Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Analyzing Components of Productivity Growth Using the Bennet-Lowe Indicator: An Application to Welsh Sheep Farms
Ang, Frederic - \ 2019
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 101 (2019)4. - ISSN 0002-9092 - p. 1262 - 1276.
Bennet-Lowe indicator - data envelopment analysis - decomposition - distance function - total factor productivity - transitivity

This article introduces the Bennet-Lowe Total Factor Productivity (TFP) indicator. The proposed measure is difference-based, additively complete, and transitive. We also develop a general nonparametric framework to exhaustively decompose all Bennet-Type TFP indicators, including the one introduced here, into technical change, technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change, and mix efficiency change. This decomposition provides a powerful tool for policy makers to guide financial decisions on research and development, extension, subsidies, and price support. The empirical application focuses on the Welsh sheep sector for the years 2001-2014. The results show that in this 14-year period, Welsh sheep farms increased their TFP by 30.28% on average (2.33% p.a.). However, the exhaustive decomposition shows that TFP growth is not distributed equally across all farms, with an increasing divergence between front-runners and laggards. The negative values of scale efficiency change and mix efficiency change cast doubt on the current subsidy policies.

Engineering the unicellular alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum for high-value plant triterpenoid production
Adamo, Sarah D'; Schiano di Visconte, Gino ; Lowe, Gavin ; Szaub-Newton, Joanna ; Beacham, Tracey ; Landels, Andrew ; Allen, Michael J. ; Spicer, Andrew ; Matthijs, Michiel - \ 2018
Plant Biotechnology Journal 17 (2018)1. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 75 - 87.
algal synthetic biology - betulin - blue biotechnology - diatoms - lupeol - microalgae - natural product - triterpenoid biosynthesis

Plant triterpenoids constitute a diverse class of organic compounds that play a major role in development, plant defence and environmental interaction. Several triterpenes have demonstrated potential as pharmaceuticals. One example is betulin, which has shown promise as a pharmaceutical precursor for the treatment of certain cancers and HIV. Major challenges for triterpenoid commercialization include their low production levels and their cost-effective purification from the complex mixtures present in their natural hosts. Therefore, attempts to produce these compounds in industrially relevant microbial systems such as bacteria and yeasts have attracted great interest. Here, we report the production of the triterpenes betulin and its precursor lupeol in the photosynthetic diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a unicellular eukaryotic alga. This was achieved by introducing three plant enzymes in the microalga: a Lotus japonicus oxidosqualene cyclase and a Medicago truncatula cytochrome P450 along with its native reductase. The introduction of the L. japonicus oxidosqualene cyclase perturbed the mRNA expression levels of the native mevalonate and sterol biosynthesis pathway. The best performing strains were selected and grown in a 550-L pilot-scale photobioreactor facility. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive pathway engineering undertaken in a diatom and the first time that a sapogenin has been artificially produced in a microalga, demonstrating the feasibility of the photo-bio-production of more complex high-value, metabolites in microalgae.

Recent progress in understanding climate thresholds : Ice sheets, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, tropical forests and responses to ocean acidification
Good, Peter ; Bamber, Jonathan ; Halladay, Kate ; Harper, Anna B. ; Jackson, Laura C. ; Kay, Gillian ; Kruijt, Bart ; Lowe, Jason A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Ridley, Jeff ; Srokosz, Meric ; Turley, Carol ; Williamson, Phillip - \ 2018
Progress in Physical Geography 42 (2018)1. - ISSN 0309-1333 - p. 24 - 60.
Atlantic meridional overturning circulation - climate change - ice sheets - ocean acidification - thresholds - tropical forests
This article reviews recent scientific progress, relating to four major systems that could exhibit threshold behaviour: ice sheets, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), tropical forests and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification. The focus is on advances since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5). The most significant developments in each component are identified by synthesizing input from multiple experts from each field. For ice sheets, some degree of irreversible loss (timescales of millennia) of part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may have already begun, but the rate and eventual magnitude of this irreversible loss is uncertain. The observed AMOC overturning has decreased from 2004–2014, but it is unclear at this stage whether this is forced or is internal variability. New evidence from experimental and natural droughts has given greater confidence that tropical forests are adversely affected by drought. The ecological and socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification are expected to greatly increase over the range from today’s annual value of around 400, up to 650 ppm CO2 in the atmosphere (reached around 2070 under RCP8.5), with the rapid development of aragonite undersaturation at high latitudes affecting calcifying organisms. Tropical coral reefs are vulnerable to the interaction of ocean acidification and temperature rise, and the rapidity of those changes, with severe losses and risks to survival at 2 °C warming above pre-industrial levels. Across the four systems studied, however, quantitative evidence for a difference in risk between 1.5 and 2 °C warming above pre-industrial levels is limited.
Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease
Lowe-Power, Tiffany M. ; Hendrich, Connor G. ; Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda von; Li, Bin ; Wu, Dousheng ; Mitra, Raka ; Dalsing, Beth L. ; Ricca, Patrizia ; Naidoo, Jacinth ; Cook, David ; Jancewicz, Amy ; Masson, Patrick ; Thomma, Bart ; Lahaye, Thomas ; Michael, Anthony J. ; Allen, Caitilyn - \ 2018
Environmental Microbiology 20 (2018)4. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 1330 - 1349.
Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 μM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required≥15 μM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite.
De luipaardgrondel Thorogobius ephippiatus (Lowe, 1839) in de Noordzee
Moorsel, Godfried W.N.M. Van; Coolen, J.W.P. - \ 2017
Het zeepaard 77 (2017)2. - ISSN 0926-3497 - p. 85 - 92.
Trigger sequence can influence final morphology in the self-assembly of asymmetric telechelic polymers
Kumar, Aatish ; Lowe, C.P. ; Cohen Stuart, M.A. ; Bolhuis, P.G. - \ 2016
Soft Matter 12 (2016)7. - ISSN 1744-683X - p. 2095 - 2107.

We report on a numerical study of polymer network formation of asymmetric biomimetic telechelic polymers with two reactive ends based on a self-assembling collagen, elastin or silk-like polypeptide sequence. The two reactive ends of the polymer can be activated independently using physicochemical triggers such as temperature and pH. We show, using a simple coarse grained model that the order in which this triggering occurs influences the final morphology. For both of collagen-silk and elastin-silk topologies we find that for relatively short connector chains the morphology of the assembly is greatly influenced by the order of the trigger, whereas for longer chains the equilibrium situation is more easily achieved. Moreover, self-assembly is greatly enhanced at moderate collagen interaction strength, due to facilitated binding and unbinding of the peptides. This finding indicates that both the trigger sequence and strength can be used to steer self-assembly in these biomimetic polymer systems.

Mid- and long-term climate projections for fragmented and delayed-action scenarios
Schaeffer, M. ; Gohar, Laila ; Kriegler, Elmar ; Lowe, J. - \ 2015
Technological Forecasting and Social Change 90 (2015)Part A. - ISSN 0040-1625 - p. 257 - 268.
This paper explores the climate consequences of “delayed near-termaction” and “staged accession” scenarios for limiting warming below 2 °C. The stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations at low levels requires a large-scale transformation of the energy system. Depending on policy choices, there are alternative pathways to reach this objective. An “optimal” path, as emerging from energy-economic modeling, implies immediate action with stringent emission reductions, while the currently proposed international policies translate into reduction delays and higher near-term emissions. In our delayed action scenarios, low stabilization levels need thus to be reached from comparatively high 2030 emission levels. Negative consequences are higher economic cost as explored in accompanying papers and significantly higher mid-term warming, as indicated by a rate of warming 50% higher by the 2040s. By contrast, both mid- and long-term warming are significantly higher in another class of scenarios of staged accession that lets some regions embark on emission reductions, while others follow later, with conservation of carbonprice pathways comparable to the optimal scenarios. Not only is mid-term warming higher in staged accession cases, but the probability to exceed 2 °C in the 21st century increases by a factor of 1.5.
Large-Scale Phenomics Identifies Primary and Fine-Tuning Roles for CRKs in Responses Related to Oxidative Stress.
Bourdais, G. ; Burdiak, P. ; Gauthier, A. ; Nitsch, L.M.C. ; Salojärvi, J. ; Rayapuram, C. ; Idänheimo, N. ; Hunter, K. ; Kimura, S. ; Merilo, E. ; Vaattovaara, A. ; Oracz, K. ; Kaufholdt, D. ; Pallon, A. ; Anggoro, D.T. ; Glów, D. ; Lowe, J. ; Zhou, J. ; Mohammadi, O. ; Puukko, T. ; Albert, A. ; Lang, H. ; Ernst, D. ; Kollist, H. ; Brosché, M. ; Durner, J. ; Borst, J.W. ; Collinge, D.B. ; Karpinski, S. ; Lyngkjær, M.F. ; Robatzek, S. ; Wrzaczek, M. ; Kangasjärvi, J. - \ 2015
Plos Genetics 11 (2015)7. - ISSN 1553-7404
receptor-like kinase - multiple sequence alignment - arabidopsis-thaliana - cell-death - protein-kinase - transcriptional regulation - pseudomonas-syringae - flagellin perception - light acclimation - stomatal immunity
Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) are transmembrane proteins characterized by the presence of two domains of unknown function 26 (DUF26) in their ectodomain. The CRKs form one of the largest groups of receptor-like protein kinases in plants, but their biological functions have so far remained largely uncharacterized. We conducted a large-scale phenotyping approach of a nearly complete crk T-DNA insertion line collection showing that CRKs control important aspects of plant development and stress adaptation in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli in a non-redundant fashion. In particular, the analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related stress responses, such as regulation of the stomatal aperture, suggests that CRKs participate in ROS/redox signalling and sensing. CRKs play general and fine-tuning roles in the regulation of stomatal closure induced by microbial and abiotic cues. Despite their great number and high similarity, large-scale phenotyping identified specific functions in diverse processes for many CRKs and indicated that CRK2 and CRK5 play predominant roles in growth regulation and stress adaptation, respectively. As a whole, the CRKs contribute to specificity in ROS signalling. Individual CRKs control distinct responses in an antagonistic fashion suggesting future potential for using CRKs in genetic approaches to improve plant performance and stress tolerance.
The joy of teaching soil science
Hartemink, A.E. ; Balks, M.R. ; Chen, Z.S. ; Drohan, P. ; Field, D.J. ; Krasilnikov, P. ; Lowe, D.J. ; Rabenhorst, M. ; Rees, K. van; Schad, P. ; Schipper, L.A. ; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Walter, C. - \ 2014
Geoderma 217-218 (2014). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 1 - 9.
The fundamental purposes of teaching are to impart knowledge, insight, and inspiration. Around the world, university teaching principles are changing as students also gain knowledge and inspiration in ways other than in the class room. Likewise, the soil science discipline is evolving as there is a new set of tools and techniques available by which we investigate soils, and the foci are shifting toward other disciplines and changing research questions. In many universities, the teaching of undergraduate soil science increasingly takes place to non-soil science majors. All these forces require some thinking about how we teach the subject and here we present some of our experiences and ideas of teaching soil science in different parts of the world. Some 15 examples are presented from Australia, Canada, France, Germany, New Zealand, Russia, Taiwan, The Netherlands, and the USA. As the research is widening so is our teaching. The examples are diverse and, despite cultural and personal differences, they show several trends. The cases represent vibrant and creative ways to teach soils, and the initial focus is to create a sense of wonder about the soil and its utilitarian and scientific value. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Does phenology distinguish bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae)?
Vihotogbe, R. ; Berg, R.G. van den; Bongers, F. ; Sinsin, B. ; Sosef, M.S.M. - \ 2014
Trees-Structure and Function 28 (2014)6. - ISSN 0931-1890 - p. 1777 - 1791.
genetic diversity - dahomey gap - west-africa - phenotypic variation - conservation status - gabonensis - domestication - forest - cameroon - fruits
Key message This phenological analysis of bitter and sweet bush mango trees is part of their biosystematics. It supports the species distinction hypothesis postulated by Harris (Bull J Bot Nat Belg 65(1-2):143-196, 1996 ) and Lowe et al. (Mol Ecol 9:831-841, 2000 ). African Bush Mango trees are priority food trees in Sub-Saharan Africa. The unclear distinction between bitter and sweet fruited trees is still subject to taxonomic debate. This hinders their effective use and conservation programmes. This study investigates differences in phenological behaviour between bitter and sweet fruited populations and their taxonomic implications. Monthly phenological description data on seven populations of bitter or sweet bush mangos across Benin and Togo were used to assess within and between mango type phenological diversity, to discriminate bitter and sweet trees and to evaluate their responses to environmental factors. The phenological states differentiating bitter and sweet trees were identified and individual trees were classified based on the discriminating phenological characters. Finally, phenological variation was analyzed with time of the year, soil type, type of bush mango tree, and climatic zone. Phenological diversity varies significantly among populations. Bitter and sweet trees have consistently different phenological states. Bitter trees have a lower phenological diversity for all phenological phases throughout the year compared to sweet trees, possibly due to their limited distribution range in the study area. The tree types also differ in their reproductive responses to environmental factors, but did not respond differently to soils. These results support the hypothesis that bitter and sweet trees represent different taxa and we suggest for efficient conservation purpose to consider them as different species.
Natural variation in stomatal response to closing stimuli among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions after exposure to lowe VPD as a tool to recognize the mechanism of disturbed stomatal functioning
Ali Niaei Fard, S. ; Meeteren, U. van - \ 2014
Journal of Experimental Botany 65 (2014)22. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 6529 - 6542.
relative-air-humidity - vapor-pressure-deficit - abscisic-acid - tradescantia-virginiana - genetic-variation - corylus-maxima - water status - guard-cells - plants - drought
Stomatal responses to closing stimuli are disturbed after long-term exposure of plants to low vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The mechanism behind this disturbance is not fully understood. Genetic variation between naturally occurring ecotypes can be helpful to elucidate the mechanism controlling stomatal movements in different environments. We characterized the stomatal responses of 41 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana to closing stimuli (ABA and desiccation) after they had been exposed for 4 days to moderate VPD (1.17 kPa) or low VPD (0.23 kPa). A fast screening system was used to test stomatal response to ABA using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging under low O2 concentrations of leaf discs floating on ABA solutions. In all accessions stomatal conductance (gs) was increased after prior exposure to low VPD. After exposure to low VPD, stomata of 39 out of 41 of the accessions showed a diminished ABA closing response; only stomata of low VPD-exposed Map-42 and C24 were as responsive to ABA as moderate VPD-exposed plants. In response to desiccation, most of the accessions showed a normal stomata closing response following low VPD exposure. Only low VPD-exposed Cvi-0 and Rrs-7 showed significantly less stomatal closure compared with moderate VPD-exposed plants. Using principle component analysis (PCA), accessions could be categorized to very sensitive, moderately sensitive, and less sensitive to closing stimuli. In conclusion, we present evidence for different stomatal responses to closing stimuli after long-term exposure to low VPD across Arabidopsis accessions. The variation can be a useful tool for finding the mechanism of stomatal malfunctioning.
EURRECA—Estimating Zinc Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values
Lowe, N.M.M. ; Dykes, F.C. ; Skinner, A.L. ; Patel, S. ; Warthon-Medina, M. ; Decsi, T. ; Fekete, K. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M. ; Serra-Majem, L. ; Nissensohn, M. ; Bel, S. ; Moreno, L.A. ; Hermoso, M. ; Vollhardt, C. ; Berti, C. ; Cetin, I. ; Gurinovic, M. ; Novakovic, R.N. ; Harvey, L.J. ; Collings, R. ; Hall-Moran, V. - \ 2013
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 53 (2013)10. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 1110 - 1123.
current micronutrient recommendations - coronary-artery-disease - lung-cancer - serum zinc - genetic-polymorphism - stable-isotope - old patients - absorption - phytate - copper
Zinc was selected as a priority micronutrient for EURRECA, because there is significant heterogeneity in the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) across Europe. In addition, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was thought to be high among all population groups worldwide, and the public health concern is considerable. In accordance with the EURRECA consortium principles and protocols, a series of literature reviews were undertaken in order to develop best practice guidelines for assessing dietary zinc intake and zinc status. These were incorporated into subsequent literature search strategies and protocols for studies investigating the relationships between zinc intake, status and health, as well as studies relating to the factorial approach (including bioavailability) for setting dietary recommendations. EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library CENTRAL, and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were searched for studies published up to February 2010 and collated into a series of Endnote databases that are available for the use of future DRV panels. Meta-analyses of data extracted from these publications were performed where possible in order to address specific questions relating to factors affecting dietary recommendations. This review has highlighted the need for more high quality studies to address gaps in current knowledge, in particular the continued search for a reliable biomarker of zinc status and the influence of genetic polymorphisms on individual dietary requirements. In addition, there is a need to further develop models of the effect of dietary inhibitors of zinc absorption and their impact on population dietary zinc requirements.
The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis by the EURRECA Network
Lowe, N.M.M. ; Warthon Medina, M. ; Stammers, A.L. ; Patel, S. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Serra-Majem, L. ; Nissensohn, M. ; Hall Moran, V. - \ 2012
The British journal of nutrition 108 (2012)11. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1962 - 1971.
supplementation - zenith - women - age - population - metabolism - sex - men
Dietary Zn recommendations vary widely across Europe due to the heterogeneity of approaches used by expert panels. Under the EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) consortium a protocol was designed to systematically review and undertake meta-analyses of research data to create a database that includes ‘best practice’ guidelines which can be used as a resource by future panels when setting micronutrient recommendations. As part of this process, the objective of the present study was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of previously published data describing the relationship between Zn intake and status in adults. Searches were performed of literature published up to February 2010 using MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Data extracted included population characteristics, dose of Zn, duration of study, dietary intake of Zn, and mean concentration of Zn in plasma or serum at the end of the intervention period. An intake–status regression coefficient () was estimated for each individual study, and pooled meta-analysis undertaken. The overall pooled for Zn supplementation on serum/plasma Zn concentrations from randomised controlled trials and observational studies was 0·08 (95 % CI 0·05, 0·11; P <0·0001; I2 84·5 %). An overall of 0·08 means that for every doubling in Zn intake, the difference in Zn serum or plasma concentration is (20·08 = 1·06), which is 6 %. Whether the dose–response relationship, as provided in the present paper, could be used as either qualitative or quantitative evidence to substantiate the daily Zn intake dose necessary to achieve normal or optimal levels of biomarkers for Zn status remains a matter of discussion.
The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in children: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis
Hall Moran, V. ; Stammers, A.L. ; Wharton Medina, M. ; Patel, S. ; Dykes, F. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Perez-Rodrigo, C. ; Serra-Majem, L. ; Nissensohn, M. ; Lowe, N.M.M. - \ 2012
Nutrients 4 (2012)8. - ISSN 2072-6643 - p. 841 - 858.
iron supplementation - preschool-children - body-composition - micronutrient requirements - mexican preschoolers - adolescent girls - lactating women - school-children - vitamin-a - growth
Recommendations for zinc intake during childhood vary widely across Europe. The EURRECA project attempts to consolidate the basis for the definition of micronutrient requirements, taking into account relationships among intake, status and health outcomes, in order to harmonise these recommendations. Data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can provide estimates of dose-response relationships which may be used for underpinning zinc reference values. This systematic review included all RCTs of apparently healthy children aged 1–17 years published by February 2010 which provided data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status. An intake-status regression coefficient () was calculated for each individual study and calculated the overall pooled and SE () using random effects meta-analysis on a double log scale. The pooled dose-response relationship between zinc intake and zinc status indicated that a doubling of the zinc intake increased the serum/plasma zinc status by 9%. This evidence can be utilised, together with currently used balance studies and repletion/depletion studies, when setting zinc recommendations as a basis for nutrition policies.
The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in pregnant and lactating women: A systematic review with dose-response meta-analyses
Hall Moran, V. ; Skinner, A.L. ; Warthon Medina, M. ; Patel, S. ; Dykes, F. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Lowe, N.M.M. - \ 2012
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 26 (2012)2-3. - ISSN 0946-672X - p. 74 - 79.
mexican descent - plasma zinc - milk zinc - supplementation - iron - metabolism - absorption - serum
Recommendations for zinc intake during pregnancy and lactation vary widely across Europe. Using data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies can provide estimates of dose–response relationships that may be used for underpinning zinc reference values. This systematic review included all RCTs, prospective cohort studies, nested case–control studies and cross-sectional studies in healthy pregnant and lactating populations published by February 2010 which provided data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status. An intake-status regression coefficient was calculated for each individual study and calculated the overall pooled and SE using random effects meta-analysis on a double log scale. The pooled dose–response relationship between zinc intake and zinc status found that a doubling of zinc intake was associated with an increase in serum/plasma zinc status by 3% in pregnant women and by 1% in lactating women. These modest associations are likely to reflect the low-moderate zinc bioavailability dietary patterns and the widespread use of other micronutrients in the populations included in this review, physiologic adjustments of zinc homeostasis, insensitivity of serum/plasma zinc as a biomarker of zinc status, and wide heterogeneity between study results which reflect real uncertainty in the current evidence base. Although this review provides useful information for dietary zinc requirements in populations vulnerable to zinc deficiency, it also highlights a need for further studies in pregnant and lactating women with different dietary patterns in order to provide useful complementary evidence that can be utilized when setting zinc recommendations as a basis for nutrition policies in Europe.
Zinc intake and plasma/ serum zinc concentration: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Warthon-Medina, M. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Skinner, A.L. ; Moran, V.H. ; Dykes, F.C. ; Collings, R. ; Perez-Rodrigo, C. ; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M. ; Lowe, N.M.M. - \ 2011
- p. 36 - 36.
Exploring high-end scenarios for local sea level rise to develop flood protection strategies for a lowlying delta-the Netherlands as an example
Katsman, C.A. ; Sterl, A. ; Beersma, H.W. ; Brink, H.W. van den; Church, J.A. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Kopp, R.E. ; Kroon, D. ; Kwadijk, J. ; Lammersen, R. ; Lowe, J. ; Oppenheimer, M. ; Plag, H.P. ; Ridley, J. ; Storch, H. von; Vaughan, D.G. ; Vellinga, P. ; Vermeersen, L.L.A. ; Wal, R.S.W. ; Weise, R. - \ 2011
Climatic Change 109 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 617 - 645.
hoogwaterbeheersing - zeespiegelschommelingen - kustbeheer - flood control - sea level fluctuations - coastal management - greenland ice-sheet - last interglacial period - pine island glacier - climate-change - mass-balance - thermohaline circulation - antarctic peninsula - northeast atlantic - west antarctica - acceleration
Sea level rise, especially combined with possible changes in storm surges and increased river discharge resulting from climate change, poses a major threat in low-lying river deltas. In this study we focus on a specific example of such a delta: the Netherlands. To evaluate whether the country’s flood protection strategy is capable of coping with future climate conditions, an assessment of low-probability/high-impact scenarios is conducted, focusing mainly on sea level rise. We develop a plausible high-end scenario of 0.55 to 1.15 m global mean sea level rise, and 0.40 to 1.05 m rise on the coast of the Netherlands by 2100 (excluding land subsidence), and more than three times these local values by 2200. Together with projections for changes in storm surge height and peak river discharge, these scenarios depict a complex, enhanced flood risk for the Dutch delta.
Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a ‘beyond 4°C world’ in the twenty-first century
Nicholls, R. ; Marinova, N.A. ; Lowe, J. ; Brown, S. ; Vellinga, P. - \ 2011
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series A, Mathematical, physical and engineering sciences 369 (2011)1934. - ISSN 1364-503X - p. 161 - 181.
greenland ice-sheet - climate-change - coastal zones - international tourism - 21st-century - constraints - scenarios - countries - collapse - erosion
The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5¿m and 2¿m—the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed.
Exploring high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands
Vellinga, P. ; Katsman, C. ; Sterl, A. ; Beersma, J.J. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Church, J. ; Kopp, R. ; Kroon, D. ; Oppenheimer, M. ; Plag, H.P. ; Rahmstorf, S. ; Lowe, J. ; Ridley, J. ; Storch, H. von; Vaughan, D. ; Wal, R. van der; Weisse, R. ; Kwadijk, J. ; Lammersen, R. ; Marinova, N.A. - \ 2009
De Bilt : KNMI (KNMI scientific report / Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute WR 2009-05)
zeespiegelschommelingen - klimaatverandering - kustgebieden - sea level fluctuations - climatic change - coastal areas
This international scientific assessment has been carried out at the request of the Dutch Delta Committee. The "Deltacommissie" requested that the assessment explore the high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands. It is a state-of–the art scientific assessment of the upper bound values and longer term projections (for sea level rise up to 2200) of climate induced sea level rise, changing storm surge conditions and peak discharge of river Rhine. It comprises a review of recent studies, model projections and expert opinions of more than 20 leading climate scientists from different countries around the North Sea, Australia and the USA
Reconstructing high-magnitude/low-frequency landslide events based on soil redistribution modelling and a Late-Holocene sediment record from New Zealand
Claessens, L. ; Lowe, D.J. ; Hayward, B.W. ; Schaap, B.F. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Veldkamp, A. - \ 2009
In: Proceedings of The International Conference in Commemoration of the 10th Anniversary of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake. Sessions on Land Dynamics in Mountainous Watersheds: Typhoons, Landslides, and Land Use, Taipei, Taiwan, 17-21 September 2009. - - p. 277 - 277.
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