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Nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions in mountain areas-Lessons learned from a 5-country project to upscale best practices
Bernet, Thomas ; Kurbanalieva, Shakhnoza ; Pittore, Katherine ; Zilly, Barbara ; Luttikholt, Louise ; Eyhorn, Frank ; Batlogg, Verena ; Arbenz, Markus - \ 2018
Mountain Research and Development 38 (2018)4. - ISSN 0276-4741 - p. 278 - 287.
Ethiopia - Kyrgyzstan - Mountain agriculture - Nepal - nutrition - Pakistan - Peru - rural development policy
Many people living in mountain regions in lowand middle-income countries are vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity, which contributes to poor nutritional status. Food and nutrition security require stability of access to affordable, safe, diverse, and nutritious foods. In mountainous areas, affordability and access to diverse foods are challenged by climatic factors constraining agricultural production, poor infrastructure, and geographic isolation. This article describes a nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) project focusing on 5 countries-Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Peru-where 132 microinterventions were implemented by rural service providers (RSPs) who received training and technical support from the project. These microinterventions serve as learning cases for advocacy work to promote the NSA approach at the local, national, and global levels. They are also documented on an Internet platform allowing RSPs and other stakeholders to share best practices and lessons learned at the national and global levels. Preliminary results indicate that this approach is highly effective in addressing nutrition and livelihood issues in remote mountain areas. To scale up the approach and boost its integration into policies at the local, national, and global levels, 2 aspects will be critical. First, more systemic and integrated NSA initiatives need to be implemented that functionally combine production- A nd consumption-related aspects to effectively change nutrition behavior and serve as learning cases for scaling up. Second, effective capacity development of RSPs and encouragement of interaction among them is key to empowering them as change agents.
Paratuberculose in (melk)geiten : Nieuwe inzichten en praktische handvatten
Lievaart-Peterson, K. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Luttikholt, S. ; Koets, A.P. ; Weber, M. ; Vellema, P. ; Antonis, A.F.G. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 8 p.
Paratuberculose in de melkgeitenhouderij : van literatuurscan naar innovatief onderzoek
Lievaart-Peterson, K. ; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Vellema, P. ; Luttikholt, S. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. ; Schuiling, E. ; Koets, A. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2014
paratuberculose - herkauwers - melkproducerende dieren - geiten - geitenhouderij - diergezondheid - ziektebestrijding - dierziektepreventie - paratuberculosis - ruminants - milk yielding animals - goats - goat keeping - animal health - disease control - animal disease prevention
De besmettelijke ziekte paratuberculose komt vooral voor bij herkauwers. De Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren (GD) schat dat ongeveer 80 procent van de Nederlandse commerciële melkgeitenbedrijven met de infectie te maken heeft. De ziekte kan op bedrijven tot belangrijke bedrijfseconomische schade leiden, vooral door melkproductieverlies, een verhoogde uitval en vervroegde vervanging. Beheersing van van deze aandoening om de bedrijfseconomische en de welzijnsschade terug te dringen is het doel. Het project ‘Paratuberculose in de melkgeitenhouderij’ geeft die beheersing een nieuwe impuls.
Detection of Coxiella burnetii in the bulk tank milk from a farm with vaccinated goats, by using a specific PCR technique
Brom, R. van der; Engelen, E. van; Vos, J. ; Luttikholt, S.J. ; Moll, L. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Heijden, H.M.J.F. van der; Vellema, P. - \ 2013
Small Ruminant Research 110 (2013)2-3. - ISSN 0921-4488 - p. 150 - 154.
pregnant goats - abortion - ewes
Q fever is a zoonotic disease, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Between 2007 and 2010, Q fever has been a major public health concern in the Netherlands, with almost 3500 human cases reported and dairy goats considered to be the most probable source. At the end of 2009, the Dutch government decided to cull all pregnant dairy sheep and dairy goats based on bulk tank milk C. burnetii positive farms, aiming to preventing shedding and to reducing environmental contamination. On bulk tank milk C. burnetii PCR positive farms, a life-time breeding ban was implemented for all remaining non-pregnant small ruminants. This study describes test results on a bulk tank milk C. burnetii PCR positive dairy goat farm on which all goats had been vaccinated against Q fever with an inactivated phase one vaccine since 2008. All pregnant dairy goats of this farm were culled in 2010, after which bulk tank milk was negative in the C. burnetii PCR. One year later, however, this farm became bulk tank milk C. burnetii PCR positive again. From all lactating animals on the farm (n = 350), individual milk samples were collected and tested using a commercial real-time PCR assay. Individual milk samples from five dairy goats appeared to be C. burnetii PCR positive. These positive goats had been born on the farm between 2002 and 2006. At postmortem examination, out of 33 mostly tissue samples per animal, only milk and mammary tissue samples were C. burnetii PCR positive. Moreover, immunohistochemical examination did not reveal the source of C. burnetii. After culling of these C. burnetii PCR milk positive animals, the bulk tank milk remained negative in C. burnetii PCR until the end of the observation period. The results indicate that vaccination of Q fever infected dairy goat farms does not completely prevent intermittent shedding of C. burnetii in probably previously infected goats. Further research is needed to investigate how and where C. burnetii multiplies in such intermittently shedding animals.
Schmallenberg virus antibodies in bovine and ovine foetuses
Maanen, C. van; heijden, H. van der; Wellenberg, G.J. ; Witteveen, G. ; Luttikholt, S. ; Vellema, P. ; Peperkamp, K. ; Mars, J. ; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Kooi, B. - \ 2012
Veterinary Record 171 (2012)12. - ISSN 0042-4900
akabane virus - arthrogryposis - cattle - infection
We conclude that testing for antibodies against SBV in foetal or neonatal precolostral serum samples, either by ELISA or VNT, is a valuable tool to diagnose SBV infections in affected lambs and calves as it is for related viruses like Akabane virus.
|Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection
Brom, R. van der; Luttikholt, S.J. ; Lievaart-Peterson, K. ; Peperkamp, N.H.M.T. ; Mars, M.H. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Vellema, P. - \ 2012
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 137 (2012)2. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 106 - 111.
schapenhouderij - lammeren - lammerenziekten - misvormingen - veterinaire praktijk - schmallenbergvirus - virusziekten - orthobunyavirus - sheep farming - lambs - lamb diseases - malformations - veterinary practice - schmallenberg virus - viral diseases - orthobunyavirus - cache valley virus - akabane virus - bluetongue virus - small ruminants - newborn lambs - sheep - arthrogryposis - disease - pathology - fever
Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 November and 20 December 2011, congenital malformations in newborn lambs on sheep farms throughout the country were reported to the Animal Health Service in Deventer. Subsequently, small ruminant veterinary specialists visited these farms and collected relevant information from farmers by means of questionnaires. The deformities varied from mild to severe, and ewes were reported to have given birth to both normal and deformed lambs; both male and female lambs were affected. Most of the affected lambs were delivered at term. Besides malformed and normal lambs, dummy lambs, unable to suckle, were born also on these farms. None of the ewes had shown clinical signs during gestation or at parturition. Dystocia was common, because of the lambs' deformities. Lambs were submitted for post-mortem examination, and samples of brain tissue were collected for virus detection. The main macroscopic findings included arthrogryposis, torticollis, scoliosis and kyphosis, brachygnathia inferior, and mild-to-marked hypoplasia of the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Preliminary data from the first ten affected farms suggest that nutritional deficiencies, intoxication, and genetic factors are not likely to have caused the malformations. Preliminary diagnostic analyses of precolostral serum samples excluded border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bluetongue virus. In December 2011, samples of brain tissue from 54 lambs were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University Research, Lelystad. Real-time PCR detected the presence of a virus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, in brain tissue from 22 of the 54 lambs, which originated from seven of eight farms that had submitted lambs for post-mortem examination. This Schmallenberg virus was first reported in Germany and seems to be related to the Shamonda, Aino, and Akabane viruses, all of which belong to the Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. These preliminary findings suggest that the Schmallenberg virus is the most likely cause of this epizootic of ovine congenital malformations, which is the first such outbreak reported in Europe
Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010
Schimmer, B. ; Luttikholt, S. ; Hautvast, J.L.A. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Vellema, P. ; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van - \ 2011
BMC Veterinary Research 7 (2011). - ISSN 1746-6148
burnetii q-fever - coxiella-burnetii - domestic ruminants - serological tests - prevalence - antibodies - outbreak - herds - animals - sheep
Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results: In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95% CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95% CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95% CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (>= 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion: In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction and minimize airborne transmission from affected dairy goat farms to prevent further spread to the near environment.
Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato
Boogert, P.H.J.F. van den; Luttikholt, A.J.G. - \ 2004
European Journal of Plant Pathology 110 (2004)2. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 111 - 118.
mycoparasite verticillium-biguttatum - fungus hirsutella-rhossiliensis - seed potatoes - soil-borne - integrated control - trichoderma - fungicides - benomyl
A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals, alone and in combination with V. biguttatum was tested in in vitro assays on nutrient agar plates, in bio-assays with minitubers and in the field. Generally, there were both antagonistic, neutral and additive interactions with V. biguttatum among the combinations tested; there were no indications for synergistic interactions. Broad-spectrum fungicides (azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, thiabendazole) were fungitoxic to V. biguttatum as shown in in vitro assays, and hampered black scurf control by V. biguttatum in bio-assays. Oomycete-specific chemicals (cymoxanil and propamocarb) and various biocontrol strains (Gliocladium spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Trichoderma spp.) did not interfere with the growth of V. biguttatum on agar nutrient plates and did not affect black scurf control by V. biguttatum in co-applied treatments in the minituber bio-assay. Rhizoctonia-specific (pencycuron, flutalonil) fungicides co-applied with V. biguttatum showed additive effects on black scurf control. When combinations of V. biguttatum and cymoxanil or propamocarb were applied to immature potato tubers at green crop lifting, a reduction of both black scurf and Pythium- or Phytophthora-incited tuber rot was observed at harvest. In conclusion, the biocontrol fungus V. biguttatum is compatible with selected chemical control systems and may improve control efficacy in combination with Rhizoctonia-specific fungicides or may extend control spectrum in combination with Oomycete-specific fungicides.
|'Vertiplus'een product op basis van Verticillium biguttatum: houdbaarheid en effectiviteit
Boogert, P.H.J.F. van den; Knol, W. ; Krijger, M.C. ; Luttikholt, A.J.G. ; Oosten, A. van - \ 2001
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Note 156) - 16 p.
|Identificatie en detectie van pathogene Rhizoctonia solani in bloemkool
Boogert, P.H.J.F. ; Bonants, P.J.M. ; Hagenaar-de Weert, M. ; Luttikholt, A.J.G. - \ 1999
|Nonpathogenic Fusarium isolates from carnation suppressing wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi
Postma, J. ; Luttikholt, A.J.G. - \ 1996
Mededelingen - Universiteit Gent, Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen 61 (1996)2b. - ISSN 1373-7503 - p. 499 - 505.
|Colonization of carnation stems by a nonpathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum and its effect on wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi
Postma, J. ; Luttikholt, A.J.G. - \ 1996
Canadian Journal of Botany 74 (1996). - ISSN 0008-4026 - p. 1841 - 1851.
|Grünroden und die Möglichkeit der Schädlingsbekämpfung bei Kartoffeln
Boogert, P.H.J.F. van den; Luttikholt, A.J.G. ; Kastelein, P. - \ 1995
Der Kartoffelbau 46 (1995). - ISSN 0022-9156 - p. 202 - 206.
|Arrachage avant maturité et possibilites de maitrise des maladies de fa pomme de terre
Boogert, P.H.J.F. van den; Luttikholt, A.J.G. ; Kastelein, P. - \ 1995
Aardappelwereld (1995). - ISSN 0169-653X - p. 10 - 13.
|Control of sclerotial renewal of Rhizoctonia solani by biological and cultural methods
Boogert, P.H.J.F. van den; Luttikholt, A.J.G. - \ 1995
In: Proceedings of the third IOBC/EFPP workshop Biological control of Sclerotium-forming pathogens. IOBC WPRS Bulletin 18 - p. 67 - 77.
|Rhizoctonia ziekte in tulp
Schneider, J.H.M. ; Dijst, G. ; Schilder, M.T. ; Boogert, P.H.J.F. van den; Luttikholt, A.J.G. ; Keijer, J. - \ 1995
In: Verslag van onderzoek aan tulp 1995 / Anonymous,,
|Green crop harvesting, a mechanical haulm destruction method with potential for black scurf control
Luttikholt, A.J.G. ; Ridder, J.K. ; Boogert, P.H.J.F. van den - \ 1995
In: Second International Symposium on Rhizoctonia, Noordwijkerhout, 27-30 June. Book of abstracts - p. 136 - 136.
Biological control of foot and root rot in pea caused by Fusarium solani with nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates
Oyarzun, P.J. ; Postma, J. ; Luttikholt, A.J.G. ; Hoogland, A.E. - \ 1994
Canadian Journal of Botany 72 (1994)6. - ISSN 0008-4026 - p. 843 - 852.
Two nonpathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum were examined for their ability to counteract F. solani f.sp. pisi, which causes foot and dry root rot in pea. Antagonism was studied in vitro, in a sterilized field soil, and in six natural field soils. Besides native F. solani, other typical pea root rot pathogens occurred in the natural field soils. Both nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates reduced disease severity and prevented the plant weight losses that occurred owing to F. solani f.sp. pisi in sterilized soil. Precolonization of sterilized soil with nonpathogenic isolates increased the antagonistic effect. Also, in highly infested field soils the addition of nonpathogenic isolates resulted in lower disease severities and higher yields. Colonization of the soil organic matter by F. oxysporum reached 100% in sterilized soil, independent of the presence of F. solani, and 40 – 90% in naturally infested soils containing native F. solani. The performance of benomyl-resistant mutants of F. oxysporum did not differ from their wild types. Key words: antagonism, soil organic matter, colonization, Pisum sativum.
|Different responses of thyroid Hormone metabolism to a marginal iodine deficiency in nonpregnant and near term pregnant rats.
Versloot, P.M. ; Boogerd, L. ; Luttikholt, A.L.M. ; Rij, M. van; Heide, D. van der - \ 1994
European Journal of Endocrinology 130 (1994). - ISSN 0804-4643 - p. 45 - 45.
Benomyl-resistant Fusarium-isolates in ecological studies on the biological control of fusarium wilt in carnation
Postma, J. ; Luttikholt, A.J.G. - \ 1993
Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 99 (1993)4. - ISSN 0028-2944 - p. 175 - 188.
biological control - biological control agents - cut flowers - fungi - plant pathogenic fungi - dianthus caryophyllus - fusarium oxysporum
Ecological properties and stability of benomyl resistance of three benomyl-resistant mutants of nonpathogenicFusarium-isolates antagonistic to fusarium wilt in carnation, and three benomyl-resistant mutants of a pathogenic isolate ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp.dianthi were evaluatedin vitro and in glasshouse experiments. The benomyl resistance of the nonpathogenic mutants was stable under all conditions tested, also after a 1000-fold increase of the population in sterilized soil. Mutants of the pathogen were stable during allin vitro tests, but after proliferation in carnation stems only part of the population was benomyl resistant.Compared to the wild type, mutants of the pathogen were less pathogenic, also if thein vitro propeties were similar. Colonization of carnation by benomyl-resistant nonpathogenicFusarium in the presence of the pathogen showed that the antagonistic effect correlated with the presence of the nonpathogenic isolates within the carnation stem. The wild types and two of the mutant nonpathogenicFusarium-isolates controlled fusarium wilt in the susceptible cultivar Lena for 50% or more.UV-induced benomyl resistance appeared to be a valuable marker to distinguish between differentFusarium isolates and to study the population dynamics, but intensive screening of the mutants is a prerequisite since alterations in antagonism and pathogenicity can occur.