Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The effects of coarse and wet feeding on performance parameters, gastrointestinal tract and tibia traits, and digesta phytase activity in egg-type pullets, either fed a low or moderate phosphorus diet
Dijkslag, M.A. ; Elling-Staats, M.L. ; Yen, Y. ; Marchal, L.M. ; Kwakkel, R.P. - \ 2019
Poultry Science 98 (2019)10. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 4729 - 4744.
diet moisture - diet particle size - egg production - egg-type pullet - phosphorus

In a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) levels, 0.17% (low) and 0.33% (moderate), diet moisture (dry and wet), and diet particle size (coarse and fine), were studied on egg production, characteristics of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and tibia, digesta pH, and phytase activity in layer pullets (16 to 28 wk of age). The low NPP diet increased average daily water intake (ADWI) to ADFI ratio (4.2%) from 16 to 17 wk, but decreased this ratio (2.8%) from 23 to 27 wk. It decreased ADFI (1.5%) and egg mass production (3.8%) from 19 to 22 wk. It decreased egg weight (0.29 g) and ADWI (2.1%) from 23 to 27 wk. At 22 wk, the GIT relative empty organ weights were (g/kg BW) higher for proventriculus + gizzard (0.96), duodeneum (0.94), and jejunum + ileum (1.95) with the low vs. moderate NPP diet. The low NPP diet decreased digesta phytase activity in crop and proventriculus+gizzard at 28 wk. The wet diet increased ADFI, ADWI, and ADWI/ADFI ratio from 16 to 27 wk, egg mass production (3.0%) from 19 to 22 wk, and egg weight (0.45 g) from 23 to 27 wk. The wet diet also increased digesta phytase activity in proventriculus+gizzard. The coarse diet decreased ADFI from 19 to 22 wk (1.7%) and 23 to 27 wk (1.2%). The coarse diet caused reduced egg mass production (2.6%) from 23 to 27 wk. Egg shell breaking strength was increased on the coarse diet (0.9 Newton). The coarse diet increased ADWI/ADFI ratio from 16 to 27 wk, and increased relative gizzard weight by 1.95 and 0.81 g/kg BW at 22 and 28 wk, respectively. The coarse diet increased jejunal/ileal pH with 0.16 units at 28 wk. None of the tested parameters affected tibia characteristics. It was concluded that a low NPP diet did not clearly affect the studied parameters. The wet diet increased ADFI, ADWI, and egg production. The coarse diet increased ADWI, egg shell breaking strength, relative gizzard weight, and reduced ADFI and egg production.

Exploring habitat credits to manage the benthic impact in a mixed fishery
Batsleer, J. ; Marchal, Paul ; Vaz, S. ; Vermard, Youen ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2018
Strategies to prevent and reduce mycotoxins for compound feed manufacturing
Peng, W.X. ; Marchal, J.L.M. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2018
Animal Feed Science and Technology 237 (2018). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 129 - 153.
Mycotoxins - Prevention - reduction - Feed additives - Compound feed
Mycotoxins are the secondary metabolites of fungi, especially moulds. They have over 300 types and can be easily produced ubiquitously by moulds. Many mycotoxins have been found to be toxic to most farmed animals through the diets. With the globalization of feed ingredient trade and the rapid climate changes, occurrence of mycotoxins become increasingly difficult to be predicted. Thus, the unnoticeable mycotoxin hazards can directly impact the animal production systems. Preventing or minimizing mycotoxins in feed ingredients has become an important topic from the aspect of feed manufacturing industry. The aim of this literature review is to summarize the effective strategies for feed manufacturers to minimize the mycotoxin hazards. Prevention methods, including pre-harvest field management and post-harvest storage management, are still the most effective strategies, since mycotoxins are hardly to be eliminated once they are present in the ingredients. Moreover, mycotoxin reducing effects of several feed manufacturing technologies are also reviewed. In this review, the mycotoxin reducing methods are mainly categorized into 4 methodologies: physical methods, thermal methods, chemical methods, and mycotoxin controlling feed additives. The first three methodologies mainly focus on how to reduce mycotoxins in feed ingredients during processes, while the last one on how to compensate the adverse impacts of mycotoxin contaminated diets in animal bodies. The results showed that most of the methods reviewed show evident mycotoxin reducing effects, but of different consistencies. On the other hand, many practical factors that can affect the feasibility of each method in practical manufacturing are also discussed in this review. In conclusion, mycotoxin prevention management and the processing stage of cleaning and sorting are still the most efficient strategies to control mycotoxin hazards in current feed manufacturing.
Exploring habitat credits to manage the benthic impact in a mixed fishery
Batsleer, J. ; Marchal, P. ; Vaz, S. ; Vermard, V. ; Rijnsdorp, Ad ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2018
Marine Ecology Progress Series 586 (2018). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 167 - 179.
Fleet dynamics - Dynamic state variable modelling - TAC - Total allowable catch - Mixed fisheries - Eastern English Channel - Plaice - Cod
The performance of a combined catch quota and habitat credit system was explored to manage the sustainable exploitation of a mix of demersal fish species and reduce the benthic impacts of bottom trawl fisheries using a dynamic state variable model approach. The model was parameterised for the Eastern English Channel demersal mixed fishery using otter trawls or
dredges. Target species differed in their association with habitat types. Restricting catch quota for plaice and cod had a limited effect on benthic impact, except when reduced to very low values, forcing the vessels to stay in port. Quota management had a minimal influence on fishing behaviour and hence resulted in a minimal reduction of benthic impact. Habitat credits may reduce the
benthic impacts of the trawl fisheries at a minimal loss of landings and revenue, as vessels are still able to reallocate their effort to less vulnerable fishing grounds, while allowing the fishery to catch their catch quota and maintain their revenue. Only if they are reduced to extremely low levels can habitat credits potentially constrain fishing activities to levels that prevent the fisheries from using up the catch quota for the target species.
Integration of fisheries into marine spatial planning: Quo vadis?
Janßen, Holger ; Bastardie, Francois ; Eero, Margit ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Hinrichsen, Hans Harald ; Marchal, Paul ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Pape, Olivier Le; Schulze, Torsten ; Simons, Sarah ; Teal, Lorna R. ; Tidd, Alex - \ 2018
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 201 (2018). - ISSN 0272-7714 - p. 105 - 113.
Fisheries - Marine space - Maritime spatial planning - MSP - Marine governance - EBM
The relationship between fisheries and marine spatial planning (MSP) is still widely unsettled. While several scientific studies highlight the strong relation between fisheries and MSP, as well as ways in which fisheries could be included in MSP, the actual integration of fisheries into MSP often fails. In this article, we review the state of the art and latest progress in research on various challenges in the integration of fisheries into MSP. The reviewed studies address a wide range of integration challenges, starting with techniques to analyse where fishermen actually fish, assessing the drivers for fishermen's behaviour, seasonal dynamics and long-term spatial changes of commercial fish species under various anthropogenic pressures along their successive life stages, the effects of spatial competition on fisheries and projections on those spaces that might become important fishing areas in the future, and finally, examining how fisheries could benefit from MSP. This paper gives an overview of the latest developments on concepts, tools, and methods. It becomes apparent that the spatial and temporal dynamics of fish and fisheries, as well as the definition of spatial preferences, remain major challenges, but that an integration of fisheries is already possible today.
Projecting changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources: A critical review of the suite of modelling approaches used in the large European project VECTORS
Peck, Myron A. ; Arvanitidis, Christos ; Butenschön, Momme ; Canu, Donata Melaku ; Chatzinikolaou, Eva ; Cucco, Andrea ; Domenici, Paolo ; Fernandes, Jose A. ; Gasche, Loic ; Huebert, Klaus B. ; Hufnagl, Marc ; Jones, Miranda C. ; Kempf, Alexander ; Keyl, Friedemann ; Maar, Marie ; Mahévas, Stéphanie ; Marchal, Paul ; Nicolas, Delphine ; Pinnegar, John K. ; Rivot, Etienne ; Rochette, Sébastien ; Sell, Anne F. ; Sinerchia, Matteo ; Solidoro, Cosimo ; Somerfield, Paul J. ; Teal, Lorna R. ; Travers-trolet, Morgan ; De Wolfshaar, Karen E. Van - \ 2018
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 201 (2018). - ISSN 0272-7714 - p. 40 - 55.
Ditribution - Modelling - Habitat - Resources - Man-induced effects
We review and compare four broad categories of spatially-explicit modelling approaches currently used to understand and project changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources including: 1) statistical species distribution models, 2) physiology-based, biophysical models of single life
stages or the whole life cycle of species, 3) food web models, and 4) end-to-end models. Single pressures are rare and, in the future, models must be able to examine multiple factors affecting living marine resources such as interactions between: i) climate-driven changes in temperature regimes and acidification,
ii) reductions in water quality due to eutrophication, iii) the introduction of alien invasive species, and/or iv) (over-)exploitation by fisheries. Statistical (correlative) approaches can be used to detect historical patterns which may not be relevant in the future. Advancing predictive capacity of changes in
distribution and productivity of living marine resources requires explicit modelling of biological and physical mechanisms. New formulations are needed which (depending on the question) will need to strive for more realism in ecophysiology and behaviour of individuals, life history strategies of species, as
well as trophodynamic interactions occurring at different spatial scales. Coupling existing models (e.g. physical, biological, economic) is one avenue that has proven successful. However, fundamental advancements are needed to address key issues such as the adaptive capacity of species/groups andecosystems. The continued development of end-to-end models (e.g., physics to fish to human sectors) will be critical if we hope to assess how multiple pressures may interact to cause changes in living marine resources including the ecological and economic costs and trade-offs of different spatial management strategies. Given the strengths and weaknesses of the various types of models reviewed here,
confidence in projections of changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources will be increased by assessing model structural uncertainty through biological ensemble modelling.
Scientific Developments in the Field of Enzymes - the total feed business
Marchal, Leon - \ 2017
Understanding animal feed requirements now and in the future - the total feed business
Marchal, Leon - \ 2017
Conserving wheat straw and fungal treated wheat straw through ensiling
Mao, Lei ; Cone, J.W. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Marchal, J.L.M. - \ 2017
Thirty years of fleet dynamics modelling using discrete-choice models: What have we learned?
Girardin, Raphaël ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Pinnegar, John ; Poos, Jan Jaap ; Thébaud, Olivier ; Tidd, Alex ; Vermard, Youen ; Marchal, Paul - \ 2017
Fish and Fisheries 18 (2017)4. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 638 - 655.
Anticipating fisher behaviour is necessary for successful fisheries management. Of the different concepts that have been developed to understand individual fisher behaviour, random utility models (RUMs) have attracted considerable attention in the past three decades, and more particularly so since the 2000s. This study aimed at summarizing and analysing the information gathered from RUMs used during the last three decades around the globe. A methodology has been developed to standardize information across different studies and compare RUM results. The studies selected focused on fishing effort allocation. Six types of fisher behaviour drivers were considered: the presence of other vessels in the same fishing area, tradition, expected revenue, species targeting, costs, and risk-taking. Analyses were performed using three separate linear modelling approaches to assess the extent to which these different drivers impacted fisher behaviour in three fleet types: fleets fishing for demersal species using active gears, fleets fishing for demersal species using passive gears and fleets fishing for pelagic species. Fishers are attracted by higher expected revenue, tradition, species targeting and presence of others, but avoid choices involving large costs. Results also suggest that fishers fishing for demersal species using active gears are generally more influenced by past seasonal (long-term) patterns than by the most recent (short-term) information. Finally, the comparison of expected revenue with other fisher behaviour drivers highlights that demersal fishing vessels are risk-averse and that tradition and species targeting influence fisher decisions more than expected revenue.
Solutions for ecosystem-level protection of ocean systems under climate change
Queirós, Ana M. ; Huebert, Klaus B. ; Keyl, Friedemann ; Fernandes, Jose A. ; Stolte, Willem ; Maar, Marie ; Kay, Susan ; Jones, Miranda C. ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Hendriksen, Gerrit ; Vermard, Youen ; Marchal, Paul ; Teal, Lorna R. ; Somerfield, Paul J. ; Austen, Melanie C. ; Barange, Manuel ; Sell, Anne F. ; Allen, Icarus ; Peck, Myron A. - \ 2016
Global Change Biology 22 (2016)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3927 - 3936.
climate change - conservation - COP21 - ecosystem model - habitat - marine spatial planning - ocean - ocean acidification - species distribution - warming
The Paris Conference of Parties (COP21) agreement renewed momentum for action against climate change, creating the space for solutions for conservation of the ocean addressing two of its largest threats: climate change and ocean
acidification (CCOA). Recent arguments that ocean policies disregard a mature conservation research field and that protected areas cannot address climate change may be oversimplistic at this time when dynamic solutions for the
management of changing oceans are needed. We propose a novel approach, based on spatial meta-analysis of climate impact models, to improve the positioning of marine protected areas to limit CCOA impacts. We do this by estimating the vulnerability of ocean ecosystems to CCOA in a spatially explicit manner and then co-mapping human activities such as the placement of renewable energy developments and the distribution of marine protected areas. We test this approach in the NE Atlantic considering also how CCOA impacts the base of the food web which supports protected species, an aspect often neglected in conservation studies. We found that, in this case, current regional conservation plans protect areas with low ecosystem-level vulnerability to CCOA, but disregard how species may redistribute to new, suitable and productive habitats. Under current plans, these areas remain open to commercial
extraction and other uses. Here, and worldwide, ocean conservation strategies under CCOA must recognize the longterm importance of these habitat refuges, and studies such as this one are needed to identify them. Protecting these
areas creates adaptive, climate-ready and ecosystem-level policy options for conservation, suitable for changing oceans.
Supplementary feeding of live insects as a source of protein for broilers
Marchal, Leon - \ 2015
ForFarmers and WUR are starting a joint trial ForFarmers has launched a trial together with the Department of Entomology at Wageningen University, in the Netherlands, to explore the impacts of live insects as a source of protein in the broilers’ diet. Leon Marchal, Nutrition & Innovation Director at ForFarmers commented: “The most important research question is whether the chicks are growing healthily and at a sufficient rate in comparison to a traditional diet. We also want to look at whether the broilers’ natural behaviour will improve as a result of the addition of live insects. If this project proves to be a success, it will be an important step towards further sustainability within the industryForFarmers and WUR are starting a joint trial ForFarmers has launched a trial together with the Department of Entomology at Wageningen University, in the Netherlands, to explore the impacts of live insects as a source of protein in the broilers’ diet. Leon Marchal, Nutrition & Innovation Director at ForFarmers commented: “The most important research question is whether the chicks are growing healthily and at a sufficient rate in comparison to a traditional diet. We also want to look at whether the broilers’ natural behaviour will improve as a result of the addition of live insects. If this project proves to be a success, it will be an important step towards further sustainability within the industry
The total feed business - What is holding Back the real value of protein?
Marchal, Leon - \ 2015
Huidige en nieuwe eiwitten in diervoeding
Marchal, Leon - \ 2015
The total feed business Protein Sources: State of Play in Europe
Marchal, Leon - \ 2014
Technological Development and Fisheries Management
Eigaard, O.R. ; Marchal, P. ; Gislason, H. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2014
Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture 22 (2014)2. - ISSN 2330-8249 - p. 156 - 174.
individual transferable quotas - time-varying catchability - fishing power increases - trawl fishery - unit-effort - technical efficiency - demersal fisheries - mixed fisheries - fleet dynamics - north-sea
Many marine fish stocks are overexploited and considerable overcapacity exists in fishing fleets worldwide. One of the reasons for the imbalance between resource availability and fishing capacity is technological development, which continuously increases the efficiency of the vessels—a mechanism referred to as “technological creep.” We review how the introduction of new and more efficient electronic equipment, gear design, engines, deck equipment, and catch-handling procedures influences the capture efficiency (catchability) of commercial fishing vessels. On average, we estimate that catchability increases by 3.2% per year due to technological developments, an increase often ignored in fisheries management. The documentation and quantification of technological creep improves the basis for successfully integrating the effects of technological development (and catchability changes) in fisheries management regulations and policies. Ways of counteracting the undesired effects of technological creep are discussed as are the potential management benefits from improved fishing technology. Specific suggestions are given on the selection, application, and tuning of fisheries management tools that can be used to improve the balance between harvesting capacity and resource availability.
Efficiënter voeren en met voeding sturen op immuniteit
Smits, M.A. ; Duinkerken, G. van; Marchal, J.L.M. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. - \ 2014
V-focus 2014 (2014)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 25 - 27.
duurzame veehouderij - veevoeding - diergezondheid - ingrediënten - immuniteit - dierlijke productie - veevoeder - duurzame ontwikkeling - sustainable animal husbandry - livestock feeding - animal health - ingredients - immunity - animal production - fodder - sustainable development
Met voeding valt veel te sturen, zoals de gezondheid van het dier, groeisnelheid, melkgift en melksamenstelling en de efficiëntie waarmee nutriënten worden benut of via mest en urine worden uitgescheiden. Binnen Feed4Foodure wordt gebouwd aan kennis en nieuwe voedingsmodellen om beter te begrijpen welke effecten voeding heeft op het dier.
Production of Isopropanol by improved recombinant strains
Collas, Florent ; Marchal, Rémy ; Clement, Benjamin ; Lopez Contreras, A.M. ; Claassen, P.A.M. - \ 2013
Octrooinummer: WO2013054022, verleend: 2013-04-18.
The present invention relates to an expression vector including: nucleic acids encoding the polypeptides forming a polypeptide complex having an enzymatic activity suitable for converting acetoacetyl-CoA into acetoacetate; optionally at least one nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide having an enzymatic activity suitable for converting acetoacetate into acetone; and at least one nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide having an enzymatic activity suitable for converting acetone into isopropanol, the expression of said nucleic acids being controlled by a single constitutive promoter located upstream from the aforementioned nucleic acids.
Verminderen van fosforverliezen
Marchal, Leon - \ 2013
Mixed fisheries management: protecting the weakest link
Batsleer, J. ; Poos, J.J. ; Marchal, P. ; Vermard, Y. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2013
Marine Ecology Progress Series 479 (2013). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 177 - 190.
individual transferable quotas - flatfish fisheries - fleet dynamics - nephrops-norvegicus - demersal fisheries - tac management - trawl fishery - model - optimization - regulations
North Sea cod Gadus morhua stock is outside safe biological limits, and total allowable catch (TAC) management has proved ineffective to rebuild the stock. The European Commission is considering the imposition of a discard ban to preserve vulnerable and economically important fish stocks. We explored the potential effects of a discard ban in mixed fisheries management using the French mixed fisheries in the Eastern English Channel as a model system. We examined in particular the performance of 2 different management scenarios: (1) individual quota management with a tolerance for discarding and (2) individual quota management in combination with a discard ban, using a dynamic state variable model. The model evaluates a time series of decisions taken by fishers to maximize profits within management constraints. Compliance to management was tested by applying an in-height varying fine for exceeding the quota. We then evaluated the consequences of individual cod quota in both scenarios with respect to over-quota discarding, spatial and temporal effort allocation and switching between métiers. Individual quota management without a discard ban hardly influenced fishers' behaviour as they could fully utilise cod quota and continue fishing other species while discarding cod. In contrast, a discard ban forced fishers to reallocate effort to areas and weeks in which cod catch is low, at the expense of lower revenue. In general, a restrictive policy for individual quota for cod needs to be combined with a discard ban and a high fine (>20 times the sale price) to reduce over-quota discardin
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