|External examiner in Final examination - Bachelor in architecture and urbanism, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo
Marconi Penteado, Homero - \ 2020
External examiner in Final examination - Bachelor in architecture and urbanism, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo
Gustavo Zamproni Gomes. Parque Fluvial do Aribiri (Vila Velha - ES) - Um ensaio projetual à luz de potenciais paisagísticos e socioambientais [River park in Vila Velha, Brazil]. 13.7.2020. Committee members: Eneida Mendonca, Juliano Motta, Homero M. Penteado
Tatiana Dagico Menezes Alves. Centro de Educação Ambiental [Environmental Education Centre]. 14.7.2020. Committee members: Andrea Laranja, Lutero Proscholt, Ricardo Maioli, Homero M. Penteado
Giovana Paste Pereira. Ensaio projetual de centro de atenção psicossocial: um ponto de partida para a arquitetura antimanicomial [Mental health attention centre]. 24.8.2020. Committee members: Kleber Frizzera, Renato Perini, Homero M. Penteado
Kamila Salarini. "Tem um Parque nesse emaranhado" [Waterfront park in Vitoria]. 15.10.2020. Committee members: Kleber Frizzera, Angela Gomes, Homero M. Penteado
ATLANTIC BIRD TRAITS: a data set of bird morphological traits from the Atlantic forests of South America
Rodrigues, Rodolpho Credo ; Hasui, Érica ; Assis, Julia Camara ; Pena, João Carlos Castro ; Muylaert, Renata L. ; Tonetti, Vinicius Rodrigues ; Martello, Felipe ; Regolin, André Luis ; Vernaschi Vieira da Costa, Thiago ; Pichorim, Mauro ; Carrano, Eduardo ; Lopes, Leonardo Esteves ; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Ferreira de; Fontana, Carla Suertegaray ; Roos, Andrei Langeloh ; Gonçalves, Fernando ; Banks-Leite, Cristina ; Cavarzere, Vagner ; Efe, Marcio Amorim ; Alves, Maria Alice S. ; Uezu, Alexandre ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Tarso Zuquim de Antas, Paulo de; Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros Ferraz, Katia Maria de; Calsavara, Larissa Corsini ; Bispo, Arthur Angelo ; Araujo, Helder F.P. ; Duca, Charles ; Piratelli, Augusto João ; Naka, Luciano N. ; Dias, Rafael Antunes ; Gatto, Cassiano A.F.R. ; Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro ; Reis Menezes, Gregório dos; Bugoni, Leandro ; Rajão, Henrique ; Zocche, Jairo José ; Willrich, Guilherme ; Silva, Elsimar Silveira da; Manica, Lilian Tonelli ; Camargo Guaraldo, André de; Althmann, Giulyana ; Serafini, Patricia Pereira ; Francisco, Mercival Roberto ; Lugarini, Camile ; Machado, Caio Graco ; Marques-Santos, Fernando ; Bobato, Rafaela ; Souza, Elivan Arantes de; Donatelli, Reginaldo José ; Ferreira, Carolina Demetrio ; Morante-Filho, José Carlos ; Paes-Macarrão, Natalia Dantas ; Macarrão, Arthur ; Lima, Marcos Robalinho ; Jacoboski, Lucilene Inês ; Candia-Gallardo, Carlos ; Alegre, Vanesa Bejarano ; Jahn, Alex E. ; Camargo Barbosa, Karlla Vanessa de; Cestari, Cesar ; Silva, José Nilton da; Silveira, Natalia Stefanini da; Vara Crestani, Ana Cristina ; Petronetto, Adeliane Peterle ; Abreu Bovo, Alex Augusto ; Viana, Anderson Durão ; Araujo, Andrea Cardoso ; Santos, Andressa Hartuiq dos; Araújo do Amaral, Andreza Clarinda ; Ferreira, Ariane ; Vieira-Filho, Arnaldo Honorato ; Ribeiro, Bianca Costa ; Missagia, Caio C.C. ; Bosenbecker, Camila ; Bronzato Medolago, Cesar Augusto ; Rodriguez Espínola, Cid Rodrigo ; Faxina, Claudenice ; Campodonio Nunes, Cristiane Estrela ; Prates, Cristine ; Apolinario da Luz, Daniela Tomasio ; Moreno, Daniele Janina ; Mariz, Daniele ; Faria, Deborah ; Meyer, Douglas ; Doná, Eder Afonso ; Alexandrino, Eduardo Roberto ; Fischer, Erich ; Girardi, Fabiane ; Giese, Felipe Borba ; Santos Shibuya, Felipe Leonardo ; Faria, Fernando Azevedo ; Bittencourt de Farias, Fernando ; Lima Favaro, Fernando de; Ferneda Freitas, Fernando José ; Chaves, Flávia G. ; Guedes Las-Casas, Flor Maria ; Rosa, Gabriel L.M. ; Massaccesi de laTorre, Gabriel ; Bochio, Gabriela Menezes ; Bonetti, Giselle Evelise ; Kohler, Glauco ; Toledo-Lima, Guilherme Santos ; Plucenio, Gustavo Piletti ; Menezes, Ícaro ; Denóbile Torres, Ingrid Maria ; Carvalho Provinciato, Ivan Celso ; Viana, Ivan Réus ; Roper, James Joseph ; Persegona, Jaqueline Evelyn ; Barcik, Jean Júnior ; Martins-Silva, Jimi ; Gava Just, João Paulo ; Tavares-Damasceno, João Paulo ; Almeida Ferreira, João Ricardo de; Rodrigues Rosoni, Jonas Rafael ; Teixeira Falcon, José Eduardo ; Schaedler, Laura Maria ; Mathias, Leonardo Brioschi ; Deconto, Leonardo Rafael ; Cruz Rodrigues, Licléia da; Meyer, Marcela Afonso P. ; Repenning, Márcio ; Melo, Marcos Antônio ; Santos de Carvalho, Maria Amélia ; Rodrigues, Marcos ; Conti Nunes, Maria Flavia ; Ogrzewalska, Maria Halina ; Lopes Gonçalves, Mariana ; Vecchi, Maurício B. ; Bettio, Maurício ; Matta Baptista, Michelle Noronha da; Arantes, Murilo Sérgio ; Ruiz, Nicolás Luciano ; Bisetto de Andrade, Paulo Guilherme ; Lima Ribeiro, Pedro Henrique ; Galetti Junior, Pedro Manoel ; Macario, Phoeve ; Oliveira Fratoni, Rafael de; Meurer, Rafael ; Saint-Clair, Rafael S. ; Romagna, Rafael Spilere ; Alves Lacerda, Raquel Caroline ; Serpa Cerboncini, Ricardo Augusto ; Lyra, Ricardo Brioschi ; Lau, Ricardo ; Rodrigues, Roberta Costa ; Faria, Rogério Rodrigues ; Laps, Rudi Ricardo ; Althoff, Sérgio Luiz ; Jesus, Shayana de; Namba, Sumiko ; Braga, Talita Vieira ; Molin, Tamara ; França Câmara, Thanyria P. ; Enedino, Thayz Rodrigues ; Wischhoff, Uschi ; Oliveira, Vanessa Cristina de; Leandro-Silva, Victor ; Araújo-Lima, Vitor ; Oliveira Lunardi, Vitor de; Gusmão, Reginaldo Farias de; Souza Correia, Jozélia Maria de; Gaspar, Lucas P. ; Batista Fonseca, Renata Cristina ; Fonseca Pires Neto, Paulo Affonso ; Medeiros Morato de Aquino, Ana Carla ; Camargo, Bruna Betagni de; Cezila, Beatriz Azevedo ; Costa, Leonardo Marques ; Paolino, Roberta Montanheiro ; Kanda, Claudia Zukeran ; Monteiro, Erison C.S. ; Oshima, Júlia Emi F. ; Alves-Eigenheer, Milene ; Pizo, Marco Aurelio ; Silveira, Luís F. ; Galetti, Mauro ; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar - \ 2019
Ecology 100 (2019)6. - ISSN 0012-9658
body size - functional diversity - individual variation - interspecific variation - phenotypic plasticity - phylogenetic diversity - rapid evolution - tropical forest
Scientists have long been trying to understand why the Neotropical region holds the highest diversity of birds on Earth. Recently, there has been increased interest in morphological variation between and within species, and in how climate, topography, and anthropogenic pressures may explain and affect phenotypic variation. Because morphological data are not always available for many species at the local or regional scale, we are limited in our understanding of intra- and interspecies spatial morphological variation. Here, we present the ATLANTIC BIRD TRAITS, a data set that includes measurements of up to 44 morphological traits in 67,197 bird records from 2,790 populations distributed throughout the Atlantic forests of South America. This data set comprises information, compiled over two centuries (1820–2018), for 711 bird species, which represent 80% of all known bird diversity in the Atlantic Forest. Among the most commonly reported traits are sex (n = 65,717), age (n = 63,852), body mass (n = 58,768), flight molt presence (n = 44,941), molt presence (n = 44,847), body molt presence (n = 44,606), tail length (n = 43,005), reproductive stage (n = 42,588), bill length (n = 37,409), body length (n = 28,394), right wing length (n = 21,950), tarsus length (n = 20,342), and wing length (n = 18,071). The most frequently recorded species are Chiroxiphia caudata (n = 1,837), Turdus albicollis (n = 1,658), Trichothraupis melanops (n = 1,468), Turdus leucomelas (n = 1,436), and Basileuterus culicivorus (n = 1,384). The species recorded in the greatest number of sampling localities are Basileuterus culicivorus (n = 243), Trichothraupis melanops (n = 242), Chiroxiphia caudata (n = 210), Platyrinchus mystaceus (n = 208), and Turdus rufiventris (n = 191). ATLANTIC BIRD TRAITS (ABT) is the most comprehensive data set on measurements of bird morphological traits found in a biodiversity hotspot; it provides data for basic and applied research at multiple scales, from individual to community, and from the local to the macroecological perspectives. No copyright or proprietary restrictions are associated with the use of this data set. Please cite this data paper when the data are used in publications or teaching and educational activities.
Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones
Tiegs, Scott D. ; Costello, David M. ; Isken, Mark W. ; Woodward, Guy ; McIntyre, Peter B. ; Gessner, Mark O. ; Chauvet, Eric ; Griffiths, Natalie A. ; Flecker, Alex S. ; Acuña, Vicenç ; Albariño, Ricardo ; Allen, Daniel C. ; Alonso, Cecilia ; Andino, Patricio ; Arango, Clay ; Aroviita, Jukka ; Barbosa, Marcus V.M. ; Barmuta, Leon A. ; Baxter, Colden V. ; Bell, Thomas D.C. ; Bellinger, Brent ; Boyero, Luz ; Brown, Lee E. ; Bruder, Andreas ; Bruesewitz, Denise A. ; Burdon, Francis J. ; Callisto, Marcos ; Canhoto, Cristina ; Capps, Krista A. ; Castillo, María M. ; Clapcott, Joanne ; Colas, Fanny ; Colón-Gaud, Checo ; Cornut, Julien ; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica ; Cross, Wyatt F. ; Culp, Joseph M. ; Danger, Michael ; Dangles, Olivier ; Eyto, Elvira De; Derry, Alison M. ; Villanueva, Veronica Díaz ; Douglas, Michael M. ; Elosegi, Arturo ; Encalada, Andrea C. ; Entrekin, Sally ; Espinosa, Rodrigo ; Ethaiya, Diana ; Ferreira, Verónica ; Ferriol, Carmen ; Flanagan, Kyla M. ; Fleituch, Tadeusz ; Follstad Shah, Jennifer J. ; Barbosa, André Frainer ; Friberg, Nikolai ; Frost, Paul C. ; Garcia, Erica A. ; Lago, Liliana García ; Soto, Pavel Ernesto García ; Ghate, Sudeep ; Giling, Darren P. ; Gilmer, Alan ; Gonçalves, José Francisco ; Gonzales, Rosario Karina ; Graça, Manuel A.S. ; Grace, Mike ; Grossart, Hans Peter ; Guérold, François ; Gulis, Vlad ; Hepp, Luiz U. ; Higgins, Scott ; Hishi, Takuo ; Huddart, Joseph ; Hudson, John ; Imberger, Samantha ; Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos ; Iwata, Tomoya ; Janetski, David J. ; Jennings, Eleanor ; Kirkwood, Andrea E. ; Koning, Aaron A. ; Kosten, Sarian ; Kuehn, Kevin A. ; Laudon, Hjalmar ; Leavitt, Peter R. ; Lemes Da Silva, Aurea L. ; Leroux, Shawn J. ; LeRoy, Carri J. ; Lisi, Peter J. ; MacKenzie, Richard ; Marcarelli, Amy M. ; Masese, Frank O. ; McKie, Brendan G. ; Medeiros, Adriana Oliveira ; Meissner, Kristian ; Miliša, Marko ; Mishra, Shailendra ; Miyake, Yo ; Moerke, Ashley ; Mombrikotb, Shorok ; Mooney, Rob ; Moulton, Tim ; Muotka, Timo ; Negishi, Junjiro N. ; Neres-Lima, Vinicius ; Nieminen, Mika L. ; Nimptsch, Jorge ; Ondruch, Jakub ; Paavola, Riku ; Pardo, Isabel ; Patrick, Christopher J. ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Pozo, Jesus ; Pringle, Catherine ; Prussian, Aaron ; Quenta, Estefania ; Quesada, Antonio ; Reid, Brian ; Richardson, John S. ; Rigosi, Anna ; Rincón, José ; Rîşnoveanu, Geta ; Robinson, Christopher T. ; Rodríguez-Gallego, Lorena ; Royer, Todd V. ; Rusak, James A. ; Santamans, Anna C. ; Selmeczy, Géza B. ; Simiyu, Gelas ; Skuja, Agnija ; Smykla, Jerzy ; Sridhar, Kandikere R. ; Sponseller, Ryan ; Stoler, Aaron ; Swan, Christopher M. ; Szlag, David ; Teixeira-De Mello, Franco ; Tonkin, Jonathan D. ; Uusheimo, Sari ; Veach, Allison M. ; Vilbaste, Sirje ; Vought, Lena B.M. ; Wang, Chiao Ping ; Webster, Jackson R. ; Wilson, Paul B. ; Woelfl, Stefan ; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A. ; Yates, Adam G. ; Yoshimura, Chihiro ; Yule, Catherine M. ; Zhang, Yixin X. ; Zwart, Jacob A. - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)1. - ISSN 2375-2548 - p. 14966 - 14973.
River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.
Experiences and Drivers of Food Insecurity in Guatemala's Dry Corridor: Insights From the Integration of Ethnographic and Household Survey Data
Beveridge, Louise ; Whitfield, Stephen ; Fraval, Simon ; Wijk, Mark van; Etten, Jacob van; Mercado, Leida ; Hammond, James ; Davila Cortez, Luz ; Gabriel Suchini, Jose ; Challinor, Andrew - \ 2019
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2019). - ISSN 2571-581X
agriculture - Central America - climate - ethnography - food security - household survey - participatory - underlying drivers
Eradicating hunger is a complex and multifaceted challenge, requiring evidence bases that can inform wide scale action, but that are also participatory and grounded to have local relevance and effectiveness. The Rural Household Multi-Indicator Surveys (RHoMIS) provides a broad assessment of household capabilities and food security outcomes, while ethnographic approaches evidence how individuals' perceptions, experiences and local socio-political context shape food security experiences and intervention outcomes. However, integrating these research approaches presents methodological and ontological challenges. We combine a quantitative approach with life history interviews to understand the drivers, experiences and outcomes of food insecurity in Guatemala's dry corridor region. We also reflect on the effectiveness and challenges of integrating the two methods for purposes of selective sampling, triangulating evidence, and producing a cohesive analyses of food insecurity in the region. Variables with a statistically significant association with severe food insecurity in the region are: coffee cultivation (when market participation is low), dependence on agricultural labor income, and poverty level. Drivers of food insecurity experiences most commonly identified by participants are: consecutive drought; ill health and displacement of income for medicine; social marginalization; high start-up costs in production; absence or separation of a household head; and a lack of income and education opportunity. Ethnographic approaches identify a broader range of drivers contributing to food insecurity experiences, and add explanatory power to a statistical model of severe food insecurity. This integrated analysis provides a holistic picture of food insecurity in Guatemala's dry corridor region.
Effect of nickel and cobalt on methanogenic enrichment cultures and role of biogenic sulphide in metal toxicity attenuation
Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, Lara da; Ramiro Garcia, Javier ; Mourik, Simon van; Stams, Fons ; Machado de Sousa, Diana - \ 2019
PRJEB20620 - ERP022789
Metals play an important role in microbial metabolism by acting as cofactors for many enzymes. Supplementation of biological processes with metals may result in improved performance, but high metal concentrations are often toxic to microorganisms. In this work, methanogenic enrichment cultures growing on H2/CO2 or acetate were supplemented with trace concentrations of nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), but no significant increase in methane production was observed in most of the tested conditions. However, high concentrations of these metals were detrimental to methanogenic activity of the cultures. The amount of methane produced from H2/CO2 was reduced in 50% in the presence of 8 mM of Ni or 30 mM of Co (after 6 days of incubation), compared to controls without metal supplementation. When acetate was used as substrate, methane production was also reduced: in 18% with 8 mM of Ni and in 53% with 30 mM of Co (after 6 days of incubation). Metal precipitation with sulphide was further tested as a possible method to alleviate metal toxicity. Anaerobic sludge was incubated with Co (30 mM) and Ni (8mM) in the presence of sulphate or sulphide. The addition of sulphide helped to mitigate the toxic effect of the metals. Methane production from H2/CO2 was negatively affected in the presence of sulphate, possibly due to strong competition of hydrogenotrophic methanogens by sulphate-reducing bacteria. However, in the enrichment cultures growing on acetate, biogenic sulphide had a positive effect and higher amounts of methane were produced in these incubations than in similar assays without sulphate addition. The degree of competition between methanogens and sulphate-reducing bacteria is a determinant factor for the success of using biogenic sulphide as detoxification method.
The body as a tattletale : Physiological responses to food stimuli perception within the context of expectations
Verastegui Tena, Luz M. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C.M. van Trijp, co-promotor(en): B. Piqueras Fiszman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950589 - 169
The interaction with food involves a series of unexplored reactions that may help understand how individuals perceive the food in their environment. Among these reactions, the responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are believed to reveal affective states, motivation, and preferences that people may not be able to articulate when experiencing food. An individual’s experience with food can be affected when expectations are disconfirmed. Expectations provide an idea (based on previous experiences, pre-set ideas, beliefs or even the context of consumption) of what the food product should look, smell, feel, and taste like. The novelty, valence, and relevance of the food product along with how arousing it is for the individual can also contribute in the responses related to expectations. The present thesis aimed to assess if ANS responses (particularly heart rate and skin conductance) capture the processes related to the (dis)confirmation of expectations when individuals are presented to food products and the effect that novelty, arousal, valence, relevance, and attention might have in these responses. This thesis addressed four topics in order to achieve this objective: I) ANS responses elicited by food stimuli of different valence when expectations are created and (dis)confirmed and when food stimuli are presented in situations of different relevance, II) ANS responses related to novelty (first experience with a stimulus), valence (pleasant or unpleasant stimulus) and (dis)confirmations of expectations, III) ANS responses related to the degree of the expectation disconfirmation, IV) Influence of attention and arousal in ANS responses to expectation (dis)confirmation.
The comparison of ANS responses obtained when expectations were created and when they were (dis)confirmed showed that ANS responses captured more than the effect of expectations (Chapter 2). The creation and (dis)confirmation of expectations led to similar ANS response patterns. The responses obtained (heart rate decrease from baseline and skin conductance increase from baseline) seemed to be related to enhanced attention for the positive and negative stimuli and to defense reactions for the negative stimulus. Relevance was found to intensify all the ANS responses to stimuli. Looking separately at the patterns of ANS responses related to novelty, valence and disconfirmations showed that novelty evokes changes in heart rate (small increase followed by a decrease from baseline) and skin conductance (increase from baseline) that could be a combination of arousal and attentional responses related to an initial orientation response (Chapter 3). Skin conductance changed according to valence, with negative stimuli leading to larger increases in skin conductance than positive or neutral stimuli. The effect of disconfirmations seemed to only be captured by heart rate and may be related attention processes to the change/disconfirmation.
ANS responses were not affected by the degree of the disconfirmations (Chapter 4). A study design in which expectations were manipulated to create small and large disconfirmations only found ANS responses that could be again reflecting the orientation response and attention (heart rate decrease from baseline) related to the novelty of the design and heightened arousal and attention (increase in skin conductance) related to the processing of the manipulation of expectations. Evaluating whether the ANS responses obtained in all studies indeed reflected attention and arousal showed that skin conductance was a stable measure for arousal (Chapter 5). However, it could only differentiate between the most arousing stimuli. It was not possible to confirm whether ANS responses reflect attention due to the lack of replicability of heart rate responses.
Overall, the chapters of this thesis show that disconfirmations lead to ANS responses (particularly heart rate decreases and skin conductance increases from baseline) that could be reflecting changes in orientation and attention. Novelty and valence (particularly negative) lead to large increases in skin conductance but these responses are linked to the arousal of the stimuli. Relevance influences the intensity of these ANS responses by making them stronger when the stimuli are deemed important or significant by individuals. The findings of this thesis show that the components captured by ANS responses may not be helpful for studying the reactions to food. Research areas such as food research could only use ANS responses in study designs that include highly relevant, novel, arousing or contrasting disconfirmations or stimuli. However, the characteristics that would be captured by ANS would already be noticeable and could be better measured by cheaper methods.
Heart rate, skin conductance, and explicit responses to juice samples with varying levels of expectation (dis)confirmation
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 320 - 331.
Autonomic nervous system - Expectations - Heart rate - Skin conductance - Taste disconfirmation
Disconfirmations between consumers’ expectations and a product's actual properties can lead to different responses in consumers. Most researchers study these responses focusing on the final judgement of the product. However, looking at consumers’ physiological responses like those of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) could help complement what is known about consumer reactions and final response to disconfirmed expectations. This study evaluated how ANS responses change when tasting juice samples that were as expected, that differed slightly, or that differed greatly from manipulated expectations and whether these responses vary from those obtained when there is no manipulation of expectations. Eighty-six participants tasted fruit and vegetable juices in two separate sessions. They were divided in two conditions. In Condition A, expectations were manipulated by showing participants the image of an ingredient and then providing them with a juice whose flavour was as expected, differed slightly, or differed greatly from that of the image. In Condition B, each juice was first tasted without explicit information shown beforehand and the image of the ingredient was shown afterwards. The images were the same as in Condition A. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. To confirm that participants perceived confirmations and large and small disconfirmations when tasting the juices, they rated the samples in different sensory properties before and after tasting them. Results from most of the sensory ratings, except sourness and taste intensity, showed that participants perceived the designed confirmation and disconfirmation of expectations accordingly. Regarding ANS responses, heart rate had a larger increase during the second session than during the first. Skin conductance responses increased in Condition A but decreased in Condition B. In conclusion, our design managed to create confirmations and varying levels of disconfirmations. ANS responses did not capture them but seemed to capture factors like attention and the orientation response.
Biocultural diversity: A novel concept to assess human-nature interrelations, nature conservation and stewardship in cities
Elands, B.H.M. ; Vierikko, K. ; Andersson, E. ; Fischer, L.K. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Haase, D. ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Luz, A.C. ; Niemelä,, J. ; Santos-Reis, M. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 29 - 34.
Biocultural diversity is an evolving perspective for studying the interrelatedness between people and their natural environment, not only in ecoregional hotspots and cultural landscapes, but also in urban green spaces. Developed in the 1990s in order to denote the diversity of life in all its manifestations―biological, cultural and linguistic―co-evolving within complex socio-ecological systems such as cities, biocultural diversity was identified in the GREEN SURGE project as a response to recent challenges cities face. Most important challenges are
the loss of nature and degradation of ecosystems in and around cities as well as an alienation of urban residents from and loss of interaction with nature. The notion of biocultural diversity is dynamic in nature and takes local values and practices of relating to biodiversity of different cultural groups as a starting point for sustainable living with biodiversity. The issue is not only how to preserve or restore biocultural practices and values, but also how to modify, adapt and create biocultural diversity in ways that resonate with urban transformations. As future societies will largely diverge from today’s societies, the cultural perspective on living with (urban) nature needs careful reconsideration. Biocultural diversity is not conceived as a definite concept providing prescriptions of what to see and study, but as a reflexive and sensitising concept that can be used to assess the different values and knowledge of people that reflect how they live with biodiversity. This short communication paper introduces a conceptual framework for studying the multi-dimensional features of biocultural diversity in cities along the three key dimensions of materialized, lived and stewardship, being departure points from which biocultural diversity can be studied.
Biodiversity loss along a gradient of deforestation in Amazonian agricultural landscapes
Decaëns, Thibaud ; Martins, Marlúcia B. ; Feijoo, Alexander ; Oszwald, Johan ; Dolédec, Sylvain ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Arnaud de Sartre, Xavier ; Bonilla, Diego ; Brown, George G. ; Cuellar Criollo, Yeimmy Andrea ; Dubs, Florence ; Furtado, Ivaneide S. ; Gond, Valérie ; Gordillo, Erika ; Clec'h, Solen Le; Marichal, Raphaël ; Mitja, Danielle ; Souza, Izildinha Miranda de; Praxedes, Catarina ; Rougerie, Rodolphe ; Ruiz, Darío H. ; Otero, Joel Tupac ; Sanabria, Catalina ; Velasquez, Alex ; Zararte, Luz Elena M. ; Lavelle, Patrick - \ 2018
Conservation Biology 32 (2018)6. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 1380 - 1391.
biodiversity conservation - biodiversity erosion - Brazil - Colombia - land-use changes - landscape intensification - threshold
Assessing how much management of agricultural landscapes, in addition to protected areas, can offset biodiversity erosion in the tropics is a central issue for conservation that still requires cross-taxonomic and landscape-scale studies. We measured the effects of Amazonia deforestation and subsequent land-use intensification in 6 agricultural areas (landscape scale), where we sampled plants and 4 animal groups (birds, earthworms, fruit flies, and moths). We assessed land-use intensification with a synthetic index based on landscape metrics (total area and relative percentages of land uses, edge density, mean patch density and diversity, and fractal structures at 5 dates from 1990 to 2007). Species richness decreased consistently as agricultural intensification increased despite slight differences in the responses of sampled groups. Globally, in moderately deforested landscapes species richness was relatively stable, and there was a clear threshold in biodiversity loss midway along the intensification gradient, mainly linked to a drop in forest cover and quality. Our results suggest anthropogenic landscapes with high-quality forest covering >40 % of the surface area may prevent biodiversity loss in Amazonia.
Biocultural diversity – a new approach to understand connections between people and nature in cities
Elands, B.H.M. ; Haase, Dagmar ; Vierikko, Kati ; Andersson, E. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Fischer, L. ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Luz, A.C. ; Niemelä, Jari ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2018
|Conservación de suelos y aguas
Lince Salazar, Luz Adriana ; Castra Quintero, Andrés Felipe ; Castaño Castaño, Wadi Andrey ; Bedoya Rojas, Mónica María ; Wolters, W. ; Miguel Ayala, L. - \ 2018
Bogota : APC Columbia - ISBN 9789588490281 - 148
Heart rate and skin conductance responses to taste, taste novelty, and the (dis)confirmation of expectations
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 65 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 9.
Autonomic nervous system - Expectations - Heart rate - Novelty - Skin conductance - Taste
It is unclear whether the responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can measure how people respond to food. Results focused on emotional responses are contradictory; therefore, the focus has shifted to other components of emotion, such as appraisals. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the differences in ANS responses related to appraisals; particularly taste novelty, valence, and the disconfirmation of expectations.A hundred and fifty-five participants joined this study. They tasted samples of different valence (sweet and bitter) twice: the first time without knowing the taste and the second while being informed of the taste. After this first block, participants tasted two additional samples: one that confirmed expectations and one that disconfirmed them. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Results show that the second experience with a taste led to cardiac deceleration. Heart rate changes were only related to valence when participants' expectations were (dis)confirmed. Heart rate decreased for those tastes that disconfirmed expectations and increased for those that confirmed them and the sweet sample had larger increases in heart rate than the bitter. Skin conductance changed in regards to novelty and valence but not to the disconfirmation of expectations. It increased for the bitter sample, decreased for the sweet, and was always higher during the first experience than during the second. In conclusion, the results suggest that cardiac responses are more sensitive to novelty and the disconfirmation of expectations while skin conductance responses capture novelty and valence.
Bacterial communities in soil become sensitive to drought under intensive grazing
Jurburg, Stephanie D. ; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago ; Raimundo, João ; Morais, Paula V. ; Sousa, José Paulo ; Elsas, Jan Dirk van; Salles, Joana Falcao - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 618 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1638 - 1646.
Bacteria - Climate change - Land management - Microbiome - Precipitation - Resilience - Soil
Increasing climatic and anthropogenic pressures on soil ecosystems are expected to create a global patchwork of disturbance scenarios. Some regions will be strongly impacted by climate change, others by agricultural intensification, and others by both. Soil microbial communities are integral components of terrestrial ecosystems, but their responses to multiple perturbations are poorly understood. Here, we exposed soils from sustainably- or intensively-managed grasslands in an agro-silvo-pastoral oak woodland to month-long intensified drought and flood simulation treatments in a controlled mesocosm setting. We monitored the response of the bacterial communities at the end of one month as well as during the following month of recovery. The communities in sustainably-managed plots under all precipitation regimes were richer and more diverse than those in intensively-managed plots, and contained a lower proportion of rapidly-growing taxa. Soils from both land managements exhibited changes in bacterial community composition in response to flooding, but only intensively-managed soils were affected by drought. The ecologies of bacteria favored by both drought and flood point to both opportunism and stress tolerance as key traits shaping the community following disturbance. Finally, the response of several taxa (i.e. Chloracidobacteria RB41, Janthinobacterium sp.) to precipitation depended on land management, suggesting that the community itself affected individual disturbance responses. Our findings provide an in-depth view of the complexity of soil bacterial community responses to climatic and anthropogenic pressures in time, and highlight the potential of these stressors to have multiplicative effects on the soil biota.
Biocultural diversity indicators as a support-decision tool for planning and managing urban green spaces
Gonçalves, P. ; Vierikko, Kati ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Luz, A.C. ; Branquinho, C. ; Santos-Reis, M. - \ 2017
In: Spaces of dialog for places of dignity. - - p. 489 - 489.
Biocultural diversity in the urban context; how to asses it?
Elands, B.H.M. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Vierikko, Kati ; Luz, A.C. ; Branquinho, C. ; Santos-Reis, M. - \ 2017
BCD: linkages between people and nature – database, typology and indicators
Vierikko, K. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Luz, A.C. ; Andersson, E. ; Haase, D. ; Fischer, L. ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Niemelä,, J. - \ 2017
Green Surge - 54
Internal project report that outlines biocultural diversity (BCD)
database, typology and indicators in urban context as a part of the EU FP7
(ENV.2013.6.2-5-603567) GREEN SURGE project (2013-2017)
Beyond expectations : The responses of the autonomic nervous system to visual food cues
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2017
Physiology and Behavior 179 (2017). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 478 - 486.
ANS - Expectations - Heart rate - Image perception - Skin conductance - Tasting
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms underlying ANS responses by evaluating the reactions to different images when expectations about a product are created (before tasting the product) and when they are confirmed and disconfirmed (after tasting the product). In a first study, seventy-five participants tasted four drinks (three identical soy-based drinks and one rice-based drink) and were told that they would be shown their main ingredient either before or after tasting. For the three identical drinks, the images shown were: worms, chocolate, and soy. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured during the procedure. The results showed that ANS responses followed similar patterns when images were presented before or after tasting. Heart rate decreased for all images, with the largest decrease found for chocolate and worms. Skin conductance increased, with the largest increase found for worms. To test whether the effects were solely caused by image perception, a second study was done in which forty participants only saw the images. The responses obtained were smaller and did not completely match those of the first study. In conclusion, it could be said that the ANS responses of the first study were a result of the sensory processing and defense mechanisms happening during the creation and (dis)confirmation of expectations. The second study confirmed that visual perception alone could not account for these effects and that it led to smaller changes. Hence, it seems that the context of use influences the patterns and magnitude of ANS responses to food cues.
Effect of nickel and cobalt on methanogenic enrichment cultures and role of biogenic sulfide in metal toxicity attenuation
Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, Lara da; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier ; Mourik, Simon van; Stams, Alfons J.M. ; Machado de Sousa, Diana - \ 2017
Frontiers in Microbiology 8 (2017)JUL. - ISSN 1664-302X
Anaerobic sludge - Heavy metals - Inhibition - Stimulation - Sulfate - Sulfide
Metals play an important role in microbial metabolism by acting as cofactors for many enzymes. Supplementation of biological processes with metals may result in improved performance, but high metal concentrations are often toxic to microorganisms. In this work, methanogenic enrichment cultures growing on H2/CO2 or acetate were supplemented with trace concentrations of nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), but no significant increase in methane production was observed in most of the tested conditions. However, high concentrations of these metals were detrimental to methanogenic activity of the cultures. Cumulative methane production (after 6 days of incubation) from H2/CO2 was 40% lower in the presence of 8 mM of Ni or 30 mM of Co, compared to controls without metal supplementation. When acetate was used as substrate, cumulative methane production was also reduced: by 18% with 8 mM of Ni and by 53% with 30 mM of Co (after 6 days of incubation). Metal precipitation with sulfide was further tested as a possible method to alleviate metal toxicity. Anaerobic sludge was incubated with Co (30 mM) and Ni (8 mM) in the presence of sulfate or sulfide. The addition of sulfide helped to mitigate the toxic effect of the metals. Methane production from H2/CO2 was negatively affected in the presence of sulfate, possibly due to competition of hydrogenotrophic methanogens by sulfate-reducing bacteria. However, in the enrichment cultures growing on acetate, biogenically produced sulfide had a positive effect and more methane was produced in these incubations than in similar assays without sulfate addition. The outcome of competition between methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria is a determinant factor for the success of using biogenic sulfide as detoxification method.
Sensory expectation, perception, and autonomic nervous system responses to package colours and product popularity
Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia ; Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Goedegebure, Robert P.G. ; Piqueras Fiszman, Betina ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 62 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 60 - 70.
Autonomic nervous system - Descriptive social norm - Heart rate - Packaging - Skin conductance - Taste
Consumers’ perception of, and behaviour towards, products are influenced by extrinsic cues, including packaging and social norms. However, the understanding of this process is unsatisfactorily captured by questionnaires. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses can be used to measure implicit consumer responses. The aim of this work was to assess how packaging cues and social norms influence product expectation, product perception, and ANS responses. Ninety-eight adults (age: 23.3 ± 3.2 years; BMI: 21.3 ± 2.2 kg/m2) first viewed four images of a yogurt package modified in hue (blue/red), brightness (high/low), and saturation (high/low) and two dummies alongside a fictitious product popularity score. After each image presentation, participants rated their expectations of the yogurt, tasted, and rated their perception of it. Expectations and the perception of liking, healthiness, sweetness, and flavour intensity were rated on 100-unit VAS scales. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance response (SCR) to the image and tasting were measured. The darker, saturated red package elicited the lowest expectation of healthiness and the highest expectation of flavour intensity and sweetness. Red packages increased SCR while blue packages decreased them. During yogurt tasting, low product popularity was associated with a stronger decrease in SCR than a high popularity. Overall, the measured ANS responses were small. In conclusion, this study was the first to look at the effect of expectations elicited by a product's packaging colour and popularity on explicit ratings and ANS responses. We found differences in SCR to package colour and product popularity, suggesting their importance in affecting consumer responses.
Anaerobic microbial processes for energy conservation and biotransformation of pollutants
Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, Lara da - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.J.M. Stams, co-promotor(en): D.Z. Sousa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431125 - 234
anaerobic microbiology - anaerobes - energy conservation - biotransformation - pollutants - heavy metals - sulfates (inorganic salts) - nickel - cobalt - methanosarcina barkeri - genomics - polymerase chain reaction - anaërobe microbiologie - anaërobe micro-organismen - energiebehoud - biotransformatie - verontreinigende stoffen - zware metalen - sulfaten (anorganische zouten) - nikkel - kobalt - methanosarcina barkeri - genomica - polymerase-kettingreactie
Anaerobic microbial processes are commonly applied in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater has received a great deal of attention, but many aspects related to the complex interactions between microorganism, and how that is affected by the presence of certain toxic, are not yet fully understood. A particular case of this is the effect of heavy metals or chlorinated compounds. These compounds are known to have a strong impact in methanogens, a phylogenetic diverse group responsible for the last step of the AD process. The negative effect of sulphate towards methanogenesis is mainly related to outcompetition of methanogens by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), or to toxicity caused by the sulphide generated from sulphate reduction. Heavy metals are part of many enzymes and cofactors and, in low concentrations, may beneficiate microbial activity. However, high concentrations of metals may disrupt enzyme function and structure. In cases where metal concentration is high, the presence of sulphate or sulphide might be favourable because sulphide precipitate with metals and detoxify the environment. In Chapter 2 we provide a review on the current knowledge on the effects of heavy metals and sulphate on AD, with special focus on methanogenesis. From this literature study, it came out that the influence of some metals, such as Co, is not extensively studied and that the potential of biologically produced sulphide as metal detoxification method in AD is still quite unexplored. In Chapter 3 we explored different strategies to improve methane production. Low concentrations of Ni and Co were supplemented to anaerobic sludge and the impact on methane production was evaluated. Although in contrast with other studies, no beneficial effect of metal supplementation was observed. Further on, the impact of high concentrations of Ni and Co added to anaerobic sludge was evaluated, as well as the use of sulphide as a detoxification strategy. This was evaluated in terms of impact on methane production and in changes in the microbial communities. The results showed that sulphide can be used as a method for metal detoxification, but in the case of biological produced sulphide, the competition between SRB and methanogens needs to be considered.
Chlorinated compounds are widely used and commonly found in wastewaters. Several methanogenic metal-containing cofactors are reported to be involved in reductive dechlorination. Therefore, in Chapters 4 and 5 the potential of metal supplementation to enhance the dechlorination process was studied. In Chapter 4, the enrichment of methanogenic cultures able to perform reductive dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) and tetrachlorethene (TCE) using different inoculum sources and substrates is described. Differences in physiological performance and in the microbial communities were evaluated. The results showed that the microbial community can be influenced by inoculum and substrate as well as by the chlorinated compound used. The enriched cultures presenting the best dechlorination performance were selected and used for metal supplementation studies with Ni, Co, and Fe. The results showed a clear positive impact of metal addition, both on methane production and reductive dechlorination. Further research on metal supplementation to enhance dechlorination was performed in pure cultures of Methanosarcina barkeri, a methanogen known to be able to reduce DCE (Chapter 5). In this case, it was observed that metal supplementation could improve methane production and reductive dechlorination, but the effect is dependent on the metal and concentration used. It was found that methanogenesis and reductive dechlorination can be affected in a different way by the same metal.
Finally, in Chapter 6 the impact of sulphate on a methane-producing bioelectrochemical system (BES), an emerging technology that can be applied to wastewater treatment, was studied. The results showed an unexpected fast sulphate removal in the system and a limited impact caused by sulphate addition on methane production. The sulphate removal could only partially be explained by microbial activity, but the results demonstrated the ability of microbial communities to evolve and adapt to new operational conditions.
In conclusion, the work presented in this thesis gave insights on the impact of heavy metals and sulphate in methanogenic systems. Furthermore, different approaches to maximise methane production were evaluated. In particular, it was shown that metal supplementation can be a promising strategy to improve anaerobic microbial processes, such as methanogenesis and reductive dechlorination.