties in their order of importance with respect to the computation of river leakages along the concerned rivers. The determined rank of importance of the hydraulic and storage properties can guide river leakage modelling exercises in similar regions elsewhere.

    Polderen met de PAS in Twente : Verslag van de najaarsbijeenkomst van de NHV, 29 september 2016: 'Natura2000 en ecohydrologie, een praktijkvoorbeeld in Twente!'
    Witte, F. ; Louw, P. de - \ 2017
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 27 (2017)1. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 61 - 65.
    Ongeveer 35 mensen namen op 29 september 2016 de moeite om naar hotel-restaurant Tante Sien in Vasse (gemeente Tubbergen) af te reizen, om daar een bijeenkomst van de NHV bij te wonen. Een bont gezelschap van hydrologen, biologen, beleidsmakers, een meteoroloog, een tuinder en een verdwaalde fietsenmaker. Aanleiding was het 'fieldlab' dat hydroloog Jan van Bakel (Bakelse stroom), samen met landbouwdeskundige Inge Hageman (LTO Noord) en ecoloog Fons Eysink (Bosgroepen), uitvoerden naar maatregelen om de natuur te redden in het prachtige Springendal en het dal van de Mosbeek. In dit fieldlab heeft het drietal met de boer van ieder perceel gesproken om te bepalen wat er moet gebeuren in het kader van de Programmatische Aanpak Stikstof (PAS). Maatwerk in de praktijk, daar komt het fieldlab op neer.
    Maatgevende afvoer en maaiveldafvoer in waterschap Vechtstromen : beschouwing over de bruikbaarheid van afvoernormen voor bepaling van veranderingen in de waterhuishouding en het optreden van maaiveldafvoer
    Massop, H.Th.L. ; Bakel, P.J.T. ; Louw, P.G.B. de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2839) - 71
    drainage - waterbeheer - afvoer - oppervlakkige afvoer - klimaatverandering - nederland - drainage - water management - discharge - runoff - climatic change - netherlands
    Dit rapport beschrijft (1) een evaluatie van de MA-methodiek (Maatgevende Afvoer) toegepast door harmonisatie van de legger van het waterschap Vechtstromen en brengt (2) de maaiveladafvoer voor het waterschapgebied in beeld.
    Cation exchange in a temporally fluctuating thin freshwater lens on top of saline groundwater
    Eeman, S. ; Louw, P.G.B. de; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2017
    Hydrogeology Journal 25 (2017)1. - ISSN 1431-2174 - p. 223 - 241.
    In coastal-zone fields with a high groundwater level and sufficient rainfall, freshwater lenses are formed on top of saline or brackish groundwater. The fresh and the saline water meet at shallow depth, where a transition zone is found. This study investigates the mixing zone that is characterized by this salinity change, as well as by cation exchange processes, and which is forced by seepage and by rainfall which varies as a function of time. The processes are first investigated for a one-dimensional (1D) stream tube perpendicular to the interface concerning salt and major cation composition changes. The complex sequence of changes is explained with basic cation exchange theory. It is also possible to show that the sequence of changes is maintained when a two-dimensional field is considered where the upward saline seepage flows to drains. This illustrates that for cation exchange, the horizontal component (dominant for flow of water) has a small impact on the chemical changes in the vertical direction. The flow’s horizontal orientation, parallel to the interface, leads to changes in concentration that are insignificant compared with those that are found perpendicular to the interface, and are accounted for in the 1D flow tube. Near the drains, differences with the 1D considerations are visible, especially in the longer term, exceeding 100 years. The simulations are compared with field data from the Netherlands which reveal similar patterns.
    Fresh Water Lens Persistence and Root Zone Salinization Hazard Under Temperate Climate
    Stofberg, Sija F. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Pauw, Pieter S. ; Louw, Perry G.B. de; Leijnse, Anton ; Zee, Sjoerd E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2017
    Water Resources Management 31 (2017)2. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 689 - 702.
    Fresh water lens - Root zone salinization - Salinity - Simple model - salinization - fresh water - models - water supply - coastal areas - zoutgehalte - verzilting - zoet water - modellen - watervoorziening - kustgebieden

    In low lying deltaic areas in temperate climates, groundwater can be brackish to saline at shallow depth, even with a yearly rainfall excess. For primary production in horticulture, agriculture, and terrestrial nature areas, the fresh water availability may be restricted to so-called fresh water lenses: relatively thin pockets of fresh groundwater floating on top of saline groundwater. The persistence of such fresh water lenses, as well as the quantity and quality of surface water is expected to be under pressure due to climate change, as summer droughts may intensify in North-West Europe. Better understanding through modelling of these fresh water resources may help anticipate the impact of salinity on primary production. We use a simple model to determine in which circumstances fresh water lenses may disappear during summer droughts, as that could give rise to enhanced root zone salinity. With a more involved combination of expert judgement and numerical simulations, it is possible to give an appraisal of the hazard that fresh water lenses disappear for the Dutch coastal regions. For such situations, we derive an analytical tool for anticipating the resulting salinization of the root zone, which agrees well with numerical simulations. The provided tools give a basis to quantify which lenses are in hazard of disappearing periodically, as well as an impression in which coastal areas this hazard is largest. Accordingly, these results and the followed procedure may assist water management decisions and prioritization strategies leading to a secure/robust fresh water supply on a national to regional scale.

    Increasing a freshwater lens below a creek ridge using a controlled artificial recharge and drainage system: a case study in the Netherlands
    Pauw, P.S. ; Baaren, Esther S. van; Visser, Martijn ; Louw, Perry G.B. de; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P. - \ 2015
    Hydrogeology Journal 23 (2015)7. - ISSN 1431-2174 - p. 1415 - 1430.
    Artificial recharge - Coastal aquifers - Creek ridge - Salt-water/fresh-water relations - The Netherlands

    A controlled artificial recharge and drainage (CARD) system was used to increase freshwater lenses below creek ridges to increase freshwater supply. Creek ridges are typical geomorphological features that lie up to 2 m higher than the surroundings in the reclaimed tidal flat landscape of the southwestern Netherlands. The 5–30-m thick freshwater lenses below the creek ridges are a vital source for irrigation, as the groundwater and surface waters are predominantly saline. However, freshwater supply from these lenses is commonly not sufficient to meet the irrigation demand, which leads to crop damage. The CARD system was tested in the field and the development of the freshwater lens was monitored during the period May 2013 to May 2014. Numerical models, which were used to investigate a long-term effect of the CARD system, predicted that below the center of the creek ridge, the 13–15-m thick freshwater lens increased 6–8 m within 10 years. The total volumetric increase of the freshwater lens was about 190,000 m3 after 10 years, which was about 40 % of the total recharge (natural and artificial recharge). From this increased freshwater lens, up to three times more water can be extracted using horizontal wells, compared to the initial size of the freshwater lens. A higher water table in the CARD system leads to a thicker freshwater lens but a lower storage efficiency. A lower water table has the opposite effect.

    The regional feasibility of augmented local water storages
    Nikkels, M.J. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Delsman, J.R. ; Louw, Perry G.B. de; Oel, P.R. van; Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Vellinga, P. ; Velstra, J. ; Hellegers, P.J.G.J. - \ 2015
    Zelfvoorzienend in zoetwater: zoek de mogelijkheden : kleinschalige oplossingen voor een robuustere regionale zoetwatervoorziening
    Jeuken, A. ; Tolk, L. ; Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Delsman, J. ; Louw, P. de; Baaren, E. van; Paalman, M. - \ 2015
    Amersfoort : Stowa (Rapport / STOWA 2015-30) - ISBN 9789057736940 - 73
    watervoorziening - watertekort - zoet water - waterbeheer - watergebruik - zelfvoorziening - klimaatverandering - water supply - water deficit - fresh water - water management - water use - self sufficiency - climatic change
    In deze STOWA publicatie ‘Zoek het zelf uit’: Kleinschalige oplossingen voor een robuustere regionale zoetwatervoorziening wordt een overzicht gegeven van de maatregelen die waterbeheerders en watergebruikers in de regio kunnen treffen om de zelfvoorzienendheid op het gebied van zoetwater te vergroten. Dit sluit aan bij de ambities die in het Deltaprogramma zijn geformuleerd om de watertekorten die in de toekomst worden verwacht naast de maatregelen in het hoofdwatersysteem met lokale maatregelen in de regio te ondervangen. Er is een groot aantal van dit soort maatregelen beschikbaar om de neerslag die in een gebied valt beter te benutten, waarmee de zelfvoorzienendheid kan worden vergroot. Een flink aantal pilot studies loopt nog of zijn in het recente verleden afgerond.
    Low-resolution modeling of dense drainage networks in confining layers
    Pauw, P.S. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Leijnse, A. ; Delsman, J.R. ; Louw, P.G.B. de; Lange, W.J. de; Oude Essink, G.H.P. - \ 2015
    Groundwater 53 (2015)5. - ISSN 0017-467X - p. 771 - 781.
    grondwaterstroming - watervoerende lagen - modellen - klimaatverandering - groundwater flow - aquifers - models - climatic change - aquifer - simulation - intrusion - seepage - florida - system - field - flow
    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction in numerical groundwater flow models is generally simulated using a Cauchy boundary condition, which relates the flow between the surface water and the groundwater to the product of the head difference between the node and the surface water level, and a coefficient, often referred to as the “conductance.” Previous studies have shown that in models with a low grid resolution, the resistance to GW-SW interaction below the surface water bed should often be accounted for in the parameterization of the conductance, in addition to the resistance across the surface water bed. Three conductance expressions that take this resistance into account were investigated: two that were presented by Mehl and Hill (2010) and the one that was presented by De Lange (1999). Their accuracy in low-resolution models regarding salt and water fluxes to a dense drainage network in a confined aquifer system was determined. For a wide range of hydrogeological conditions, the influence of (1) variable groundwater density; (2) vertical grid discretization; and (3) simulation of both ditches and tile drains in a single model cell was investigated. The results indicate that the conductance expression of De Lange (1999) should be used in similar hydrogeological conditions as considered in this paper, as it is better taking into account the resistance to flow below the surface water bed. For the cases that were considered, the influence of variable groundwater density and vertical grid discretization on the accuracy of the conductance expression of De Lange (1999) is small.
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