Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Human adaptation to biodiversity change: An adaptation process approach applied to a case study from southern India
Thornton, Thomas F. ; Puri, Rajindra K. ; Bhagwat, Shonil ; Howard, Patricia - \ 2019
Ambio (2019). - ISSN 0044-7447 - 16 p.
Adaptation - Biodiversity change - Climate change - Invasive plants - Vulnerability

Adaptation to environmental change, including biodiversity change, is both a new imperative in the face of global climate change and the oldest problem in human history. Humans have evolved a wide range of adaptation strategies in response to localised environmental changes, which have contributed strongly to both biological and cultural diversity. The evolving set of locally driven, ‘bottom-up’ responses to environmental change is collectively termed ‘autonomous adaptation,’ while its obverse, ‘planned adaptation,’ refers to ‘top-down’ (from without, e.g. State-driven) responses. After reviewing the dominant vulnerability, risk, and pathway approaches to adaptation, this paper applies an alternative framework for understanding human adaptation processes and responding more robustly to future adaptation needs. This adaptation processes-to-pathways framework is then deployed to consider human responses to biodiversity change caused by an aggressive ‘invasive’ plant, Lantana camara L., in several agri-forest communities of southern India. The results show that a variety of adaptation processes are developing to make Lantana less disruptive and more useable—from avoidance through mobility strategies to utilizing the plant for economic diversification. However, there is currently no clear synergy or policy support to connect them to a successful long-term adaptation pathway. These results are evaluated in relation to broader trends in adaptation analysis and governance to suggest ways of improving our understanding and support for human adaptation to biodiversity change at the household, community, and regional livelisystem levels, especially in societies highly dependent on local biodiversity for their livelihoods.

Allosteric pathway selection in templated assembly
Galen, Martijn Van; Higler, Ruben ; Sprakel, Joris - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)10. - ISSN 2375-2548

Assembling large numbers of molecular building blocks into functional nanostructures is no trivial task. It relies on guiding building blocks through complex energy landscapes shaped by synergistic and antagonistic supramolecular interactions. In nature, the use of molecular templates is a potent strategy to navigate the process to the desired structure with high fidelity. Yet, nature's templating strategy remains to be fully exploited in man-made nanomaterials. Designing effective template-guided self-assembling systems can only be realized through precise insight into how the chemical design of building blocks and the resulting balance of repulsive and attractive forces give rise to pathway selection and suppression of trapped states. We develop a minimal model to unravel the kinetic pathways and pathway selection of the templated assembly of molecular building blocks on a template. We show how allosteric activation of the associative interactions can suppress undesired solution-aggregation pathways and gives rise to a true template-assembly path.

Historical commons as sites of transformation. A critical research agenda to study human and more-than-human communities
Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Valente, Sandra ; Figueiredo, Elisabete ; Parra, Constanza - \ 2019
Geoforum (2019). - ISSN 0016-7185
Commoning - Community - Institutions - More-than-human - Sustainability - Transformation

The most critical question for sustainability research is how to facilitate transformative change. Yet, the academic scope of historical commons’ research is limited to institutional design and environmental sustainability. In this paper we argue for a transformative research agenda for historical commons focused on the study of processes building humans and more-than-human communities. We start by reviewing three commons schools, namely the mainstream and critical institutionalism and the community economies collective, and assess how these relate to sustainability and to theories on agency, community and change. We then define a research agenda taking a political and critical ontology of the community economies collective, and a phenomenological epistemology of critical institutionalism. We follow by characterising the underlying practices building humans and more-than human communities by showing three ideal stages of commoning found in our empirical cases in the north-western Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Finally, we end by presenting a guiding framework for analysing processes of building communities in historical commons. In conclusion, we encourage further exploration of underlying practices that widen humans’ interdependency and inter-being and call for action-research projects and experimental methods that promote transformative encounters between humans and nature. Our framework is a first attempt to inspire researchers of historical commons to actively engage in unravelling the full potential of historical commons as sites of transformation.

Crop growth and viability of seeds on Mars and Moon soil simulants
Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Frissel, J.Y. ; Krijnen, W.H.J. ; Verwoert, M.R. - \ 2019
Open Agriculture 4 (2019)1. - ISSN 2391-9531 - p. 509 - 516.
If humans are going to establish a base on the Moon or on Mars they will have to grow their own crops. An option is to use Lunar and Martian regolith. These regoliths are not available for plant growth experiments, therefore NASA has developed regolith simulants. The major goal of this project was to cultivate and harvest crops on these Mars and Moon simulants. The simulants were mixed with organic matter to mimic the addition of residues from earlier harvests. Ten different crops, garden cress, rocket, tomato, radish, rye, quinoa, spinach, chives, pea and leek were sown in random lines in trays. Nine of the ten species grew well with the exception of spinach. It was possible to harvest edible parts for nine out of ten crops. The total biomass production per tray was highest for the Earth control and Mars soil simulant and differed significantly from Moon soil simulant. The seeds produced by three species were tested for germination (radish, rye and cress). The germination on Moon soil simulant was significantly lower in radish than for the Earth control soil.
The host response of IBS patients to allogenic and autologous faecal microbiota transfer
Holster, Savanne ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Brummer, Robert-Jan ; König, Julia - \ 2019
Wageningen University
GSE138297 - Homo sapiens - PRJNA575360
In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients were treated with faecal material from a healthy donor (n=8, allogenic FMT) or with their own faecal microbiota (n=8, autologous FMT). The faecal transplant was administered by whole colonoscopy into the caecum (30 g of stool in 150 ml sterile saline). Two weeks before the FMT (baseline) as well as two and eight weeks after the FMT, the participants underwent a sigmoidoscopy, and biopsies were collected at a standardised location (20-25 cm from the anal verge at the crossing with the arteria iliaca communis) from an uncleansed sigmoid. In patients treated with allogenic FMT, predominantly immune response-related genes sets were induced, with the strongest response two weeks after FMT. In patients treated with autologous FMT, predominantly metabolism-related gene sets were affected.
Molecular ecology of the yet uncultured bacterial Ct85-cluster in the mammalian gut
Hynönen, Ulla ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Virtala, Anna Maija K. ; Shetty, Sudarshan ; Hasan, Shah ; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia ; Vos, Willem M. de; Palva, Airi - \ 2019
Anaerobe (2019). - ISSN 1075-9964
16S rRNA - IBS - Intestinal microbiota - Typing - Uncultured

In our previous studies on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) –associated microbiota by molecular methods, we demonstrated that a particular 16S rRNA gene amplicon was more abundant in the feces of healthy subjects or mixed type IBS (IBS-M) –sufferers than in the feces of individuals with diarrhea-type IBS (IBS-D). In the current study, we demonstrated that this, so called Ct85-amplicon, consists of a cluster of very heterogeneous 16S rRNA gene sequences, and defined six 16S rRNA gene types, a to f, within this cluster, each representing a novel species-, genus- or family level taxon. We then designed specific PCR primers for these sequence types, mapped the distribution of the Ct85-cluster sequences and that of the newly defined sequence types in several animal species and compared the sequence types present in the feces of healthy individuals and IBS sufferers using two IBS study cohorts, Finnish and Dutch. Various Ct85-cluster sequence types were detected in the fecal samples of several companion and production animal species with remarkably differing prevalences and abundances. The Ct85 sequence type composition of swine closely resembled that of humans. One of the five types (d) shared between humans and swine was not present in any other animals tested, while one sequence type (b) was found only in human samples. In both IBS study cohorts, one type (e) was more prevalent in healthy individuals than in the IBS-M group. By revealing various sequence types in the widespread Ct85-cluster and their distribution, the results improve our understanding of these uncultured bacteria, which is essential for future efforts to cultivate representatives of the Ct85-cluster and reveal their roles in IBS.

Cold Induced Depot-Specific Browning in Ferret Aortic Perivascular Adipose Tissue
Reynés, Bàrbara ; Schothorst, Evert M. van; Keijer, Jaap ; Ceresi, Enzo ; Oliver, Paula ; Palou, Andreu - \ 2019
Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-042X
adipose tissue - browning - cardiovascular disease - cold exposure - inflammation - thermogenesis

Brown adipose tissue is responsible for facultative thermogenesis to produce heat and increase energy expenditure in response to proper stimuli, e.g., cold. Acquisition of brown-like features (browning) in perivascular white adipose tissue (PVAT) may protect against obesity/cardiovascular disease. Most browning studies are performed in rodents, but translation to humans would benefit from a closer animal model. Therefore, we studied the browning response of ferret thoracic aortic PVAT (tPVAT) to cold. We performed global transcriptome analysis of tPVAT of 3-month-old ferrets acclimatized 1 week to 22 or 4°C, and compared the results with those of inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize browning. Transcriptome data revealed a stronger cold exposure response of tPVAT, including increased expression of key brown/brite markers, compared to subcutaneous fat. This translated into a clear white-to-brown remodeling of tPVAT, with the appearance of multilocular highly UCP1-stained adipocytes. The pathway most affected by cold exposure in tPVAT was immune response, characterized by down-regulation of immune-related genes, with cardio protective implications. On the other hand, subcutaneous fat responded to cold by increasing energy metabolism based on increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and tricarboxylic acid cycle genes, concordant with lower inguinal adipose tissue weight in cold-exposed animals. Thus, ferret tPVAT responds to cold acclimation with a strong induction of browning and immunosuppression compared to subcutaneous fat. Our results present ferrets as an accessible translational animal model displaying functional responses relevant for obesity and cardiovascular disease prevention.

Substraat voorkeur voor foerageergedrag leghennen : pilotstudie
Neijenhuis, Francesca ; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, Maudia van; Jong, Ingrid de - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1193) - 25
The project "Health for humans and animals through system change in poultry farming" is working on alternatives to the current litter as foraging substrate, from which manure can be removed to reduce particulate matter and ammonia emissions. In a pilot study, carried out during three weeks on one commercial laying hen farm with a wintergarden and outdoor range, 10 different possible foraging substrates were offered in 6 bins. This pilot shows that diatomaceous earth, peat, shells and buckwheat hulls meet the foraging requirements of laying hens better than wood shavings, hydro pellets, bark and lava stones. But there was no significant difference in use between diatomaceous earth, peat, shells, chopped straw, or buckwheat hulls for foraging.
Dermanysuss gallinae attacks humans. Mind the gap!
Cafiero, Maria Assunta ; Barlaam, Alessandra ; Camarda, Antonio ; Radeski, Miroslav ; Mul, Monique ; Sparagano, Olivier ; Giangaspero, Annunziata - \ 2019
Avian Pathology 48 (2019)sup1. - ISSN 0307-9457 - p. S22 - S34.
dermatitis - diagnosis - Europe - future needs - humans - management

Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite primarily known as a pest of domestic and wild birds. It occasionally feeds on a range of mammals, and, more importantly, is of growing concern in human medicine. This review highlights mite attacks on people working with poultry, and updates the increasing incidence of dermanyssosis in urban environments in Europe. Although several cases of dermanyssosis have been documented, there are a number of reasons why diagnosis of D. gallinae infestations in humans is likely to be underestimated. Firstly, medical specialists are not well aware of D. gallinae infestations in humans. There is also a lack of collaboration with specialists from other disciplines. The problem is compounded by misdiagnoses and by the lack of diagnostic tools. We review the literature on human dermanyssosis cases in Europe, and also provide information on the epidemiology, clinical, histo-pathological and immunological aspects of dermanyssosis. We stress the need for improved recognition of this challenging infestation in humans, and provide straightforward recommendations for health practitioners, starting with collection of the correct anamnestic information and including appropriate management methods for case recognition and resolution. Finally, we indicate the most urgent areas to be addressed by future research. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSDermanyssus gallinae is of growing concern in human medicine. Most physicians are not well aware of dermanyssosis in humans. Bio-epidemiological and clinical aspects of this ectoparasitosis are highlighted. Practical key actions for diagnosis and correct management of infestation in humans are provided.

Malaria mosquito likes humans and apes
Bakker, Julian - \ 2019

Most mosquitoes in areas with both humans and chimpanzees are attracted by the odour of both, according to research by PhD candidate Julian Bakker and WUR alumnus Niels Verhulst. This means those mosquitoes could play a role in the transmission of malaria from apes to humans

The Two Faces of Cow's Milk and Allergy: Induction of Cow's Milk Allergy vs. Prevention of Asthma
Neerven, Joost van; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)8. - ISSN 2072-6643
asthma - cow’s milk allergy - hydrolysate - milk - processing - tolerance

Cow's milk has been consumed by humans for over 5000 years and contributed to a drastic change in lifestyle form nomadic to settled communities. As the composition of cow's milk is relatively comparable to breast milk, it has for a very long time been used as an alternative to breastfeeding. Today, cow's milk is typically introduced into the diet of infants around 6 months, except when breastfeeding is not an option. In that case, most often cow's milk based infant formulas are given. Some children will develop cow's milk allergy (CMA) during the first year of life. However, epidemiological evidence also suggests that consumption of unprocessed, "raw" cow's milk is associated with a lowered prevalence of other allergies. This Special Issue of Nutrients on "Cow's Milk and Allergy" ( is dedicated to these two different sides of cow's milk and allergy, ranging from epidemiology of CMA, clinical presentation and sensitization patterns, treatment and prevention, effects of milk processing, and current management guidelines for CMA, but also the epidemiological evidence linking cow's milk to lower asthma prevalence as well as the tolerance-inducing effect of raw cow's milk in food allergy models. In this editorial, we discuss these issues by highlighting the contributions in this Special Issue.

Assessing the health impacts of peatland fires: a case study for Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Uda, Saritha Kittie ; Hein, Lars ; Atmoko, Dwi - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2019). - ISSN 0944-1344
Human health impacts - Indonesia - PM concentration - Smoke dispersion - Tropical peatland fires

The conversion of Indonesian tropical peatlands has been associated with the recurring problems of peatland fires and smoke affecting humans and the environment. Yet, the local government and public in the affected areas have paid little attention to the impacts and costs of the poor air quality on human health. This study aims to analyse the long-term health impacts of the peat smoke exposure to the local populations. We applied the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine the smoke dispersion and the associated PM2.5 concentrations of the resulted plumes from the fire hotspots in the deep and shallow peatlands in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, that occurred during a 5-year period (2011–2015). We subsequently quantified the long-term health impacts of PM2.5 on the local people down to the village level based on the human health risk assessment approach. Our study shows that the average increase in the annual mean PM2.5 concentration due to peatland fires in Central Kalimantan was 26 μg/m3 which is more than twice the recommended value of the World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. This increase in PM2.5 leads to increased occurrence of a range of air pollution–related diseases and premature mortality. The number of premature mortality cases can be estimated at 648 cases per year (26 mortality cases per 100,000 population) among others due to chronic respiratory, cardiovascular and lung cancer. Our results shed further light on the long-term health impacts of peatland fires in Indonesia and the importance of sustainable peatland management.

Successional Dynamics in the Gut Microbiome Determine the Success of Clostridium difficile Infection in Adult Pig Models
Jurburg, Stephanie D. ; Cornelissen, Jan J.B.W.J. ; Boer, Paulo de; Smits, Mari A. ; Rebel, Johanna M.J. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 9 (2019). - ISSN 2235-2988 - 11 p.
animal models - bacteria - Clostridium difficile - microbiome - pig

Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is hypothesized that CDI develops due to the antibiotic-induced disruption of the intestinal microbial community structure, which allows C. difficile to flourish. Here, we pre-treated weaned pigs with the antibiotics Clindamycin or Ciprofloxacin for 1 day, and subsequently inoculated them with a human and pig enteropathogenic C. difficile strain 078 spores. Body temperature, clinical signs of disease, and the fecal microbiome were monitored daily for 15 days. Clindamycin had a stronger effect on the pigs than Ciprofloxacin, resulting in drastic shifts in the fecal microbiome, decreases in microbial diversity and significant increases in body temperature, even in the absence of C. difficile. Fecal shedding of C. difficile was detectable for 3 and 9 days in Ciprofloxacin and Clindamycin treated pigs inoculated with C. difficile, respectively, and in both cases decreased cell proliferation rates were detected in colon tissue. The timing of C. difficile shedding coincided with the decrease in a large cluster of Firmicutes following Clindamycin treatment, a pattern which was also independent of C. difficile inoculation. The observed community patterns suggest that successional dynamics following antibiotic treatment facilitate C. difficile establishment. The similarities between the microbiome responses observed in our study and those previously reported in CDI-infected humans further support the utility of adult pigs as models for the study of CDI.

Four perspectives on water for global food production and international trade: incommensurable objectives and implications
Vos, Jeroen ; Oel, Pieter van; Hellegers, Petra ; Veldwisch, Gert Jan ; Hoogesteger, Jaime - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 30 - 36.

Virtual water flows, incorporated in global food trade has increased the last decade. The drivers and consequences are complex. These complex relations between humans and water resources are studied from different perspectives. In this article, an overview of four such perspectives on water in global food production and trade is provided. These four perspectives are: (1) Increasing water productivity for crop production, (2) Reducing water footprints, (3) National food security and import dependency; and (4) Local values and implications of water used in export food production. Each of the perspectives is valuable in the sense of representing different value frameworks, which represent contrasting norms and convictions, belief systems, and discourses; which are often incommensurable.

Exploring social preferences for ecosystem services of multifunctional agriculture across policy scenarios
Bernués, Alberto ; Alfnes, Frode ; Clemetsen, Morten ; Eik, Lars Olav ; Faccioni, Georgia ; Ramanzin, Maurizio ; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon ; Rodríguez-Ortega, Tamara ; Sturaro, Enrico - \ 2019
Ecosystem Services 39 (2019). - ISSN 2212-0416
Abandonment - Agrienvironmental policy - Economic values - Intensification - Social-ecological systems - Trade-offs

Multifunctional agroecosystems are the result of complex adaptive interactions between humans and nature where trade-offs between food production and other ecosystem services are key. Our objective is to explore the social preferences for ecosystem services, and the associated willingness to pay, in three multifunctional agroecosystem in Europe (Mediterranean, Atlantic, Alpine) under alternative agrienvironmental policy scenarios. We use the same methodology (a choice experiment including equivalent attributes and levels) to rank and estimate the economic value of provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural ecosystem services. We define the scenarios (current situation, abandonment and enhanced management) in biophysical terms to elucidate changing relations between social perception and level of delivery of ecosystem services. We derive some lessons. i) Value of ES: biodiversity and regulating ecosystem services always produce welfare gains; people, however, perceive trade-offs between delivery of agricultural landscapes and quality food products. Nevertheless, preferences are heterogeneous and vary across regions, scenarios and ES. ii) Policymaking: society's willingness to pay for the delivery of ecosystem service exceeds largely the current level of public support. Moreover, further abandonment and intensification of agriculture is clearly rejected by the public. iii) Methodological: monetary valuation is context dependent and extrapolation of economic values can be misleading.

Propolis modulates the gut microbiota and improves the intestinal mucosal barrier function in diabetic rats
Xue, Meilan ; Liu, Ying ; Xu, Hongwei ; Zhou, Zhitong ; Ma, Yan ; Sun, Ting ; Liu, Man ; Zhang, Huaqi ; Liang, Hui - \ 2019
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 118 (2019). - ISSN 0753-3322
16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing - Diabetes - Gut microbiota - Propolis - Short chain fatty acid

Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with gut microbiota disturbance and intestinal mucosal injuries. This study investigated the influence of propolis on the gut microbiota and intestinal mucosa in rats with diabetes. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to the control group, model group, and three propolis groups (supplemented with 80, 160, and 240 mg/kg·bw propolis, respectively). A high-fat diet combined with a streptozotocin (STZ) abdominal injection were used to induce diabetes in the rats. After 4 weeks, the intestinal histopathological analysis of the ileum was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin, glucose tolerance (OGTT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured. The expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum was measured using western blotting. The molecular ecology of the fecal gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The contents of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: After propolis treatment, compared to the model group, FBG and HbA1c levels declined, while the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) increased. The levels of TJ proteins in the ileum increased in the propolis groups. The tight junctions and gap junctions of the intestinal epithelium were also improved in the propolis groups. The contents of the feces acetic acid, propionic acid and butyrate were increased in the propolis groups. 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that the composition of the gut microbiota of rats in the propolis supplement group was significantly improved. Conclusions: Compared to the model group, propolis exerted hypoglycemic effects in diabetic rats, and it repaired intestinal mucosal damage, benefited the communities of the gut microbiota and increased SCFA levels in diabetic rats.

In vier stappen experimenteren met Internet of Things
Robbemond, R.M. ; Voort, Manfred van der; Man, Ard-Pieter de; Strang, Stephan ; Beer, Colinda de; Verdouw, C.N. ; Savelkouls, Carlijn - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research - 3 p.
Possible improvement of measures within the principle ‘appropriate behaviour’ of the Welfare Quality® boiler assessment protocol
Jong, Ingrid de; Riel, Johan van; Hoevenaar, Tosca ; Niekerk, Thea van - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1192) - 35
The aim of the current study was two-fold. First, we tested whether or not a scan sampling technique can be used as a relatively quick, simple scoring of the behaviour in commercial-size broiler chicken flocks, and could thus be included as a measure of appropriate behaviour in the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol. Four existing datasets were analysed, these were collected for different purposes but were based on the same sampling technique, i.e. counting the number of broilers engaged in different behaviours using direct observations, at different time intervals and at different locations in the house. Analysis showed that various factors affected the outcome. Whereas those such as observer, time of the day and location could be taken into account when designing an observation protocol (e.g. by training, by selection of different observation locations and times), it must first be determined how to take into account the effect of subsequent scans, the apparent difference between flocks and genetic strains, and the effects of different behaviours. This is important when e.g. thresholds need to be set or scores reliably assigned regarding the prevalence of birds showing certain behaviours during a farm visit. Second, it was tested whether alternative measures (rather than distance to observer or a novel object) could be used as indicators of fear in broiler chickens. Previous research suggested a possible relationship between walking ability and the number of birds within arm’s reach in the touch test, thus implying that the touch test may be confounded by impaired walking ability and might thus be a suboptimal method of assessing fear of humans in broilers. The present study was carried out at an experimental farm and reported in detail in a student thesis. An extended summary is included in this report. The results showed that both distance to observer or novel object and behaviour of the bird (alert body posture, neck posture, body position towards object or observer) seemed to be valid indicators of fear, however, when a relatively short time is available for testing, the birds’ behaviour should always be measured as older broilers need more time to move away.
HEVnet: A one health, collaborative, interdisciplinary network and sequence data repository for enhanced hepatitis e virus molecular typing, characterisation and epidemiological investigations
Mulder, Annemieke Christine ; Kroneman, Annelies ; Franz, Eelco ; Vennema, Harry ; Tulen, Anna D. ; Takkinen, Johanna ; Hofhuis, Agnetha ; Adlhoch, Cornelia ; Aberle, Stephan ; Subissi, Lorenzo ; Suin, Vanessa ; Midgley, Sofie ; Kuznetsova, Tatiana ; Izopet, Jacques ; Pavio, Nicole ; Baechlein, Christine ; Baylisa, Sally A. ; Corman, Victor M. ; Fabera, Mirko ; Johne, Reimar ; Kamp, Christel ; Wenzel, Juergen J. ; Coughlan, Suzie ; Bartolo, Ilaria Di; Bruni, Roberto ; Ciccaglionea, Anna Rita ; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa ; Suffredini, Elisabetta ; Boxman, Ingeborg ; Hogema, Boris ; Poel, Wim van der; Zaaijera, Hans ; Sousaa, Rita de; Velebit, Branko ; Avellóna, Ana ; Buti, Maria ; Girones, Rosina ; Quer, Josep ; Widén, Frederik ; Norder, Heléne ; Nyström, Kristina ; Bachofen, Claudia ; Sahli, Roland ; Ijaza, Samreen ; Treagus, Samantha ; Kulka, Michael ; Rizzi, Valentina - \ 2019
Eurosurveillance 24 (2019)10. - ISSN 1025-496X

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. In Europe, HEV is a zoonosis transmitted via contaminated pork meat or other pork food products. Genotype 3 is the most prevalent HEV type in the animal reservoir, as well as in humans. Despite an increased incidence of hepatitis E across Europe, much remains unknown about its spread, sources and transmission routes. A One Health approach is crucial to better understand the (molecular) epidemiology of HEV. HEVnet was established in April 2017 as a network and database for sharing sequences and accompanying metadata collected from human, animal, food and environmental sources. HEVnet members working in the public health, veterinary health, food, environmental and blood safety sectors have submitted 1,615 HEV sequences from nine countries as at January 2019. Most are from humans (89%), and sequences of animal (5%), food (6%) or environmental (0.3%) origin are rare. Metadata for human sequences capture mostly sex (93%), year of birth (92%) and sampling (100%); data on region of sampling (37%) and clinical information (hospitalisation 27%, symptoms 20% or mortality 8%) are limited. HEVnet aims to expand into a global network capable of performing cross-sectoral and supranational studies, with a joint repository of molecular and epidemiological data on HEV.

Postprandial amino acid, glucose and insulin responses among healthy adults after a single intake of Lemna minor in comparison with green peas: A randomised trial
Zeinstra, Gertrude G. ; Somhorst, Dianne ; Oosterink, Els ; Fick, Henriette ; Klopping-Ketelaars, Ineke ; Meer, Ingrid M. Van Der; Mes, Jurriaan J. - \ 2019
Journal of Nutritional Science 8 (2019). - ISSN 2048-6790
Duckweed - Glucose - Human trials - Insulin - Lemna minor - Plant-based protein - Safety

A high protein content combined with its enormous growth capacity make duckweed an interesting alternative protein source, but information about postprandial responses in humans is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the postprandial serum amino acid profile of Lemna minor in healthy adults in comparison with green peas. A secondary objective was to obtain insights regarding human safety. A total of twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomised, cross-over trial. Subjects received two protein sources in randomised order with a 1-week washout period. After an overnight fast, subjects consumed L. minor or peas (equivalent to 20 g of protein). After a baseline sample, blood samples were taken 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after consumption to assess amino acid, glucose and insulin levels. Heart rate, blood pressure and aural temperature were measured before and after consumption, and subjects reported on gastrointestinal discomfort for four subsequent days. Compared with green peas, significantly lower blood concentrations of amino acids from L. minor were observed, indicating lower digestibility. L. minor consumption resulted in lower plasma glucose and insulin levels compared with peas, probably due to different glucose content. There were no significant differences concerning the assessed health parameters or the number of gastrointestinal complaints, indicating that a single bolus of L. minor-grown under controlled conditions-did not induce acute adverse effects in humans. Further studies need to investigate effects of repeated L. minor intake and whether proteins purified from L. minor can be digested more easily.

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