Genetic Variability of Morphological, Flowering, and Biomass Quality Traits in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
Petit, Jordi ; Salentijn, Elma M.J. ; Paulo, Maria João ; Thouminot, Claire ; Dinter, Bert Jan van; Magagnini, Gianmaria ; Gusovius, Hans Jörg ; Tang, Kailei ; Amaducci, Stefano ; Wang, Shaoliang ; Uhrlaub, Birgit ; Müssig, Jörg ; Trindade, Luisa M. - \ 2020
Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-462X
Cannabis sativa - cell wall composition - fiber quality - flowering time - genetic variability - genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions - hemp - sex determination
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a bast-fiber crop well-known for the great potential to produce sustainable fibers. Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the variability in fiber quality within the hemp germplasm and to estimate the genetic components, environmental components, and genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions on fiber quality traits in hemp. To investigate these parameters, a panel of 123 hemp accessions was phenotyped for 28 traits relevant to fiber quality at three locations in Europe, corresponding to climates of northern, central, and southern Europe. In general, hemp cultivated in northern latitudes showed a larger plant vigor while earlier flowering was characteristic of plants cultivated in southern latitudes. Extensive variability between accessions was observed for all traits. Most cell wall components (contents of monosaccharides derived from cellulose and hemicellulose; and lignin content), bast fiber content, and flowering traits revealed large genetic components with low G×E interactions and high broad-sense heritability values, making these traits suitable to maximize the genetic gains of fiber quality. In contrast, contents of pectin-related monosaccharides, most agronomic traits, and several fiber traits (fineness and decortication efficiency) showed low genetic components with large G×E interactions affecting the rankings across locations. These results suggest that pectin, agronomic traits, and fiber traits are unsuitable targets in breeding programs of hemp, as their large G×E interactions might lead to unexpected phenotypes in untested locations. Furthermore, all environmental effects on the 28 traits were statistically significant, suggesting a strong adaptive behavior of fiber quality in hemp to specific environments. The high variability in fiber quality observed in the hemp panel, the broad range in heritability, and adaptability among all traits prescribe positive prospects for the development of new hemp cultivars of excellent fiber quality.
|Mechanical behaviour of hemp fibre composites in relation to their microstructure by micro strain mapping, computed tomography, and biochemical analysis
Fuentes, C.A. ; Willekens, P. ; Petit, J. ; Witters, J. ; Ruan, Y. ; Müssig, J. ; Trindade, L.M. ; Vuure, A.W. van - \ 2019
In: ECCM 2018 - 18th European Conference on Composite Materials. - Applied Mechanics Laboratory - ISBN 9781510896932
Hemp fibres - Natural fibre composites - Strain mapping - Tomography
This manuscript describes the effects of alterations in biochemical composition on structural morphology and the mechanical behaviour of elementary and technical fibres of hemp used for composite applications. First, the strength and apparent Young's modulus distribution of technical fibres of hemp of 96 hemp samples, corresponding to 32 different hemp accessions cultivated in 3 locations, were analysed using Weibull distribution. From these, 2 samples (one with high and one with low fibre strength) were selected for further analysis. Next, full-field strain measurement at the micro-scale during tensile loading was used for evaluating both, the stress-strain behaviour at a global scale and the local mechanical behaviour heterogeneity at a micro-scale, along elementary and technical fibres of hemp. At the composite level, the local behaviour of each phase of the composite (fibre and matrix) and of the fibre/matrix interphase during a transversal 3 point bending test were characterized. Results show that the strength of technical fibres of hemp is highly dependent on the shear strength between elementary fibres, which itself is related to the biochemical composition of the middle lamellae. A correlation between the strength of a technical fibre and their elementary fibres was also observed. At the composite level, the relation of the composite mechanical behaviour (Young's modulus and strength) with the technical or elementary fibre mechanical behaviour is complex and might depend on the combination of multiple factors such as the matrix (thermoset or thermoplastic), or the technical fibre sample employed (weak or strong) and the level of fibre-matrix wetting (impregnation) and adhesion.
Effect of the middle lamella biochemical composition on the non-linear behaviour of technical fibres of hemp under tensile loading using strain mapping
Fuentes, C.A. ; Willekens, P. ; Petit, J. ; Thouminot, C. ; Müssig, J. ; Trindade, L.M. ; Vuure, A.W. Van - \ 2017
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 101 (2017). - ISSN 1359-835X - p. 529 - 542.
A. Biocomposite - A. Natural fibres - B. Fibre deformation - Strain mapping
This manuscript describes the effects of alterations in biochemical composition on structural morphology and the mechanical behaviour of technical fibres of hemp used for composite applications. First, the strength and apparent Young's modulus distribution of technical fibres of hemp of 96 hemp samples, corresponding to 32 different hemp accessions cultivated in 3 locations, were analysed using Weibull distribution. From these, 2 samples (one with high and one with low fibre strength) were selected for further analysis. Next, full-field strain measurement at the micro-scale during tensile loading via digital image correlation analysis was used for evaluating both, the stress-strain behaviour at a global scale and the local mechanical behaviour heterogeneity at a micro-scale, along a technical fibre of hemp. The analysis reveals 2 typical types of tensile stress-strain curves, and a complex and very irregular pattern of strain concentrations, which are associated to the technical fibre strength. The non-linear behaviour of the stress-strain curve is explained by the development of shear strain at the elementary fibre (botanically defined as the individual cell) interphases. Micro tomography and biochemical analysis of the technical fibre microstructure showed that alterations in cell wall composition, in particular substitution of pectin, leads to changes in the non-linear behaviour of technical fibres of hemp under tensile loading.
Composites Based on Natural Resources, chapter 19.5
Oever, M.J.A. van den; Bos, H.L. - \ 2010
In: Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres / MÜssig, J., Chickester (UK) : John Wiley and Sons - ISBN 9780470695081 - 560 p.
Agrofibre reinforced poly(lactic acid) composites: Effect of moisture on degradation and mechanical properties
Oever, M.J.A. van den; Beck, B. ; Müssig, J. - \ 2010
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 41 (2010)11. - ISSN 1359-835X - p. 1628 - 1635.
in-vitro degradation - molecular-weight - poly(l-lactic acid) - biodegradable composites - polylactic acid - kenaf fibers - flax-fiber - pla - biocomposites - polymers
Natural fibre reinforced PLA composites are a 100% biobased material with a promising mechanical properties profile. However, natural fibres are hygroscopic whereas PLA is sensitive to hydrolytic degradation under melt processing conditions in the presence of small amounts of water. Here, we determine the effect of water content in undried and dried natural fibres on semi crystalline grade PLA degradation during processing as well as on the composite’s mechanical performance. The fibres evaluated are ramie, flax and cotton, containing 6–9 mass% moisture in the undried state and 0.2–0.4 mass% in the dried state. Intrinsic viscosity and melt flow index analysis indicate that the effect of the different levels of moisture in the fibres have a similar and small effect on PLA degradation, PLA hydrolysis appears rather affected by fibre diameter. Morphology, flexural strength and stiffness and Charpy impact of the composites are not significantly affected by the water present in the undried fibres.
|Natural fibre-PLA composites : processing and mechanical properties
Oever, M.J.A. van den; Beck, B. ; Müssig, J. - \ 2009
In: Recent advances in research on biodegradable polymers and sustainable composites : vol. 1 / Jimenez, A., Zaikov, G.E., Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers - ISBN 9781606920954
The BRI1-associated kinase 1, BAK1, has a brassinolide-independent role in plant cell-death control
Kemmerling, B. ; Schwedt, A. ; Rodriguez, P. ; Mazzotta, S. ; Frank, M. ; Abu Qamar, S. ; Mengiste, T. ; Betsuyaku, S. ; Parker, J.E. ; Müssig, C. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. ; Albrecht, C. ; Vries, S.C. de; Hirt, H. ; Nürnberger, T. - \ 2007
Current Biology 17 (2007)13. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 1116 - 1122.
receptor-like kinase - arabidopsis-thaliana - functional-analysis - plasma-membrane - protein - resistance - pathogen - gene - bri1 - brassinosteroids
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a common host response to microbial infection [1-3]. In plants, PCD is associated with immunity to biotrophic pathogens, but it can also promote disease upon infection by necrotrophic pathogens . Therefore, plant cell-suicide programs must be strictly controlled. Here we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana Brassinosteroid Insensitive 1 (BRI1)-associated receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1), which operates as a coreceptor of BRI1 in brassinolide (BL)-dependent plant development, also regulates the containment of microbial infection-induced cell death. BAK1-deficient plants develop spreading necrosis upon infection. This is accompanied by production of reactive oxygen intermediates and results in enhanced susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. The exogenous application of BL rescues growth defects of bak1 mutants but fails to restore immunity to fungal infection. Moreover, BL-insensitive and -deficient mutants do not exhibit spreading necrosis or enhanced susceptibility to fungal infections. Together, these findings suggest that plant steroid-hormone signaling is dispensable for the containment of infection-induced PCD. We propose a novel, BL-independent function of BAK1 in plant cell-death control that is distinct from its BL-dependent role in plant development.
Mechanical properties of short-flax-fibre reinforced compounds
Bos, H.L. ; Müssig, J. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den - \ 2006
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 37 (2006)10. - ISSN 1359-835X - p. 1591 - 1604.
polypropylene composites - impact properties - thermoplastic composites - thermal-degradation - physical structure - straw fibers - length - strength - tensile - plastics
The mechanical properties of flax/polypropylene compounds, manufactured both with a batch kneading and an extrusion process were determined and compared with the properties of Natural fibre Mat Thermoplastic (NMT) composites. The fibre length and width distributions of the fibres from the compounds were determined and used to model the expected properties of the materials, which led to reasonable predictions of the interfacial shear stress. It was found that, given their mechanical properties, flax fibres are quite effective in improving strength and stiffness of a compound and effective compatibilisation of the fibre/matrix interphase can be easily reached. The most important factor limiting the properties of the compounds lies in the intricate structure of the fibres themselves, after the interfacial strength is optimised, the internal fibre structure becomes the weakest point.
Identification of critical steps in the hemp fibre textile production chain
Oever, M.J.A. van den; Müssig, J. ; Dam, J.E.G. van - \ 2006
- 9 p.
biobased economy - hemp - fibre - textiles - Europe - fibre quality - processing - design
Hemp textile quality depends on many decisions and processing steps throughout the production chain, and starts with the primary agricultural production. In order to develop a competitive, innovative and sustainable hemp fibre textile industry in the EU, all players in the whole production chain have to aim at the wanted final textile quality. Within the Hemp-Sys project, the critical steps that have an effect on final hemp textile quality have been identified in order to facilitate the decision making throughout production chain.
This presentation shows the highlights of the parameters that affect hemp textile products. The core quality for textiles, fibre fineness, is in particular determined by crop variety, the growing period and weather conditions, whereas seed density and stem section show limited influence. Regarding processing, de-gumming and fibre ‘loss’ strongly influence fibre fineness.
The results form the basis for the design of an integrated quality system (IQS) that will help farmers and fibre processors to optimise the value addition of their product and secure hemp textile industries of supplies of quality fibre feedstock.