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Does the use of digestate to replace mineral fertilizers have less emissions of N2O and NH3?
Verdi, L. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Orlandini, S. ; Mancini, M. ; Napoli, M. ; Marta, A. Dalla - \ 2019
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 269-270 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 112 - 118.
Biogas - Digestate - Greenhouse gasses - Maize - Nitrogen - Static chambers
Digestate is considered a sustainable opportunity to reduce environmental impact from fertilization, due to high content of nitrogen easily available for plants and for the low impact of its production. We tested liquid fraction of digestate from anaerobic digestion of pig slurries and urea, to assess the emissions of nitrous oxide and ammonia from soil on silage maize (Zea mays L.). Nitrogen rate was the same for both treatments (150 kg/ha) spread replacing common methods. Emissions measurements were performed immediately after fertilization using a static chamber method with a portable gas analyser. Measurements were performed daily during the first week, and twice per week until no emissions from the soil were observed. Cumulative nitrogen emissions show that digestate can be an efficient method to reduce nitrogen losses (2.87 kg N/ha/25 days and 3.76 kg N/ha/25 days for digestate and urea respectively). However, the two fertilizers emitted different kind of gases: compared to urea, digestate emitted the 23% of nitrous oxide more, on the other hand urea emitted 66% of ammonia more than digestate. Crop yield obtained under the two fertilization methods did not significantly differ in terms of dry matter (DM) (13.63 t DM/ha and 13.24 t DM/ha for digestate and urea, respectively) (significance factor α > 0.5).
Understanding farm diversity to promote agroecological transitions
Teixeira, Heitor Mancini ; Berg, Leonardo van den; Cardoso, Irene Maria ; Vermue, Ardjan J. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
Agroecological practice - Participatory action research - Participatory farm typology - Peasant - Statistical farm typology
Agroecology is increasingly promoted by scientists, non-governmental organisations (NGO's), international organisations and peasant movements as an approach to foster the transition to sustainable and equitable food systems. The challenges to agroecological transitions are not the same for all farmers, as they can face different social and bio-physical conditions. We developed a farm typology combining participatory and quantitative methodologies to assess and categorise farm diversity and its implications for developing strategies to promote agroecological transitions. The participatory typology was developed during workshops to acquire insights on local farmers' perceptions and knowledge, and to generate hypotheses on family farm diversity. The participatory-based hypotheses were tested in the quantitative farm characterisation, which provided information on household characteristics, production strategies, land use, participation in public policies and extension services. Farms were located in Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, which harbour a wide diversity of farmers and where different actors have been engaged in agroecological transitions for the past 30 years. Our main findings were: (i) In the face of agroecological transitions, farmers differ in their management strategies, practices and principles; (ii) farmers identified as agroecological typically had stronger engagements in a network composed of farmers' organisations, universities and NGO's; (iii) agroecological farms showed great potential to provide a wide range of ecosystem services as they featured a higher crop diversity and a higher number of crops for self-consumption; (iv) to promote agroecology, it is crucial to recognise peasant knowledge, to change the dominant discourse on agriculture through social movement dynamics, and to generate support from public policies and funds; and (v) participatory and quantitative methodologies can be combined for more precise and relevant assessments of agroecological transitions.
Farmers show complex and contrasting perceptions on ecosystem services and their management
Teixeira, Heitor Mancini ; Vermue, Ardjan J. ; Cardoso, Irene Maria ; Peña Claros, Marielos ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 33 (2018). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 44 - 58.
Agroecology - Agroecosystems - Biodiversity - Brazil - Fuzzy cognitive maps
Agricultural systems are complex socio-ecological systems that are managed by farmers to achieve desired outcomes, including food production and other ecosystem services (ES). While farm management is a key factor for ES provision, farmers may widely differ in their awareness, ambition and skills to manage their systems. Currently there is a lack of understanding of farmers’ perception on ES, and how this is related to their management. We studied the management and perception of large scale farmers, conventional family farmers and agroecological family farmers in the Zona de Mata region in Brazil. Farmers were interviewed and constructed fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) of their perception on ES. The FCM analysis revealed that in general, the perception of farmers on ES is highly complex and interconnected. Yet, agroecological family farmers showed a more complex perception on ES, which is associated with more diversified and autonomous agroecosystems. Both agroecological and conventional family farmers had a strong peasant identity, recognising more cultural ecosystem services than large scale farmers and relied more on production for consumption. Initiatives that aim to strengthen on-farm ecosystem services provision should be sensitive to farmer's perceptions and may need to consider using specific strategies for different farmer types.
Reassembling nature and culture: Resourceful farming in Araponga, Brazil
Berg, Leonardo van den; Roep, Dirk ; Hebinck, Paul ; Teixeira, Heitor Mancini - \ 2018
Journal of Rural Studies 61 (2018). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 314 - 322.
This article highlights the emergence of a regenerative, agroecological mode of agriculture following the ongoing process of experimentation and learning by a settlement of landless people and farm workers. It examines how they engaged anew with ‘nature’ and generated resourceful farming practices as a result of a threefold process of cultural re-appreciation, a re-grounding in local natural resources and a political-economic re-positioning towards prevailing regimes in policies, markets and technologies. We argue that the construction of resourceful farming culminates around: finding and forging productive alignments with non-human nature such as weeds, trees and mychorrizal fungi, viewing the contribution of non-human nature not only in terms of their value as a commodity, but as adding value in many different ways and building a socio-material resource base and an institutional setting that allows farmers to farm more autonomously.
Association between plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and metabolic markers of lipid, hepatic, inflammation and glycaemic pathways in eight European countries: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-InterAct study
Zheng, Ju-Sheng ; Sharp, Stephen J. ; Imamura, Fumiaki ; Koulman, Albert ; Schulze, Matthias B. ; Ye, Zheng ; Griffin, Jules ; Guevara, Marcela ; Huerta, José María ; Kröger, Janine ; Sluijs, Ivonne ; Agudo, Antonio ; Barricarte, Aurelio ; Boeing, Heiner ; Colorado-Yohar, Sandra ; Dow, Courtney ; Dorronsoro, Miren ; Dinesen, Pia T. ; Fagherazzi, Guy ; Franks, Paul W. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kühn, Tilman ; Katzke, Verena Andrea ; Key, Timothy J. ; Khaw, Kay-Tee ; Magistris, Maria Santucci De; Mancini, Francesca Romana ; Molina-Portillo, Elena ; Nilsson, Peter M. ; Olsen, Anja ; Overvad, Kim ; Palli, Domenico ; Quirós, Jose Ramón ; Rolandsson, Olov ; Ricceri, Fulvio ; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W. ; Slimani, Nadia ; Tagliabue, Giovanna ; Tjonneland, Anne ; Tumino, Rosario ; Schouw, Yvonne T. Van Der; Langenberg, Claudia ; Riboli, Elio ; Forouhi, Nita G. ; Wareham, Nicholas J. - \ 2017
BMC Medicine 15 (2017)1. - ISSN 1741-7015
Accumulating evidence suggests that individual circulating saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are heterogeneous in their associations with cardio-metabolic diseases, but evidence about associations of SFAs with metabolic markers of different pathogenic pathways is limited. We aimed to examine the associations between plasma phospholipid SFAs and the metabolic markers of lipid, hepatic, glycaemic and inflammation pathways.
We measured nine individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and derived three SFA groups (odd-chain: C15:0 + C17:0, even-chain: C14:0 + C16:0 + C18:0, and very-long-chain: C20:0 + C22:0 + C23:0 + C24:0) in individuals from the subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study across eight European countries. Using linear regression in 15,919 subcohort members, adjusted for potential confounders and corrected for multiple testing, we examined cross-sectional associations of SFAs with 13 metabolic markers. Multiplicative interactions of the three SFA groups with pre-specified factors, including body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption, were tested.
Higher levels of odd-chain SFA group were associated with lower levels of major lipids (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB)) and hepatic markers (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)). Higher even-chain SFA group levels were associated with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides, ApoB, ApoB/A1 ratio, ALT, AST, GGT and CRP, and lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA1. Very-long-chain SFA group levels showed inverse associations with triglycerides, ApoA1 and GGT, and positive associations with TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C, ApoB and ApoB/A1. Associations were generally stronger at higher levels of BMI or alcohol consumption.
Subtypes of SFAs are associated in a differential way with metabolic markers of lipid metabolism, liver function and chronic inflammation, suggesting that odd-chain SFAs are associated with lower metabolic risk and even-chain SFAs with adverse metabolic risk, whereas mixed findings were obtained for very-long-chain SFAs. The clinical and biochemical implications of these findings may vary by adiposity and alcohol intake.
Reducing the Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning by Educating Farmers on Integrated Pest Management in South India
Mancini, F. ; Jiggins, J.L.S. ; O'Malley, M. - \ 2009
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 15 (2009)2. - ISSN 1077-3525 - p. 143 - 151.
developing-countries - developing-world - health - exposure - acetylcholinesterase - prevention - nicaragua - children - risk
Sixty-five farmers reported on pesticide use and the signs and symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning when using two different plant protection strategies: in 2003 using chemical controls and in 2004 using an approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) based on an ecological analysis of the field conditions. Exposure to organophosphates was confirmed as a serious risk factor for occupational poisoning. The adoption of IPM reduced the use of pesticides and halved the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning. Overall, the pesticide use spectrum shifted towards lower WHO Hazard Classes. A reduction of adverse health effects was attained through a reduction in exposure to toxic pesticides and behavioural changes. Given that other strategies to reduce the rate of acute poisoning have proven ineffective, interventions aiming to minimize pesticide poisoning in India and in other developing countries with similar rural conditions should focus on restricting the use of highly toxic compounds and educating farmers on IPM.
Moving On: Farmer Education in Integrated Insect Pest and Disease Management
Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Mancini, F. - \ 2009
In: Integrated Pest Management. Vol. 2. Dissemination and Impact / Peshin, R., Dhawan, A.K., The Hague : Springer - ISBN 9781402089893 - p. 307 - 332.
This chapter explores intensive hands-on occupational education for farmers in selected European, African, Latin American countries and in south India. An Indian case study of Farmer Field Schools for Integrated Pest and Production Management (IPPM) to ensure food security and livelihood improvement is presented, to introduce discussion of the role of IPPM beyond improving agriculture productivity. Does it enable farmers to adopt practices that move food and farming systems toward a low carbon economy? Does it help mitigate the effects of climate change? Does it help small farmers reach the combined goals of sustainability and development? India is experiencing unprecedented economic growth, based primarily on service sector development, yet income inequalities are widening and the number of poor – 300–400 million living mainly in rural areas – is not decreasing as a consequence of a deepening agrarian crisis. Agriculture for marginal farmers provides the major part of their family’s nutritional requirements; however, it is no longer the primary source of income, neither does it ensure food security. Climatic change effects, with higher temperatures and less rainfall, have reduced further the viability of farming in drought-prone areas. The tendency is for millions of poor farmers to leave agriculture, aspiring to join the service sector but more commonly ending up among the urban destitute. The prospect for agriculture in India is thought to lie in a mix of high science applied in favourable areas to sustain the grain, legume, and oil seed output needed for basic food security; for high value crops for the rising domestic consumer and export markets; expanded investment in market-led enterprise development and skills training in rural areas; and renewed attention to farm-based livelihoods and agro-ecosystem functioning, especially in rainfed farming. This chapter addresses livelihoods and agro-ecosystem functioning, and specifically the role of IPPM as a means for strengthening agro-ecosystem resilience in the face of environmental changes
Increasing the environmental and social sustainability of cotton farming through farmer education in Andhra Pradesh, India
Mancini, F. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Bruggen, A.H.C. van - \ 2008
Agricultural Systems 96 (2008)1-3. - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 16 - 25.
integrated pest-management - field schools - bt-cotton - knowledge - productivity - technology - indonesia - impacts
Integrated pest management (IPM) has been introduced in India to reduce the serious impact of the use of highly toxic pesticides on people¿s health and the environment. However, IPM diffusion has been slow, in part because of the inherent complexity of the approach based on decisions requiring knowledge of ecological principles and local ecological dynamics. Farmer field schools (FFSs) on IPM, conducted for cotton growers in Andhra Pradesh, India, is shown to be an effective educational approach for building the essential knowledge and decision-making skills among farmers for IPM adoption. FFS farmers (73) drastically reduced the use of highly toxic pesticides as a result of increased knowledge on biological control principles. Yield levels were not affected by this reduction, showing that part of the current use of pesticides in cotton cultivation is superfluous. IPM labour demand has been suggested also as limiting IPM diffusion. However, an analysis of the physical labour use, carried out on a sub-sample (43 FFS and 52 control farms), showed that the adoption of IPM in the studied farms did not lead to an increase in the overall physical labour requirement, nor in the total time spent on plant protection.
Evaluating cotton integrated pest management (IPM) farmer field school outcomes using the sustainable livelihoods approach in India
Mancini, F. ; Bruggen, A.H.C. van; Jiggins, J.L.S. - \ 2007
Experimental Agriculture 43 (2007)1. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 97 - 112.
Farmer field schools (FFSs) were conducted in southern India to reduce pesticide input and enhance sustainability of cotton production systems. This study was carried out to determine the additional benefits of FFSs in the social and economic arena, using the sustainable livelihoods (SL) concept to frame the evaluation. Farmers who had participated in the integrated pest management (IPM) FFSs perceived a range of impacts much beyond the adoption of IPM practices. The reduced cost of cultivation allowed for financial recovery fromdebt and the building of physical assets. IPMFFShouseholds and production systems were perceived by the participants to have become more economically resilient than Non-IPMFFS control groups when faced with adversity. In the participants¿ view, IPMFFSs also led to enhanced individual and community social well-being, a benefit valued in particular by the women participants. The study tested a new application of the SL conceptual framework as a tool for evaluation.
FIOH-sponsored newsletter misrepresents asbestos hazards in Zimbabwe
Bailar, J.C. ; Ballal, S.G. ; Boback, M. ; Castleman, B. ; Chee, H.L. ; Cherniack, M. ; Christiani, D. ; Cicolella, A. ; Pool, J.F. D'; Egilman, D. ; Frank, A.L. ; Garcia, M.A. ; Giannasi, F. ; Greenberg, M. ; Harrison, R.J. ; Huff, J. ; Souza, E.J. ; Joshi, T.K. ; Kamuzora, P. ; Kazan-Allen, L. ; Kern, D.G. ; Kromhout, H. ; Kuswadji, S. ; Ladou, J. ; Lemen, R.A. ; Levenstein, C. ; Luethje, B. ; Mancini, F. ; Meel, B.L. ; Mekonnen, Y. ; Mendes, R. ; Murie, D. ; Myers, J.E. ; O'Neill, R. ; Cisaro, E. ; Paek, D. ; Richter, E. ; Robertson, H. ; Rosskam, E. ; Samuels, S.W. ; Soskolne, C.L. ; Stuckey, R. ; Teitelbaum, D.T. ; Terracini, B. ; Thebaud-Mony, A. ; Vanhoorne, M. ; Wang, X.R. ; Watterson, A. ; Wedeen, R. - \ 2006
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 12 (2006)3. - ISSN 1077-3525 - p. 254 - 258.
The Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) has received support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Office (ILO) to publish the African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety. The African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety should not be a medium for industry propaganda, or the source of misinformation among the workers of Africa. Instead, FIOH should provide the same level of scientific information in Africa that it does in Finland and other developed countries.
Impact of integrated pest management farmer field schools on health, farming systems, the environment, and livelihoods of cotton growers in Southern India
Mancini, F. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ariena van Bruggen, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins; Aad Termorshuizen. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9085043883 - 112
geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - gossypium - katoen - boeren - gezondheid - pesticiden - bedrijfssystemen - milieueffect - impact - levensomstandigheden - india - welzijn - integrated pest management - gossypium - cotton - farmers - health - pesticides - farming systems - environmental impact - impact - living conditions - india - well-being - cum laude
cum laude graduation (with distinction)
|Incidence of acute pesticide poisoning among male and female cotton growers
Mancini, F. ; Bruggen, A.H.C. van; Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Ambatipudi, A.C. ; Murphy, H. - \ 2005
In: The impact of the FAO-EU IPM Programme / Ooi, P.A.C., Praneetvatakul, S., Waibel, H., Walter-Echols, G., Hannover : Chair of Development and Agricultural Economics (Publication Series Special Issue No. 9 ) - ISBN 3934373097 - p. 74 - 88.
Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India
Mancini, F. ; Bruggen, A.H.C. van; Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Ambatipudi, A.C. ; Murphy, H. - \ 2005
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 11 (2005). - ISSN 1077-3525 - p. 221 - 232.
organophosphate - health - exposure - farmers - workers - kenya
A season-long assessment of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers was conducted in three villages in India. Fifty female cotton growers reported the adverse effects experienced after exposures to pesticides by themselves and by their male relatives (n = 47). The study documented the serious consequences of pesticide use for the health of farmers, particularly women field helpers. Typically female tasks such as mixing concentrated chemicals and refilling spraying tanks were as hazardous as direct pesticide application. Of 323 reported events, 83.6 % were associated with signs and symptoms of mild to severe poisoning, and 10 % of the pesticide application sessions were associated with three or more neurotoxic/systemic signs and symptoms typical of poisoning by organophosphates, which were used in 47 % of the applications. Although in 6 % of the spray sessions the workers' neurotoxic effects were extremely serious, none sought medical care. Low-income marginal farmers were more often subjected to severe poisoning than were landlords.
The effect of background hydrometeorological conditions on the sensitivity of evapotranspiration to model parameters: analysis with measurements from an Italian alpine catchment
Montaldo, N. ; Toninelli, V. ; Albertson, J.D. ; Mancini, M. ; Troch, P.A.A. - \ 2003
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 7 (2003)6. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 848 - 861.
land-surface - water - moisture - schemes - atmosphere - energy - transpiration - assimilation - permeameter - project
Recent developments have made land-surface models (LSMs) more complex through the inclusion of more processes and controlling variables, increasing numbers of parameters and uncertainty in their estimates. To overcome these uncertainties, prior to applying a distributed LSM over the whole Toce basin (Italian Alps), a field campaign was carried out at an experimental plot within the basin before exploring the skill and parameter importance (sensitivity) using the TOPLATS model, an existing LSM. In the summer and autumn of 1999, which included both wet (atmosphere controlled) and dry (soil controlled) periods, actual evapotranspiration estimates were performed using Bowen ratio and, for a short period, eddy correlation methods. Measurements performed with the two methods are in good agreement. The calibrated LSM predicts actual evapotranspiration quite well over the whole observation period. A sensitivity analysis of the evapotranspiration to model parameters was performed through the global multivariate technique during both wet and dry periods of the campaign,. This approach studies the influence of each parameter without conditioning on certain values of the other variables. Hence, all parameters are varied simultaneously using, for instance, a uniform sampling strategy through a Monte Carlo simulation framework. The evapotranspiration is highly sensitive to the soil parameters, especially during wet periods. However, the evapotranspiration is also sensitive to some vegetation parameters and, during dry periods, wilting point is the most critical for evapotranspiration predictions, This result confirms the importance of correct representation of vegetation properties which, in water-limited conditions, control evapotranspiration.
Assimilation of active microwave observation data for soil moisture profile estimation
Hoeben, R. ; Troch, P.A. - \ 2000
Water Resources Research 36 (2000)10. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 2805 - 2819.
bodemwater - retentie - remote sensing - soil water - retention
This paper discusses the potential of retrieving information about the soil moisture profile from measurements of the surface soil moisture content through active microwave observations of the Earth. Recently, Mancini et al.  have shown through laboratory experiments that the volumetric moisture content of the first few centimeters of a bare soil can be determined within 5 ol accuracy by means of C and L band active microwave observations and inverse modeling. Here we use active microwave observations of the surface soil moisture content in a data assimilation framework to show that this allows the retrieval of the root zone soil moisture profile. The data assimilation procedure developed is based on the Kalman filter technique. Kalman filtering allows reconstruction of the state vector of a system when this system is represented by a dynamic model and when at least part of the state variables are observed regularly. The dynamic model of the system used here is based on the one-dimensional Richards equation. The observation equation is based on the Integral Equation Model [Fung et al., 1992; Fung, 1994] and is used to link the radar observations to surface soil moisture content. It is shown that even in the presence of model and observation noise and infrequent observations, accurate retrieval of the entire moisture profile is possible for a bare soil. ? 2000 American Geophysical Union
Multifrequency radar observations of bare surface soil moisture content: A laboratory experiment
Mancini, M. ; Hoeben, R. ; Troch, P.A. - \ 1999
Water Resources Research 35 (1999)6. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 1827 - 1838.
bodemwater - meting - remote sensing - soil water - measurement - remote sensing
This paper reports on a laboratory experiment that investigates the use of active microwave observations to estimate volumetric soil moisture content. The experiment, held in 1995, was set up at the European Microwave Signature Laboratory, Joint Research Centre of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Full polarimetric radar observations of a 2 m diameter cylindric container filled with a sandy loam soil were performed. During successive wetting and drying cycles, different soil moisture profiles were generated and observed in situ by means of time domain reflectometry probes. The radar data are analyzed based on the Integral Equation Model that simulates radar backscattering given known surface characteristics, such as moisture content and roughness. This allows the evaluation of the predictive power of the simulation model. We find general good agreement between measurements and simulations, but problems occur at high incidence angles. The model is then used to invert soil moisture information from radar measurements. It is shown that, in spite of the complexity of the model involved, it is possible to retrieve under certain circumstances reliable soil moisture estimates with similar accuracies as the in situ measurements. | This paper reports on a laboratory experiment that investigates the use of active microwave observations to estimate volumetric soil moisture content. The experiment, held in 1995, was set up at the European Microwave Signature Laboratory, Joint Research Centre of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Full polarimetric radar observations of a 2 m diameter cylindric container filled with a sandy loam soil were performed. During successive wetting and drying cycles, different soil moisture profiles were generated and observed in situ by means of time domain reflectometry probes. The radar data are analyzed based on the Integral Equation Model that simulates radar backscattering given known surface characteristics, such as moisture content and roughness. This allows the evaluation of the predictive power of the simulation model. We find general good agreement between measurements and simulations, but problems occur at high incidence angles. The model is then used to invert soil moisture information from radar measurements. It is shown that, in spite of the complexity of the model involved, it is possible to retrieve under certain circumstances reliable soil moisture estimates with similar accuracies as the in situ measurements.
|Continuous measurements of body temperature of (farm) animals by a telemetric system in relation to heat production.
Hel, W. van der; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Gorssen, J. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Dam, J.T.P. van - \ 1993
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