Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Ethnoontology: Ways of world-building across cultures
Ludwig, David ; Weiskopf, Daniel A. - \ 2019
Philosophy Compass 14 (2019)9. - ISSN 1747-9991

This article outlines a program of ethnoontology that brings together empirical research in the ethnosciences with ontological debates in philosophy. First, we survey empirical evidence from heterogeneous cultural contexts and disciplines. Second, we propose a model of cross-cultural relations between ontologies beyond a simple divide between universalist and relativist models. Third, we argue for an integrative model of ontology building that synthesizes insights from different fields such as biological taxonomy, cognitive science, cultural anthropology, and political ecology. We conclude by arguing that a program of ethnoontology provides philosophers both with insights about traditional issues such as debates about natural kinds and with novel strategies for connecting philosophy with pressing global issues such as the conservation of local environments and the self-determination of Indigenous communities.

Traditional ecological knowledge in innovation governance: a framework for responsible and just innovation
Ludwig, David ; Macnaghten, Philip - \ 2019
Journal of Responsible Innovation (2019). - ISSN 2329-9460 - p. 1 - 19.
Change in Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is not easily understood in terms of Western innovation discourses. In fact, innovations in the sense of modern and growth-oriented technologies are common sources for the erosion of TEK. This article brings together current literatures on TEK and innovation studies in addressing questions about the governance of socio-ecological change. First, we connect TEK to shifting meanings of ‘innovation' that emphasize contributions to societal goals rather than economic growth or technological modernization. Second, we situate these shifts in governance frameworks of ‘responsible innovation’. Third, we argue that the case for self-determination of traditional communities also identifies limits of integrating TEK with recent innovation discourses. As change in traditional communities is part of a wider political set of struggles about conditions of change and decolonization, debates about innovation require engagement with underlying social justice issues beyond mainstream debates about responsible governance.
‘Academics can't relate to forest spirits’
Ludwig, David - \ 2019
Translation, transduction, and transformation: expanding practices of responsibility across borders
Doezema, Tess ; Ludwig, David ; Macnaghten, Phil ; Shelley-Egan, Clare ; Forsberg, Ellen Marie - \ 2019
Journal of Responsible Innovation 6 (2019)3. - ISSN 2329-9460 - p. 323 - 331.
civic epistemologies - cross-cultural comparison - global governance - Responsible research and innovation - transduction

This special section addresses Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) as an increasingly global concept that is translated and transformed in heterogenous national contexts. Based on seven national perspective articles from the RRI-Practice project, this introduction outlines a framework of transduction through which RRI becomes contextually negotiated and reconfigured. Read together, the national explorations of the special section make visible aspects of responsibility not readily apparent in abstract, European or global scale discussions of RRI. They not only point up important particularities of national contexts, but unexpected points of overlap in national contexts not often thought to have distinct commonalities.

Astin C Production by the Endophytic Fungus Cyanodermella asteris in Planktonic and Immobilized Culture Conditions
Vassaux, Antoine ; Tarayre, Cédric ; Arguëlles-Arias, Anthony ; Compère, Philippe ; Delvigne, Frank ; Fickers, Patrick ; Jahn, Linda ; Lang, Alexander ; Leclère, Valérie ; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta ; Ongena, Marc ; Schafhauser, Thomas ; Telek, Samuel ; Théatre, Ariane ; Berkel, Willem J.H. van; Vandenbol, Micheline ; Pée, Karl Heinz van; Willems, Luc ; Wohlleben, Wolfgang ; Jacques, Philippe - \ 2019
Biotechnology Journal 14 (2019)8. - ISSN 1860-6768
astin C - biofilms - Cyanodermella asteris - immobilized-cell cultures - secondary metabolites

The fungal endophyte Cyanodermella asteris (C. asteris) has been recently isolated from the medicinal plant Aster tataricus (A. tataricus). This fungus produces astin C, a cyclic pentapeptide with anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The production of this secondary metabolite is compared in immobilized and planktonic conditions. For immobilized cultures, a stainless steel packing immersed in the culture broth is used as a support. In these conditions, the fungus exclusively grows on the packing, which provides a considerable advantage for astin C recovery and purification. C. asteris metabolism is different according to the culture conditions in terms of substrate consumption rate, cell growth, and astin C production. Immobilized-cell cultures yield a 30% increase of astin C production, associated with a 39% increase in biomass. The inoculum type as spores rather than hyphae, and a pre-inoculation washing procedure with sodium hydroxide, turns out to be beneficial both for astin C production and fungus development onto the support. Finally, the influence of culture parameters such as pH and medium composition on astin C production is evaluated. With optimized culture conditions, astin C yield is further improved reaching a five times higher final specific yield compared to the value reported with astin C extraction from A. tataricus (0.89 mg g−1 and 0.16 mg g−1 respectively).

Long-term sustainability of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta in question : An economic assessment of water management alternatives
Tran, Dung Duc ; Halsema, Gerardo van; Hellegers, Petra J.G.J. ; Hoang, Long Phi ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 223 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774
flood risk - Mekong - rice production - salinity intrusion - sediment - sustainability

A dense dike system has been built in the upstream floodplains of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, allowing large scale rice production based on compartmentalized fields and optimized water management. Intensive cultivation has enabled farmers to greatly increase their rice productivity and augment the national food bowl. However, flood-control structures have undermined the water retention capacity, compromising various benefits of floodwaters for delta ecosystems. Effects are both internal and external to farming. Negative internal effects are the large investment requirements and higher farming costs. Negative externalities include increased flood damage, reduced sediment flows, saltwater intrusion and riverbank erosion. In this study, we assessed the effects of three dike–agricultural system scenarios on delta-level sustainability, considering both internal and external effects. Direct and indirect costs were estimated using various methodologies and the literature. Our findings show that extensive development of high dikes on the floodplains is the least economical and most ecologically risky alternative. In this scenario, accelerated high-dike construction exacted a cost 136% greater than the situation represented by the baseline year of 2011. Externalities in this scenario contributed to rising economic losses in both aquaculture and agriculture. The scenario of transforming high-dike into low-dike systems revealed lower water management costs combined with lesser environmental impacts and greater capacity to exploit floodwater benefits. Our findings provide a useful input for decision-makers considering the unintended economic consequences of existing water management strategies. They support a transition to low-dike farming systems for a more sustainable delta.

A critical review of the Ganges Water Sharing arrangement
Rahman, Kazi Saidur ; Islam, Zahidul ; Navera, Umme Kulsum ; Ludwig, Fulco - \ 2019
Water Policy 21 (2019)2. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 259 - 276.
Farakka Barrage - Ganges Water Sharing Treaty - Regional cooperation - Transboundary rivers - Water conflicts

The 1996 Ganges Water Sharing Treaty was an important breakthrough in solving disputes over sharing Ganges water between India and Bangladesh. This study evaluates cooperation reflected in the Treaty by performing a quantitative analysis on available water sharing data. The study recognized that inaccurate projection of future flow and the obligation of allocating guaranteed 991 m 3 /s flows perpetuate the ongoing water sharing conflicts. The provision of guaranteed minimal flow alternately to India and Bangladesh during critical periods leads to frequent occurrences of low-flow events. Results indicated that the Treaty underestimated the impact of climate variability and possibly increasing upstream water abstraction. Statistical analysis of the post-Treaty data (1997–2016) also indicated that 65% of the time Bangladesh did not receive its guaranteed share during critical dry periods with high water demand. It is advised to project the reliable water availability using a combination of modelling and improved observation of river flows. In addition, the condition of minimum guaranteed share should be removed to reduce the frequency of low-flow events in future. Although our analyses show a number of weaknesses, the Treaty could still enhance the future regional cooperation if some adjustments are made to the current terms and conditions.

The global nexus of food–trade–water sustaining environmental flows by 2050
Pastor, A.V. ; Palazzo, A. ; Havlik, P. ; Biemans, H. ; Wada, Y. ; Obersteiner, M. ; Kabat, P. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2019
Nature Sustainability 2 (2019). - ISSN 2398-9629 - p. 499 - 507.

In the face of meeting Sustainable Development Goals for the water–food–energy–ecosystems nexus, integrated assessments are a great means to measure the impact of global change on natural resources. In this study, we evaluate the impact of climate change with the representative concentration pathway 8.5 scenario and the impact of socioeconomics with the shared socioeconomic pathway 2 scenario on land use, water consumption and food trade under four water regulation policy scenarios (invest, exploit, environment and environment+). We used the Global Biosphere Management Model and constrained it with water availability, environmental flow requirements, and water use from agriculture, industry and households (simulated using the Lund–Potsdam–Jena managed Land model, Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model and WaterGap model). Here, we show that an increase in land use by 100 Mha would be required to double food production by 2050, to meet projected food demands. International trade would need to nearly triple to meet future crop demands, with an additional 10–20% trade flow from water-abundant regions to water-scarce regions to sustain environmental flow requirements on a global scale.

Seasonal variability and predictability of agro-meteorological indices: Tailoring onset of rainy season estimation to meet farmers’ needs in Ghana
Gbangou, Talardia ; Ludwig, Fulco ; Slobbe, Erik van; Hoang, Long ; Gordana Kranjac-Berisavljevic, Kranjac-Berisavljevic - \ 2019
Climate Services 14 (2019). - ISSN 2405-8807 - p. 19 - 30.
Forecast categories - Inter-annual variability - Onset dates - Seasonal forecasts

Reliable information on onset of the rainy season is important for local agriculture planning in Ghana. We examine the (i) trend and variability of onset in local observations to better understand the need for onset forecast information and (ii) performance of ECMWF System 4 seasonal climate forecast in reproducing this variability and discriminating tercile categories of onset dates across Ghana. The analyses focused on two pilots locations of interest among the fourteen synoptic stations studied, namely Ada and Tamale located in the coastal savanna and in northern Ghana. Two different onset date definitions were tested to suite with uncorrected and bias-corrected forecasts in order to test the predictability. The definitions were tailored to suit with forecast start dates, local climate data availability and cropping calendar. Results show a significant decreasing trend in historical onset dates towards more recent times (i.e 1986–2010) at Tamale station. Also, historical onset dates exhibit a significant increasing variability towards more recent time at Ada station. System 4 shows some ability for reproducing local onset variability with significant correlational relationship between forecasted and observed onset dates at some locations including Ada station. The forecasting system also has significant skill in predicting early and late onset dates categories (i.e H-K score > 0) at the pilot stations. In conclusion, the use of onset agro-meteorological index, based on System 4 as climate service in Ghana, has a potential value for decision making when considering categorical based forecasts.

Global challenges, Dutch solutions? The shape of responsibility in Dutch science and technology policies
Molen, Franke van der; Ludwig, David ; Consoli, Luca ; Zwart, Hub - \ 2019
Journal of Responsible Innovation 6 (2019)3. - ISSN 2329-9460 - p. 340 - 345.
Responsible research and innovation - science and technology policy - the Netherlands

The Netherlands has a well-established tradition of gearing science and technology to economic interests as well as societal and ethical concerns. This article outlines how national dynamics in the Netherlands have not only contributed to the adoption of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) frameworks but also to a distinctly Dutch meaning and institutionalization of responsibility. It identifies three core features of the Dutch context that have shaped this meaning and institutionalization: 1) a strong focus on the societal and economic relevance of research and innovation, 2) a political culture that emphasizes inclusive deliberation and collaboration, and 3) a focus on integration and synergy with respect to RRI. The integration of RRI in a collaborative system of companies, government and universities is embraced as contributing to a global leadership of the Netherlands in response to grand challenges. However, this integrative approach also limits the potential of Dutch RRI to function as a disruptive concept that challenges the status of interactions between science, technology, and society.

Report on regulations governing anaerobic digesters and nutrient recovery and reuse in EU member states
Hermann, Ludwig ; Hermann, Ralf ; Schoumans, Oscar F. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 121
The regulatory framework governing anaerobic digestion and biogas production in EU Member States is arranged in European Policies, Regulations and Directives and by national legislation, which is based on European Policies and Directives. Consequently, we have organised the Regulatory Framework Report following the same structure. Chapter 1 deals with European Policies which are followed by European Regulations that must be enforced by all Member States as they are in chapter 2. Chapter 3 refers to European Directives which must be adopted by Member States but not literally. Directives typically stipulate a target but leave room for selecting the strategy and pathway by the Member State. Chapter 4 briefly deviates from legislation and provides - extracted from the EBA Annual Reports - statistical information on the regional development of electricity from biogas and biomethane production in Europe clearly showing Germany in the lead but higher recent dynamics regarding biomethane in France and Nordic countries. In chapter 5 the report returns to legislation in Member States, starting with comprehensive information on the countries with demonstration plants. Chapter 6 deals with legislation in countries with outreach plants and chapter 7, finally, gives an overview of all Member States.
Achieving responsibility at Wageningen University & Research
Ludwig, David ; Macnaghten, Philip ; Pols, Auke - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 43
Down scaling of climate change scenarii to river basin level : A transdisciplinary methodology applied to Evrotas river basin, Greece
Ker Rault, Philippe A. ; Koundouri, Phoebe ; Akinsete, Ebun ; Ludwig, Ralf ; Huber-Garcia, Verena ; Tsani, Stella ; Acuna, Vicenc ; Kalogianni, Eleni ; Luttik, Joke ; Kok, Kasper ; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos ; Froebrick, Jochen - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 660 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1623 - 1632.
Climate-change - Ecosystem-services - Land-use - Transdisciplinary - Water management

The Mediterranean region is anticipated to be (or, already is) one of the hot spots for climate change, where freshwater ecosystems are under threat from the effects of multiple stressors. Climate change is impacting natural resources and on the functioning of Ecosystem Services. The challenges about modelling climate change impact on water cycle in general and specifically on socio-economic dynamics of the society leads to an exponential amount of results that restrain interpretation and added value of forecasting at local level. One of the main challenges when dealing with climate change projections is the quantification of uncertainties. Modellers might have limited information or understanding from local river catchment management practices and from other disciplines with relevant insights on socio-economic and environmental complex relationship between biosphere and human based activities. Current General Circulation Models cannot fulfil the requirements of high spatial detail required for water management policy. This article reports an innovative transdisciplinary methodology to down scale Climate Change scenarii to river basin level with a special focus on the development of climate change narrative under SSP5-RCP8.5 combination called Myopic scenario and SSP1-RCP4.5 combination called Sustainable scenario. Local Stakeholder participative workshop in the Evrotas river basin provide perception of expected changes on water demand under to two developed scenario narratives.

Verification of Seasonal Climate Forecast Towards Hydro-Climatic Information Needs of Rice Farmers in Northern Ghana
Nyadzi, Emmanuel ; Werners, S.E. ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Phi Long, Hoang ; Franssen, W.H.P. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2019
Weather, climate and society 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 1948-8327 - p. 127 - 142.
Farmers in sub-Saharan Africa face many difficulties when making farming decisions due to unexpected changes in weather and climate. Access to hydroclimatic information can potentially assist farmers to adapt. This study explores the extent to which seasonal climate forecasts can meet hydroclimatic information needs of rice farmers in northern Ghana. First, 62 rice farmers across 12 communities were interviewed about their information needs. Results showed that importance of hydroclimatic information depends on the frequency of use and farming type (rain-fed, irrigated, or both). Generally, farmers perceived rainfall distribution, dam water level, and temperature as very important information, followed by total rainfall amount and onset ranked as important. These findings informed our skills assessment of rainfall (Prcp), minimum temperature (Tmin), and maximum temperature (Tmax) from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-S4) and at lead times of 0 to 2 months. Forecast bias, correlation, and skills for all variables vary with season and location but are generally unsystematic and relatively constant with forecast lead time. Making it possible to meet farmers’ needs at their most preferred lead time of 1 month before the farming season. ECMWF-S4 exhibited skill in Prcp, Tmin, and Tmax in northern Ghana except for a few grid cells in MAM for Prcp and SON for Tmin and Tmax. Tmin and Tmax forecasts were more skillful than Prcp. We conclude that the participatory coproduction approach used in this study provides better insight for understanding demand-driven climate information services and that the ECMWF-S4 seasonal forecast system has the potential to provide actionable hydroclimatic information that may support farmers’ decisions.
Model inter-comparison design for large-scale water quality models
Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Flörke, Martina ; Harrison, John A. ; Hofstra, Nynke ; Keller, Virginie ; Ludwig, Fulco ; Spanier, J.E. ; Strokal, Maryna ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Wen, Yingrong ; Williams, Richard J. - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 59 - 67.

Several model inter-comparison projects (MIPs) have been carried out recently by the climate, hydrological, agricultural and other modelling communities to quantify modelling uncertainties and improve modelling systems. Here we focus on MIP design for large-scale water quality models. Water quality MIPs can be useful to improve our understanding of pollution problems and facilitate the development of harmonized estimates of current and future water quality. This can provide new opportunities for assessing robustness in estimates of water quality hotspots and trends, improve understanding of processes, pollution sources, water quality model uncertainties, and to identify priorities for water quality data collection and monitoring. Water quality MIP design should harmonize relevant model input datasets, use consistent spatial/temporal domains and resolutions, and similar output variables to improve understanding of water quality modelling uncertainties and provide harmonized water quality data that suit the needs of decision makers and other users.

Shifting planting date of Boro rice as a climate change adaptation strategy to reduce water use
Acharjee, Tapos Kumar ; Halsema, Gerardo van; Ludwig, Fulco ; Hellegers, Petra ; Supit, Iwan - \ 2019
Agricultural Systems 168 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 131 - 143.
Bangladesh - CropWat - Heat stress - Transplanting date - Water demand

Suitable adaptation strategies for dry season Boro rice cultivation under future climate change scenarios are important for future food security in Bangladesh. This study assessed the effect of shifting trans−/planting date of dry season Boro rice as an adaptation strategy, with focus on water requirements under future climate scenarios. Potential crop water requirement, effective rainfall and irrigation requirement to satisfy crop evapotranspiration of Boro rice were estimated using CropWat 8.0 for early, normal and late planting dates for 2050s and 2080s. Future climate scenarios were constructed using five global circulation model (GCM) outputs for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 by statistical downscaling and bias correction. Number of days exceeding the threshold temperatures (maximum of 35 °C and minimum of 25 °C) was counted for critical period of Boro rice to understand compatibility of the changed planting dates. Results indicate that late planting can substantially reduce irrigation demand by increasing rainfall availability during Boro growth duration, but the option is very limited due to both day- and night-time heat stress. An early planting, on the other hand, accounts for high water demand but ensures suitable temperature during the critical growth stages of the crop. The normal planting dates show the possibility of day-time heat stress. So, late planting of temperature-tolerant cultivars or early planting of high-yielding varieties would be recommended based on local water availability. However, adjustment of the planting date is currently limited because high temperature-tolerant cultivars are not available in the study region.

The Mekong's future flows under multiple drivers : How climate change, hydropower developments and irrigation expansions drive hydrological changes
Hoang, Long P. ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Kummu, Matti ; Lauri, Hannu ; Koponen, Jorma ; Supit, Iwan ; Leemans, Rik ; Kabat, Pavel ; Ludwig, Fulco - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 649 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 601 - 609.
Climate change - Hydrological impacts - Hydropower dams - Irrigation expansion - Mekong basin - VMod model

The river flow regime and water resources are highly important for economic growths, flood security, and ecosystem dynamics in the Mekong basin – an important transboundary river basin in South East Asia. The river flow, although remains relatively unregulated, is expected to be increasingly perturbed by climate change and rapidly accelerating socioeconomic developments. Current understanding about hydrological changes under the combined impacts of these drivers, however, remains limited. This study presents projected hydrological changes caused by multiple drivers, namely climate change, large-scale hydropower developments, and irrigated land expansions by 2050s. We found that the future flow regime is highly susceptible to all considered drivers, shown by substantial changes in both annual and seasonal flow distribution. While hydropower developments exhibit limited impacts on annual total flows, climate change and irrigation expansions cause changes of +15% and −3% in annual flows, respectively. However, hydropower developments show the largest seasonal impacts characterized by higher dry season flows (up to +70%) and lower wet season flows (−15%). These strong seasonal impacts tend to outplay those of the other drivers, resulting in the overall hydrological change pattern of strong increases of the dry season flow (up to +160%); flow reduction in the first half of the wet season (up to −25%); and slight flow increase in the second half of the wet season (up to 40%). Furthermore, the cumulative impacts of all drivers cause substantial flow reductions during the early wet season (up to −25% in July), posing challenges for crop production and saltwater intrusion in the downstream Mekong Delta. Substantial flow changes and their consequences require careful considerations of future development activities, as well as timely adaptation to future changes.

How race travels: relating local and global ontologies of race
Ludwig, David - \ 2019
Philosophical Studies 176 (2019)10. - ISSN 0031-8116 - p. 2729 - 2750.
Comparative philosophy - Conceptions - Conceptual change - Metaphysics of race - Philosophy of race - Social ontology

This article develops a framework for addressing racial ontologies in transnational perspective. In contrast to simple contextualist accounts, it is argued that a globally engaged metaphysics of race needs to address transnational continuities of racial ontologies. In contrast to unificationist accounts that aim for one globally unified ontology, it is argued that questions about the nature and reality of race do not always have the same answers across national contexts. In order address racial ontologies in global perspective, the article develops a framework that accounts for both continuities and discontinuities by looking beyond the referents of narrowly defined core concepts. By shifting the focus from narrow concepts to richer conceptions of race, racial ontologies become comparable through globally related but nonetheless distinct mappings between conceptions and property relations. The article concludes by showing how this framework can generate novel insights in case studies from Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

Responsible Research and Innovation in Practice
Molen, Franke van der; Consoli, Luca ; Ludwig, D.J. ; Macnaghten, Philip - \ 2018
Nijmegen : Radboud Universiteit - 25 p.
Reply to Anderson, Ellen, Hanazaki, Hunn, Rival, Si, Slater, Weiskopf
Ludwig, D.J. - \ 2018
Current Anthropology 59 (2018)4. - ISSN 0011-3204 - p. 430 - 438.
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