Not tourism-phobia but urban-philia : Understanding stakeholders’ perceptions of urban touristification
Blanco-Romero, Asunción ; Blázquez-Salom, Macià ; Morell, Marc ; Fletcher, Robert - \ 2019
Boletin de la Asociacion de Geografos Espanoles (2019)83. - ISSN 0212-9426
Right to the city - Tourism - Tourism-phobia - Urban struggle - Urban-philia
Tourism development affects prominent city centres worldwide, causing social unrest that has been labelled “tourism-phobia.” This article problematizes the recent appearance of this term by unravelling the links between the materiality of contemporary urban tourism and the response it receives from social movements opposing its expansion. We endeavour to understand the meaning that different actors involved in the city's touristification attach to this term, and in particular the perceptions of citizens’ movements that claim to espouse not tourism-phobia but urban-philia. To analyze these dynamics, we draw on Lefebvre’s discussion of the “right to the city” to highlight the extractive productive relations characterizing the tourism industry and the contestations such relations trigger. Taking the example of two Spanish cities (Barcelona and Palma), our findings indicate that the social malaise found in tourist oversaturation is due to the disruption it causes to everyday life, including price increases and rising rents. Consequently, the discomfort popular mobilisations have generated among the ruling class has led the latter to disqualify and even criminalise the former’s legitimate claims under the label of tourism-phobia. To conclude, we call for a future research agenda in pursuit of social justice and equity around re-touristification, detouristification or even tourist degrowth.
Tourism and degrowth: an emerging agenda for research and praxis
Fletcher, Robert ; Murray Mas, Ivan ; Blanco-Romero, Asunción ; Blázquez-Salom, Macià - \ 2019
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 27 (2019)12. - ISSN 0966-9582 - p. 1745 - 1763.
Degrowth - overtourism - platform capitalism - political ecology - political economy
This article outlines a conceptual framework and research agenda for exploring the relationship between tourism and degrowth. Rapid and uneven expansion of tourism as a response to the 2008 economic crisis has proceeded in parallel with the rise of social discontent concerning so-called “overtourism.” Despite decades of concerted global effort to achieve sustainable development, meanwhile, socioecological conflicts and inequality have rarely reversed, but in fact increased in many places. Degrowth, understood as both social theory and social movement, has emerged within the context of this global crisis. Yet thus far the vibrant degrowth discussion has yet to engage systematically with the tourism industry in particular, while by the same token tourism research has largely neglected explicit discussion of degrowth. We bring the two discussions together here to interrogate their complementarity. Identifying a growth imperative in the basic structure of the capitalist economy, we contend that mounting critique of overtourism can be understood as a structural response to the ravages of capitalist development more broadly. Debate concerning overtourism thus offers a valuable opportunity to re-politicize discussion of tourism development generally. We contribute to this discussion by exploring of the potential for degrowth to facilitate a truly sustainable tourism.
Semi-supervised multivariate statistical network monitoring for learning security threats
Camacho, Jose ; Macia-Fernandez, Gabriel ; Fuentes-Garcia, Noemi Marta ; Saccenti, Edoardo - \ 2019
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 14 (2019)8. - ISSN 1556-6013 - p. 2179 - 2189.
anomaly detection - intrusion detection - Multivariate statistical network monitoring - partial least squares regression - principal components analysis - semi-supervised learning
This paper presents a semi-supervised approach for intrusion detection. The method extends the unsupervised multivariate statistical network monitoring approach based on the principal component analysis by introducing a supervised optimization technique to learn the optimum scaling in the input data. It inherits the advantages of the unsupervised strategy, capable of uncovering new threats, with that of supervised strategies, capable of learning the pattern of a targeted threat. The supervised learning is based on an extension of the gradient descent method based on partial least squares (PLS). Moreover, we enhance this method by using sparse PLS variants. The practical application of the system is demonstrated on a recently published real case study, showing relevant improvements in detection performance and in the interpretation of the attacks.
Schils, René ; Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Eekeren, Nick van; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Hoving, Idse ; Klootwijk, Cindy ; Philipsen, Bert ; Reenen, Kees van; Şebek, Leon ; Stienezen, Macia ; Top, Marry van den; Werf, Joop van der; Zom, Ronald - \ 2019
Netherlands : Amazing Grazing - 61
Tropical forest canopies and their relationships with climate and disturbance: results from a global dataset of consistent field-based measurements
Pfeifer, Marion ; Gonsamo, Alemu ; Woodgate, William ; Cayuela, Luis ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Ledo, Alicia ; Paine, Timothy C.E. ; Marchant, Rob ; Burt, Andrew ; Calders, Kim ; Courtney-mustaphi, Colin ; Cuni-sanchez, Aida ; Deere, Nicolas J. ; Denu, Dereje ; Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J. ; Hayward, Robin ; Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Macía, Manuel J. ; Olivier, Pieter I. ; Pellikka, Petri ; Seki, Hamidu ; Shirima, Deo ; Trevithick, Rebecca ; Wedeux, Beatrice ; Wheeler, Charlotte ; Munishi, Pantaleo K.T. ; Martin, Thomas ; Mustari, Abdul ; Platts, Philip J. - \ 2018
Forest Ecosystems 5 (2018). - ISSN 2095-6355 - 14 p.
Background: Canopy structure, defined by leaf area index (LAI), fractional vegetation cover (FCover) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), regulates a wide range of forest functions and ecosystem services. Spatially consistent field-measurements of canopy structure are however lacking, particularly for the tropics. Methods: Here, we introduce the Global LAI database: a global dataset of field-based canopy structure measurements spanning tropical forests in four continents (Africa, Asia, Australia and the Americas). We use these measurements to test for climate dependencies within and across continents, and to test for the potential of anthropogenic disturbance and forest protection to modulate those dependences. Results: Using data collected from 887 tropical forest plots, we show that maximum water deficit, defined across the most arid months of the year, is an important predictor of canopy structure, with all three canopy attributes declining significantly with increasing water deficit. Canopy attributes also increase with minimum temperature, and with the protection of forests according to both active (within protected areas) and passive measures (through topography). Once protection and continent effects are accounted for, other anthropogenic measures (e.g. human population) do not improve the model. Conclusions: We conclude that canopy structure in the tropics is primarily a consequence of forest adaptation to the maximum water deficits historically experienced within a given region. Climate change, and in particular changes in drought regimes may thus affect forest structure and function, but forest protection may offer some resilience against this effect.
System-wide Benefits of Intermeal Fasting by Autophagy
Martinez-Lopez, Nuria ; Tarabra, Elena ; Toledo, Miriam ; Garcia-Macia, Marina ; Sahu, Srabani ; Coletto, Luisa ; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana ; Barzilai, Nir ; Pessin, Jeffrey E. ; Schwartz, Gary J. ; Kersten, Sander ; Singh, Rajat - \ 2017
Cell Metabolism 26 (2017)6. - ISSN 1550-4131 - p. 856 - 871.e5.
Aging - Autophagy - Caloric restriction - Circadian - Fatty liver - Gluconeogenesis - Metabolic syndrome - Myogenic progenitors - POMC - Twice-a-day feeding
Autophagy failure is associated with metabolic insufficiency. Although caloric restriction (CR) extends healthspan, its adherence in humans is poor. We established an isocaloric twice-a-day (ITAD) feeding model wherein ITAD-fed mice consume the same food amount as ad libitum controls but at two short windows early and late in the diurnal cycle. We hypothesized that ITAD feeding will provide two intervals of intermeal fasting per circadian period and induce autophagy. We show that ITAD feeding modifies circadian autophagy and glucose/lipid metabolism that correlate with feeding-driven changes in circulating insulin. ITAD feeding decreases adiposity and, unlike CR, enhances muscle mass. ITAD feeding drives energy expenditure, lowers lipid levels, suppresses gluconeogenesis, and prevents age/obesity-associated metabolic defects. Using liver-, adipose-, myogenic-, and proopiomelanocortin neuron-specific autophagy-null mice, we mapped the contribution of tissue-specific autophagy to system-wide benefits of ITAD feeding. Our studies suggest that consuming two meals a day without CR could prevent the metabolic syndrome. Our studies suggest that consuming two meals a day with complete food restriction in between the meals is sufficient to lower blood glucose and lipid levels. This simple dietary approach activates a cell “cleansing system“ called autophagy in liver, fat, brain, and muscle that helps prevent obesity and diabetes.