Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    MCDA stakeholder workshops
    Duranova, T. ; Asselt, E. Van; Müller, T. ; Bohunova, J. ; Twenhöfel, C.J.W. ; Smetsers, R.C.G.M. - \ 2020
    Radioprotection 55 (2020)HS1. - ISSN 0033-8451 - p. S193 - S196.
    CONFIDENCE - Decision support - MCDA - Radiological emergency - Stakeholder - Uncertainty

    Within the CONFIDENCE project, comprehensive methods have been developed for better support of decision making under uncertain conditions, mainly by use of Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). While MCDA in general was available for use in the radiological crisis management community, no method of analysing uncertain conditions and supporting robust decision making under these conditions was available. During the CONFIDENCE project, the existing MCDA tool was improved and enhanced to deal with these requirements. For providing solid and reliable decision support for such a situation as a radiological emergency, the evaluation of decision-support tools by the stakeholders and their feedback is important, especially when considering their heterogeneous background caused by e.g. living in different countries. Therefore, several stakeholder panels in different countries were organized to include the end users' opinions and to assure the usability of the final tool.

    Clouds and Convective Self-Aggregation in a Multimodel Ensemble of Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Simulations
    Wing, Allison A. ; Stauffer, Catherine L. ; Becker, Tobias ; Reed, Kevin A. ; Ahn, Min Seop ; Arnold, Nathan P. ; Bony, Sandrine ; Branson, Mark ; Bryan, George H. ; Chaboureau, Jean Pierre ; De Roode, Stephan R. ; Gayatri, Kulkarni ; Hohenegger, Cathy ; Hu, Kuan ; Jansson, Fredrik ; Jones, Todd R. ; Khairoutdinov, Marat ; Kim, Daehyun ; Martin, Zane K. ; Matsugishi, Shuhei ; Medeiros, Brian ; Miura, Hiroaki ; Moon, Yumin ; Müller, Sebastian K. ; Ohno, Tomoki ; Popp, Max ; Prabhakaran, Thara ; Randall, David ; Rios-Berrios, Rosimar ; Rochetin, Nicolas ; Roehrig, Romain ; Romps, David M. ; Ruppert, James H. ; Satoh, Masaki ; Silvers, Levi G. ; Singh, Martin S. ; Stevens, Bjorn ; Tomassini, Lorenzo ; van Heerwaarden, Chiel C. ; Wang, Shuguang ; Zhao, Ming - \ 2020
    Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12 (2020)9. - ISSN 1942-2466
    climate sensitivity - cloud feedbacks - clouds - convection - radiative-convective equilibrium - self-aggregation

    The Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Model Intercomparison Project (RCEMIP) is an intercomparison of multiple types of numerical models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE). RCE is an idealization of the tropical atmosphere that has long been used to study basic questions in climate science. Here, we employ RCE to investigate the role that clouds and convective activity play in determining cloud feedbacks, climate sensitivity, the state of convective aggregation, and the equilibrium climate. RCEMIP is unique among intercomparisons in its inclusion of a wide range of model types, including atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs), single column models (SCMs), cloud-resolving models (CRMs), large eddy simulations (LES), and global cloud-resolving models (GCRMs). The first results are presented from the RCEMIP ensemble of more than 30 models. While there are large differences across the RCEMIP ensemble in the representation of mean profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloudiness, in a majority of models anvil clouds rise, warm, and decrease in area coverage in response to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). Nearly all models exhibit self-aggregation in large domains and agree that self-aggregation acts to dry and warm the troposphere, reduce high cloudiness, and increase cooling to space. The degree of self-aggregation exhibits no clear tendency with warming. There is a wide range of climate sensitivities, but models with parameterized convection tend to have lower climate sensitivities than models with explicit convection. In models with parameterized convection, aggregated simulations have lower climate sensitivities than unaggregated simulations.

    The importance of management information and soil moisture representation for simulating tillage effects on N2O emissions in LPJmL5.0-tillage
    Lutz, Femke ; Grosso, Stephen Del; Ogle, Stephen ; Williams, Stephen ; Minoli, Sara ; Rolinski, Susanne ; Heinke, Jens ; Stoorvogel, Jetse J. ; Müller, Christoph - \ 2020
    Geoscientific Model Development 13 (2020)9. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 3905 - 3923.

    No-tillage is often suggested as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Modeling tillage effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions is challenging and subject to great uncertainties as the processes producing the emissions are complex and strongly nonlinear. Previous findings have shown deviations between the LPJmL5.0-tillage model (LPJmL: Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) and results from meta-analysis on global estimates of tillage effects on N2O emissions. Here we tested LPJmL5.0-tillage at four different experimental sites across Europe and the USA to verify whether deviations in N2O emissions under different tillage regimes result from a lack of detailed information on agricultural management, the representation of soil water dynamics or both. Model results were compared to observational data and outputs from field-scale DayCent model simulations. DayCent has been successfully applied for the simulation of N2O emissions and provides a richer database for comparison than noncontinuous measurements at experimental sites. We found that adding information on agricultural management improved the simulation of tillage effects on N2O emissions in LPJmL. We also found that LPJmL overestimated N2O emissions and the effects of no-tillage on N2O emissions, whereas DayCent tended to underestimate the emissions of no-tillage treatments. LPJmL showed a general bias to overestimate soil moisture content. Modifications of hydraulic properties in LPJmL in order to match properties assumed in DayCent, as well as of the parameters related to residue cover, improved the overall simulation of soil water and N2O emissions simulated under tillage and no-tillage separately. However, the effects of no-tillage (shifting from tillage to no-tillage) did not improve. Advancing the current state of information on agricultural management and improvements in soil moisture highlights the potential to improve LPJmL5.0-tillage and global estimates of tillage effects on N2O emissions.

    Modelinstrumentarium voor groene cirkels : Demonstratiemodel voor verkenning trade-offs duurzaamheidsindicatoren in melkveehouderij
    Koeijer, T.J. de; Helming, J.F.M. ; Greijdanus, A.F. ; Müller, M. ; Blokland, P.W. - \ 2020
    Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research 2020-029b) - 24 p.
    Modelinstrumentarium voor groene cirkels : Demonstratiemodel voor verkenning trade-offs duurzaamheidsindicatoren in melkveehouderij en akkerbouw
    Koeijer, T.J. de; Helming, J.F.M. ; Greijdanus, A.F. ; Müller, M. ; Blokland, P.W. - \ 2020
    Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research 2020-029) - 32 p.
    Effects of Casein, Chicken, and Pork Proteins on the Regulation of Body Fat and Blood Inflammatory Factors and Metabolite Patterns Are Largely Dependent on the Protein Level and Less Attributable to the Protein Source
    Song, Shangxin ; Xia, Tianlan ; Zhu, Changqing ; Xue, Jingqi ; Fu, Qingquan ; Hua, Chun ; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J. ; Müller, Michael ; Li, Chunbao - \ 2020
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 68 (2020)35. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 9398 - 9407.
    high-fat diet - meat protein - obesity - rats - untargeted metabolomics

    The impact of meat protein on metabolic regulation is still disputed and may be influenced by protein level. This study aimed to explore the effects of casein, pork, and chicken proteins at different protein levels (40% E vs 20% E) on body weight regulation, body fat accumulation, serum hormone levels, and inflammatory factors/metabolites in rats maintained on high-fat (45% E fat) diets for 84 d. Increased protein levels resulted in a significant reduction in body fat mass and an increase in the serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, independent of protein source. Analysis of blood via untargeted metabolomics analysis identified eight, four, and four metabolites significantly altered by protein level, protein source, and a protein level-source interaction, respectively. Together, the effects of casein, chicken, and pork protein on the regulation of body fat accumulation and blood metabolite profile are largely dependent on protein level and less attributable to the protein source.

    The Genetic Architecture of Post-Zygotic Reproductive Isolation Between Anopheles coluzzii and An. quadriannulatus
    Deitz, Kevin C. ; Takken, Willem ; Slotman, Michel A. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Genetics Livestock Genomics 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-8021
    Anopheles gambiae complex - Dobzhansky–Muller incompatibilities - hybrid - inviability - post-zygotic reproductive isolation - speciation - sterility

    The Anopheles gambiae complex is comprised of eight morphologically indistinguishable species and has emerged as a model system for the study of speciation genetics due to the rapid radiation of its member species over the past two million years. Male hybrids between most An. gambiae complex species pairs are sterile, and some genotype combinations in hybrid males cause inviability. We investigated the genetic basis of hybrid male inviability and sterility between An. coluzzii and An. quadriannulatus by measuring segregation distortion and performing a QTL analysis of sterility in a backcross population. Hybrid males were inviable if they inherited the An. coluzzii X chromosome and were homozygous at one or more loci in 18.9 Mb region of chromosome 3. The An. coluzzii X chromosome has a disproportionately large effect on hybrid sterility when introgressed into an An. quadriannulatus genetic background. Additionally, an epistatic interaction between the An. coluzzii X and a 1.12 Mb, pericentric region of the An. quadriannulatus 3L chromosome arm has a statistically significant contribution to the hybrid sterility phenotype. This same epistatic interaction occurs when the An. coluzzii X is introgressed into the genetic background of An. arabiensis, the sister species of An. quadriannulatus, suggesting that this may represent one of the first Dobzhansky–Muller incompatibilities to evolve early in the radiation of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. We describe the additive effects of each sterility QTL, epistatic interactions between them, and genes within QTL with protein functions related to mating behavior, reproduction, spermatogenesis, and microtubule morphogenesis, whose divergence may contribute to post-zygotic reproductive isolation between An. coluzzii and An. quadriannulatus.

    Mechanical aspects of the semicircular ducts in the vestibular system
    Muller, Mees - \ 2020
    Biological Cybernetics 114 (2020). - ISSN 0340-1200 - p. 421 - 442.
    Hair cells - Octavo-lateralis - Rotation receptor - Semicircular duct - Vestibular system

    The semicircular ducts (SCDs) of the vestibular system play an instrumental role in equilibration and rotation perception of vertebrates. The present paper is a review of quantitative approaches and shows how SCDs function. It consists of three parts. First, the biophysical mechanisms of an SCD system composed of three mutually connected ducts, allowing endolymph to flow from one duct into another one, are analysed. The flow is quantified by solving the continuity equations in conjunction with the equations of motion of the SCD hydrodynamics. This leads to mathematical expressions that are suitable for further analytical and numerical analysis. Second, analytical solutions are derived through four simplifying steps while keeping the essentials of the coupled system intact. Some examples of flow distributions for different rotations are given. Third, the focus is on the transducer function of the SCDs. The complex structure of the mechano-electrical transduction apparatus inside the ampullae is described, and the consequences for sensitivity and frequency response are evaluated. Furthermore, both the contributions of the different terms of the equations of motion and the influence of Brownian motion are analysed. Finally, size limitations, allometry and evolutionary aspects are taken into account.

    Particle size analysis of pristine food-grade titanium dioxide and E 171 in confectionery products : Interlaboratory testing of a single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry screening method and confirmation with transmission electron microscopy
    Geiss, Otmar ; Bianchi, Ivana ; Senaldi, Chiara ; Bucher, Guillaume ; Verleysen, Eveline ; Waegeneers, Nadia ; Brassinne, Frédéric ; Mast, Jan ; Loeschner, Katrin ; Vidmar, Janja ; Aureli, Federica ; Cubadda, Francesco ; Raggi, Andrea ; Iacoponi, Francesca ; Peters, Ruud ; Undas, Anna ; Müller, Alexandra ; Meinhardt, Ann Katrin ; Walz, Elke ; Gräf, Volker ; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa - \ 2020
    Food Control 120 (2020). - ISSN 0956-7135
    Confectionery - E 171 - Food-grade titanium dioxide - Single-particle ICP-MS - Validation

    Titanium dioxide is a white colourant authorised as food additive E 171 in the EU, where it is used in a range of alimentary products. As these materials may contain a fraction of particulates with sizes below 100 nm and current EU regulation requires specific labelling of food ingredient to indicate the presence of engineered nanomaterials there is now a need for standardised and validated methods to appropriately size and quantify (nano)particles in food matrices. A single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) screening method for the determination of the size distribution and concentration of titanium dioxide particles in sugar-coated confectionery and pristine food-grade titanium dioxide was developed. Special emphasis was placed on the sample preparation procedure, crucial to reproducibly disperse the particles before analysis. The transferability of this method was tested in an interlaboratory comparison study among seven experienced European food control and food research laboratories equipped with various ICP-MS instruments and using different software packages. The assessed measurands included the particle mean diameter, the most frequent diameter, the percentage of particles (in number) with a diameter below 100 nm, the particles' number concentration and a number of cumulative particle size distribution parameters (D0, D10, D50, D99.5, D99.8 and D100). The evaluated method's performance characteristics were, the within-laboratory precision, expressed as the relative repeatability standard deviation (RSDr), and the between-laboratory precision, expressed as the relative reproducibility standard deviation (RSDR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used as a confirmatory technique and served as the basis for bias estimation. The optimisation of the sample preparation step showed that when this protocol was applied to the relatively simple sample food matrices used in this study, bath sonication turned out to be sufficient to reach the highest, achievable degree of dispersed constituent particles. For the pristine material, probe sonication was required. Repeatability and reproducibility were below 10% and 25% respectively for most measurands except for the lower (D0) and the upper (D100) bound of the particle size distribution and the particle number concentration. The broader distribution of the lower and the upper bounds could be attributed to instrument-specific settings/setups (e.g. the timing parameters, the transport efficiency, type of mass-spectrometer) and software-specific data treatment algorithms. Differences in the upper bound were identified as being due to the non-harmonised application of the upper counting limit. Reporting D99.5 or D99.8 instead of the effectively largest particle diameter (D100) excluded isolated large particles and considerably improved the reproducibility. The particle number-concentration was found to be influenced by small differences in the sample preparation procedure. The comparison of these results with those obtained using electron microscopy showed that the mean and median particle diameter was, in all cases, higher when using spICP-MS. The main reason for this was the higher size detection limit for spICP-MS plus the fact that some of the analysed particles remained agglomerated/aggregated after sonication. Single particle ICP-MS is a powerful screening technique, which in many cases provides sufficient evidence to confirm the need to label a food product as containing (engineered) titanium dioxide nanomaterial according to the current EU regulatory requirements. The overall positive outcome of the method performance evaluation and the current lack of alternative standardised procedures, would indicate this method as being a promising candidate for a full validation study.

    Genome-wide Modeling of Polygenic Risk Score in Colorectal Cancer Risk
    Thomas, Minta ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A. ; Lee, Jeffrey K. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Dampier, Christopher H. ; Chapelle, Albert de la; Wolk, Alicja ; Joshi, Amit D. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea ; Gsur, Andrea ; Lindblom, Annika ; Castells, Antoni ; Win, Aung Ko ; Namjou, Bahram ; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Tangen, Catherine M. ; He, Qianchuan ; Li, Christopher I. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Joshu, Corinne E. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Bishop, D.T. ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Schaid, Daniel ; Drew, David A. ; Muller, David C. ; Duggan, David ; Crosslin, David R. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Giovannucci, Edward L. ; Larson, Eric ; Qu, Flora ; Mentch, Frank ; Giles, Graham G. ; Hakonarson, Hakon ; Hampel, Heather ; Stanaway, Ian B. ; Figueiredo, Jane C. ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Minnier, Jessica ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Hampe, Jochen ; Harley, John B. ; Visvanathan, Kala ; Curtis, Keith R. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Li, Li ; Marchand, Loic Le; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Lemire, Mathieu ; Woods, Michael O. ; Song, Mingyang ; Murphy, Neil ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Dikilitas, Ozan ; Pharoah, Paul D.P. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Milne, Roger L. ; MacInnis, Robert J. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Ogino, Shuji ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Zaidi, Syed H. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Vymetalkova, Veronika ; Moreno, Victor ; Martín, Vicente ; Arndt, Volker ; Wei, Wei Qi ; Chung, Wendy ; Su, Yu Ru ; Hayes, Richard B. ; White, Emily ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Casey, Graham ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Potter, John D. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Jarvik, Gail P. ; Corley, Douglas A. ; Peters, Ulrike ; Hsu, Li - \ 2020
    American Journal of Human Genetics 107 (2020)3. - ISSN 0002-9297 - p. 432 - 444.
    cancer risk prediction - colorectal cancer - machine learning - polygenic risk score

    Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.

    Bladderworts, the smallest known suction feeders, generate inertia-dominated flows to capture prey
    Müller, Ulrike K. ; Berg, Otto ; Schwaner, Janneke M. ; Brown, Matthew D. ; Li, Gen ; Voesenek, Cees J. ; Leeuwen, Johan L. van - \ 2020
    New Phytologist 228 (2020)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 586 - 595.
    carnivorous plants - functional morphology - plant biomechanics - suction feeding - Utricularia australis - Utricularia gibba

    Aquatic bladderworts (Utricularia gibba and U. australis) capture zooplankton in mechanically triggered underwater traps. With characteristic dimensions less than 1 mm, the trapping structures are among the smallest known to capture prey by suction, a mechanism that is not effective in the creeping-flow regime where viscous forces prevent the generation of fast and energy-efficient suction flows. To understand what makes suction feeding possible on the small scale of bladderwort traps, we characterised their suction flows experimentally (using particle image velocimetry) and mathematically (using computational fluid dynamics and analytical mathematical models). We show that bladderwort traps avoid the adverse effects of creeping flow by generating strong, fast-onset suction pressures. Our findings suggest that traps use three morphological adaptations: the trap walls' fast release of elastic energy ensures strong and constant suction pressure; the trap door's fast opening ensures effectively instantaneous onset of suction; the short channel leading into the trap ensures undeveloped flow, which maintains a wide effective channel diameter. Bladderwort traps generate much stronger suction flows than larval fish with similar gape sizes because of the traps' considerably stronger suction pressures. However, bladderworts' ability to generate strong suction flows comes at considerable energetic expense.

    The case for improving crop carbon sink strength or plasticity for a CO2-rich future
    Dingkuhn, Michael ; Luquet, Delphine ; Fabre, Denis ; Muller, Bertrand ; Yin, Xinyou ; Paul, Matthew J. - \ 2020
    Current Opinion in Plant Biology 56 (2020). - ISSN 1369-5266 - p. 259 - 272.

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] has increased from 260 to 280 μmol mol−1 (level during crop domestication up to the industrial revolution) to currently 400 and will reach 550 μmol mol−1 by 2050. C3 crops are expected to benefit from elevated [CO2] (e-CO2) thanks to photosynthesis responsiveness to [CO2] but this may require greater sink capacity. We review recent literature on crop e-CO2 responses, related source-sink interactions, how abiotic stresses potentially interact, and prospects to improve e-CO2 response via breeding or genetic engineering. Several lines of evidence suggest that e-CO2 responsiveness is related either to sink intrinsic capacity or adaptive plasticity, for example, involving enhanced branching. Wild relatives and old cultivars mostly showed lower photosynthetic rates, less downward acclimation of photosynthesis to e-CO2 and responded strongly to e-CO2 due to greater phenotypic plasticity. While reverting to such archaic traits would be an inappropriate strategy for breeding, we argue that substantial enhancement of vegetative sink vigor, inflorescence size and/or number and root sinks will be necessary to fully benefit from e-CO2. Potential ideotype features based on enhanced sinks are discussed. The generic ‘feast-famine’ sugar signaling pathway may be suited to engineer sink strength tissue-specifically and stage-specifically and help validate ideotype concepts. Finally, we argue that models better accounting for acclimation to e-CO2 are needed to predict which trait combinations should be targeted by breeders for a CO2-rich world.

    I, Robot: How Human Appearance and Mind Attribution Relate to the Perceived Danger of Robots
    Müller, Barbara C.N. ; Gao, Xin ; Nijssen, Sari R.R. ; Damen, Tom G.E. - \ 2020
    International Journal of Social Robotics (2020). - ISSN 1875-4791
    Human/robot interaction - Mind perception - Need for distinctiveness - Uncanny valley

    Social robots become increasingly human-like in appearance and behaviour. However, a large body of research shows that these robots tend to elicit negative feelings of eeriness, danger, and threat. In the present study, we explored whether and how human-like appearance and mind-attribution contribute to these negative feelings and clarified possible underlying mechanisms. Participants were presented with pictures of mechanical, humanoid, and android robots, and physical anthropomorphism (Studies 1–3), attribution of mind perception of agency and experience (Studies 2 and 3), threat to human–machine distinctiveness, and damage to humans and their identity were assessed for all three robot types. Replicating earlier research, human–machine distinctiveness mediated the influence of anthropomorphic appearance on the perceived damage for humans and their identity, and this mediation was due to anthropomorphic appearance of the robot. Perceived agency and experience did not show similar mediating effects on human–machine distinctiveness, but a positive relation with perceived damage for humans and their identity. Possible explanations are discussed.

    Global Heat Uptake by Inland Waters
    Vanderkelen, I. ; Lipzig, N.P.M. van; Lawrence, D.M. ; Droppers, B. ; Golub, M. ; Gosling, S.N. ; Janssen, A.B.G. ; Marcé, R. ; Müller Schmied, H. ; Perroud, M. ; Pierson, D. ; Pokhrel, Y. ; Satoh, Y. ; Schewe, J. ; Seneviratne, S.I. ; Stepanenko, V.M. ; Tan, Z. ; Woolway, R.I. ; Thiery, W. - \ 2020
    Geophysical Research Letters 47 (2020)12. - ISSN 0094-8276
    heat uptake - inland waters - lakes - reservoirs - rivers

    Heat uptake is a key variable for understanding the Earth system response to greenhouse gas forcing. Despite the importance of this heat budget, heat uptake by inland waters has so far not been quantified. Here we use a unique combination of global-scale lake models, global hydrological models and Earth system models to quantify global heat uptake by natural lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. The total net heat uptake by inland waters amounts to 2.6 ± 3.2 ×1020 J over the period 1900–2020, corresponding to 3.6% of the energy stored on land. The overall uptake is dominated by natural lakes (111.7%), followed by reservoir warming (2.3%). Rivers contribute negatively (-14%) due to a decreasing water volume. The thermal energy of water stored in artificial reservoirs exceeds inland water heat uptake by a factor ∼10.4. This first quantification underlines that the heat uptake by inland waters is relatively small, but non-negligible.

    The role of spatial and temporal model resolution in a flood event storyline approach in western Norway
    Schaller, Nathalie ; Sillmann, Jana ; Müller, Malte ; Haarsma, Reindert ; Hazeleger, Wilco ; Hegdahl, Trine Jahr ; Kelder, Timo ; Oord, Gijs van den; Weerts, Albrecht ; Whan, Kirien - \ 2020
    Weather and Climate Extremes 29 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0947
    AROME - Atmospheric river - Climate change - Dynamical downscaling - EC-Earth - Extreme precipitation - Flood - Storyline approach - Western Norway

    We apply a physical climate storyline approach to an autumn flood event in the West Coast of Norway caused by an atmospheric river to demonstrate the value and challenges of higher spatial and temporal resolution in simulating flood impacts. We use a modelling chain whose outputs are familiar and used operationally, for example to issue flood warnings. With two different versions of a hydrological model, we show that (1) the higher spatial resolution between the global and regional climate model is necessary to realistically simulate the high spatial variability of precipitation in this mountainous region and (2) only with hourly data are we able to capture the fast flood-generating processes leading to the peak streamflow. The higher resolution regional atmospheric model captures the fact that with the passage of an atmospheric river, some valleys receive high amounts of precipitation and others not, while the coarser resolution global model shows uniform precipitation in the whole region. Translating the event into the future leads to similar results: while in some catchments, a future flood might be much larger than a present one, in others no event occurs as the atmospheric river simply does not hit that catchment. The use of an operational flood warning system for future events is expected to facilitate stakeholder engagement.

    Satellite evidence for changes in the NO2 weekly cycle over large cities
    Stavrakou, T. ; Müller, J.F. ; Bauwens, M. ; Boersma, K.F. ; Geffen, J. van - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Anthropogenic activities, by far the largest source of NOx into the atmosphere, induce a weekly cycle of NO2 abundances in cities. Comprehensive analysis of the 2005–2017 OMI NO2 dataset reveals significant weekly cycles in 115 of the 274 cities considered. These results are corroborated by a full year of high-resolution TROPOMI NO2 observations. The OMI dataset permits us to identify trends in the weekly cycle resulting from NOx emissions changes. The data show a clear weakening of the weekly cycle over European and U.S. cities, an evolution attributed to the decline in anthropogenic emissions and the resulting growing importance of background NO2, whereas NO2 lifetime changes also play a minor role. In particular, the Sunday NO2 columns averaged over all U.S. cities are found to increase, relative to the weekly average, from 0.72 during 2005–2007 to 0.88 in 2015–2017. The opposite tendency is recorded in regions undergoing rapid emission growth. Multiyear simulations over the U.S. and the Middle East using the chemistry-transport model MAGRITTEv1.1 succeed in capturing the observed weekly cycles over the largest cities, as well as the observed long-term trends in the weekly cycle.

    Author Correction: Nitrogen and phosphorus constrain the CO2 fertilization of global plant biomass
    Terrer, César ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Prentice, I.C. ; Keenan, Trevor F. ; Kaiser, Christina ; Vicca, Sara ; Fisher, Joshua B. ; Reich, Peter B. ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Hungate, Bruce A. ; Peñuelas, Josep ; McCallum, Ian ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Cernusak, Lucas A. ; Talhelm, Alan F. ; Sundert, Kevin Van; Piao, Shilong ; Newton, Paul C.D. ; Hovenden, Mark J. ; Blumenthal, Dana M. ; Liu, Yi Y. ; Müller, Christoph ; Winter, Klaus ; Field, Christopher B. ; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang ; Lissa, Caspar J. Van; Hoosbeek, Marcel R. ; Watanabe, Makoto ; Koike, Takayoshi ; Leshyk, Victor O. ; Polley, H.W. ; Franklin, Oskar - \ 2020
    Nature Climate Change 10 (2020). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 696 - 697.

    Reply to: An appeal to cost undermines food security risks of delayed mitigation
    Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Havlík, Petr ; Valin, Hugo ; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon ; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Fellmann, Thomas ; Kyle, Page ; Koopman, Jason F.L. ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel ; Müller, Christoph ; Ochi, Yuki ; Pérez Domínguez, Ignacio ; Stehfest, Elke ; Sulser, Timothy B. ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Takahashi, Kiyoshi ; Takakura, Junya ; Meijl, Hans van; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Wiebe, Keith ; Witzke, Peter - \ 2020
    Nature Climate Change 10 (2020)5. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 420 - 421.
    Modelling food security : Bridging the gap between the micro and the macro scale
    Müller, Birgit ; Hoffmann, Falk ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Müller, Christoph ; Hertel, Thomas W. ; Polhill, J.G. ; Wijk, Mark van; Achterbosch, Thom ; Alexander, Peter ; Brown, Calum ; Kreuer, David ; Ewert, Frank ; Ge, Jiaqi ; Millington, James D.A. ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Webber, Heidi - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 63 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Agent-based models - Crop models - Economic equilibrium models - Food security - Land use - Model integration - Multi-scale interactions - Social-ecological feedbacks

    Achieving food and nutrition security for all in a changing and globalized world remains a critical challenge of utmost importance. The development of solutions benefits from insights derived from modelling and simulating the complex interactions of the agri-food system, which range from global to household scales and transcend disciplinary boundaries. A wide range of models based on various methodologies (from food trade equilibrium to agent-based) seek to integrate direct and indirect drivers of change in land use, environment and socio-economic conditions at different scales. However, modelling such interaction poses fundamental challenges, especially for representing non-linear dynamics and adaptive behaviours. We identify key pieces of the fragmented landscape of food security modelling, and organize achievements and gaps into different contextual domains of food security (production, trade, and consumption) at different spatial scales. Building on in-depth reflection on three core issues of food security – volatility, technology, and transformation – we identify methodological challenges and promising strategies for advancement. We emphasize particular requirements related to the multifaceted and multiscale nature of food security. They include the explicit representation of transient dynamics to allow for path dependency and irreversible consequences, and of household heterogeneity to incorporate inequality issues. To illustrate ways forward we provide good practice examples using meta-modelling techniques, non-equilibrium approaches and behavioural-based modelling endeavours. We argue that further integration of different model types is required to better account for both multi-level agency and cross-scale feedbacks within the food system.

    Novel routes towards bioplastics from plants: elucidation of the methylperillate biosynthesis pathway from Salvia dorisiana trichomes
    Jongedijk, Esmer ; Müller, Sebastian ; Dijk, Aalt D.J. Van; Schijlen, Elio ; Champagne, Antoine ; Boutry, Marc ; Levisson, Mark ; Krol, Sander Van Der; Bouwmeester, Harro ; Beekwilder, Jules ; Takahashi, Hideki - \ 2020
    Journal of Experimental Botany 71 (2020)10. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 3052 - 3065.
    Plants produce a large variety of highly functionalized terpenoids. Functional groups such as partially unsaturated rings and carboxyl groups provide handles to use these compounds as feedstock for biobased commodity chemicals. For instance, methylperillate, a monoterpenoid found in Salvia dorisiana, may be used for this purpose, as it carries both an unsaturated ring and a methylated carboxyl group. The biosynthetic pathway of methylperillate in plants is still unclear. In this work, we identified glandular trichomes from S. dorisiana as the location of biosynthesis and storage of methylperillate. mRNA from purified trichomes was used to identify four genes that can encode the pathway from geranyl diphosphate towards methylperillate. This pathway includes a (–)-limonene synthase (SdLS), a limonene 7-hydroxylase (SdL7H, CYP71A76), and a perillyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SdPOHDH). We also identified a terpene acid methyltransferase, perillic acid O-methyltransferase (SdPAOMT), with homology to salicylic acid OMTs. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of these four genes, in combination with a geranyl diphosphate synthase to boost precursor formation, resulted in production of methylperillate. This demonstrates the potential of these enzymes for metabolic engineering of a feedstock for biobased commodity chemicals
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