Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Rapid assessments of the impact of COVID-19 on the availability of quality seed to farmers : Advocating immediate practical, remedial and preventative action
    Boef, Walter S. de; Borman, Gareth D. ; Gupta, Arnab ; Subedi, Abishkar ; Thijssen, Marja H. ; Ayana Aga, Amsalu ; Hassena Beko, Mohammed ; Thein, Swe Zin Myint ; Thein, Win ; Okelola, Folarin ; Olusegun, Osundiya ; Ojo, Olusegun Philip ; Agbara, Chinedu ; Otim, Geoffrey ; Ssemwogerere, Charles ; Ntare, Bonny ; Oyee, Patrick - \ 2021
    Agricultural Systems 188 (2021). - ISSN 0308-521X
    COVID-19 impact - Rapid assessment - Seed availability

    Rapid assessments of the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on the seed sector were conducted by a coalition of partners in Ethiopia, Myanmar, Nigeria, and Uganda in May and June 2020. The method was rapid, iterative, inclusive and valuable in revealing threats to the availability and timely access of farmers to quality seed and to food, nutrition and income security, and in advocating for remedial and preventative action. Via mobile application and web survey, and focus group discussions on virtual conferencing platforms a panel of 36 or more local experts operating particularly in formal seed systems in each country identified potential disruptions to activities in the seed sector and recommended immediate practical action to ensure continuity in performance. Recommendations, and the stakeholders best positioned to propel their action, were proposed to and approved by senior leadership in the sector. The entire process from survey to publication of a seed alert in each iteration was completed within two weeks. Due to the highly seasonal nature of agriculture, and recognition that activities are time-bound, quick turnaround on assessments was essential. Dashboards indicated where impact was felt the hardest, also showing how dynamic the situation was. Countries were at different stages in their agricultural seasons, which made the data highly contextual, but also interesting for getting a glimpse into the future. Lessons were offered from one country to another. Reduced mobility was the root cause of many disruptions in supplying seed to farmers. Disruptions caused seed and related industry to operate at reduced capacity. The cost of transactions and doing business during these times may have increased the scarcity and price of inputs beyond what farmers can recover. Sales of quality seed in formal markets were perceived to decline due to delays in distribution, weakened promotion efforts and fewer farmers present. Farmers are less likely to benefit from investments in crop improvement for more seasons to come due to delays in the development and release of new varieties. Social distancing prevents stakeholders from meeting to exchange goods, services and information, but the sector is gradually getting up to speed with information technology. For all concerns, practical options were offered and often implemented. The pandemic has exacerbated structural weaknesses in the organization of the seed sector, for which reforms are not only justified, but overdue.

    Planning for a world beyond COVID-19 : Five pillars for post-neoliberal development
    Büscher, Bram ; Feola, Giuseppe ; Fischer, Andrew ; Fletcher, Robert ; Gerber, Julien François ; Harcourt, Wendy ; Koster, Martijn ; Schneider, Mindi ; Scholtens, Joeri ; Spierenburg, Marja ; Walstra, Vincent ; Wiskerke, Han - \ 2021
    World Development 140 (2021). - ISSN 0305-750X
    Challenges in the Assessment of Bycatch : Postmortem Findings in Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Retrieved From Gillnets
    IJsseldijk, Lonneke L. ; Scheidat, Meike ; Siemensma, Marije L. ; Couperus, Bram ; Leopold, Mardik F. ; Morell, Maria ; Gröne, Andrea ; Kik, Marja J.L. - \ 2020
    Veterinary Pathology (2020). - ISSN 0300-9858
    bycatch - diagnostics - gillnets - incidental capture - North Sea - pathology - Phocoena phocoena - postmortem investigation

    Bycatch is considered one of the most significant threats affecting cetaceans worldwide. In the North Sea, bottom-set gillnets are a specific risk for harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Methods to estimate bycatch rates include on-board observers, remote electronic monitoring, and fishermen voluntarily reporting; none of these are systematically conducted. Additionally, necropsies of stranded animals can provide insights into bycatch occurrence and health status of individuals. There are, however, uncertainties when it comes to the assessment of bycatch in stranded animals, mainly due to the lack of diagnostic tools specific for underwater entrapment. We conducted a literature review to establish criteria that aid in the assessment of bycatch in small cetaceans, and we tested which of these criteria applied to harbor porpoises retrieved from gillnets in the Netherlands (n = 12). Twenty-five criteria were gathered from literature. Of these, “superficial incisions,” “encircling imprints,” and “recent ingestion of prey” were observed in the vast majority of our confirmed bycatch cases. Criteria like “pulmonary edema,” “pulmonary emphysema,” and “organ congestion” were also frequently observed, although considered unspecific as an indicator of bycatch. Notably, previously mentioned criteria as “favorable health status,” “absence of disease,” or “good nutritional condition” did not apply to the majority of our bycaught porpoises. This may reflect an overall reduced fitness of harbor porpoises inhabiting the southern North Sea or a higher chance of a debilitated porpoise being bycaught, and could result in an underestimation of bycatch rates when assessing stranded animals.

    Pain patterns in chronic pancreatitis : a nationwide longitudinal cohort study
    Kempeneers, Marinus A. ; Issa, Yama ; Verdonk, Robert C. ; Bruno, Marco ; Fockens, P. ; Goor, Harry van; Alofs, Eline ; Bollen, Thomas L. ; Bouwense, Stefan ; Dalen, Anne S.H.M. van; Dieren, Susan van; Dullemen, Hendrik M. van; Geenen, Erwin Jan van; Hoge, Chantal ; Hooft, Jeanin E. van; Kager, Liesbeth M. ; Keulemans, Yolande ; Nooijen, Lynn E. ; Poley, Jan Werner ; Seerden, Tom C.J. ; Tan, Adriaan ; Thijs, Willem ; Timmer, Robin ; Vleggaar, Frank ; Witteman, Ben ; Ahmed Ali, Usama ; Besselink, Marc G. ; Boermeester, Marja A. ; Santvoort, Hjalmar C. van - \ 2020
    Gut (2020). - ISSN 0017-5749 - 10 p.
    chronic pancreatitis - endoscopy - intractable pain - pancreatic surgery - quality of life

    Objective: Pain in chronic pancreatitis is subdivided in a continuous or intermittent pattern, each thought to represent a different entity, requiring specific treatment. Because evidence is missing, we studied pain patterns in a prospective longitudinal nationwide study. Design: 1131 patients with chronic pancreatitis (fulfilling M-ANNHEIM criteria) were included between 2011 and 2018 in 30 Dutch hospitals. Patients with continuous or intermittent pain were compared for demographics, pain characteristics, quality of life (Short-Form 36), imaging findings, disease duration and treatment. Alternation of pain pattern and associated variables were longitudinally assessed using a multivariable multinomial logistic regression model. Results: At inclusion, 589 patients (52%) had continuous pain, 231 patients (20%) had intermittent pain and 311 patients (28%) had no pain. Patients with continuous pain had more severe pain, used more opioids and neuropathic pain medication, and had a lower quality of life. There were no differences between pain patterns for morphological findings on imaging, disease duration and treatment. During a median follow-up of 47 months, 552 of 905 patients (61%) alternated at least once between pain patterns. All alternations were associated with the Visual Analogue Scale pain intensity score and surgery was only associated with the change from pain to no pain. Conclusion: Continuous and intermittent pain patterns in chronic pancreatitis do not seem to be the result of distinctly different pathophysiological entities. The subjectively reported character of pain is not related to imaging findings or disease duration. Pain patterns often change over time and are merely a feature of how severity of pain is experienced.

    Fatal chlamydia avium infection in captive picazuro pigeons, the Netherlands
    Kik, Marja ; Heijne, Marloes ; IJzer, Jooske ; Grinwis, Guy ; Pannekoek, Yvonne ; Gröne, Andrea - \ 2020
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 26 (2020)10. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 2520 - 2522.

    In 2016, an outbreak of Chlamydia avium infection occurred among Picazuro pigeons (Patagioenas picazuro) living in an aviary in the Netherlands. Molecular typing revealed a unique strain of C. avium. Our findings show that C. avium infection, which usually causes subclinical infection, can cause fatal disease in pigeons.

    A stepwise approach investigating salivary responses upon multisensory food cues
    Morquecho-Campos, Paulina ; Bikker, Floris J. ; Nazmi, Kamran ; Graaf, Kees de; Laine, Marja L. ; Boesveldt, Sanne - \ 2020
    Physiology and Behavior 226 (2020). - ISSN 0031-9384
    Cephalic-phase salivary response - Chewing - Gustation - Olfaction - Sight

    Exposure to sensory food cues such as smell, vision, taste and/or texture may trigger anticipatory physiological responses such as salivation, participating on adequate metabolism of the signaled food. However, the individual contribution of each sensory modality as well as the impact of particular food products on salivation and salivary composition remains unclear. Therefore, by systematically varying sensory modalities and nutrient content of food stimuli, we investigated their effect on saliva secretion, α-amylase activity and other salivary characteristics (pH level, buffering capacity, MUC5B concentration, and total protein content). Over 3 sessions, 46 normal-weight healthy participants were exposed to 12 conditions, consisting of 4 levels of sensory stimulation (odor, odor + vision, odor + vision + taste, and odor + vision + taste + mastication) and 3 types of stimuli (bread, high-in-starch; cucumber, low-in-starch; and parafilm as non-food control) during which saliva was collected. Linear mixed models showed a significant increase in salivation with increasing levels of sensory stimulation. α-amylase secretion rate increased upon the highest level of stimulation, which involved mastication, compared to odor and odor + visual level of stimulation. Other salivary characteristics varied with the level of sensory stimulation, which might be related to the total volume of salivation. The type of stimuli did not influence the saliva composition (α-amylase concentration nor other salivary components). Our findings indicate that cumulative sensory information, rather than specific (food) product, play a vital role in anticipatory salivary responses.

    Postmortaal onderzoek van bruinvissen (Phocoena phocoena) uit Nederlandse wateren, 2019 : Biologische gegevens, gezondheidsstatus en doodsoorzaken
    IJsseldijk, Lonneke L. ; Kik, Marja J.L. ; Schalkwijk, Linde van; Gröne, Andrea - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 184) - 54
    This annual report presents the results of post-mortem examinations of porpoises in 2019. One of the main objectives of the research is to quantify human-induced causes of death. In 2019, 57 dead harbour porpoises were examined: 31 males and 26 females, 22 adults, 24 juveniles and 11 neonates. There were an additional six foetuses found. Most of the examined harbour porpoises died as a result of infectious diseases (30%) and grey seal attacks (21%), followed by bycatch (11%).
    The NORMAN Association and the European Partnership for Chemicals Risk Assessment (PARC): let’s cooperate!
    Dulio, Valeria ; Koschorreck, Jan ; Bavel, Bert van; Brink, Paul van den; Hollender, Juliane ; Munthe, John ; Schlabach, Martin ; Aalizadeh, Reza ; Agerstrand, Marlene ; Ahrens, Lutz ; Allan, Ian ; Alygizakis, Nikiforos ; Barcelo, Damia ; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla ; Boutroup, Susanne ; Brack, Werner ; Bressy, Adèle ; Christensen, Jan H. ; Cirka, Lubos ; Covaci, Adrian ; Derksen, Anja ; Deviller, Geneviève ; Dingemans, Milou M.L. ; Engwall, Magnus ; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo ; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo ; Hernández, Félix ; Herzke, Dorte ; Hilscherová, Klára ; Hollert, Henner ; Junghans, Marion ; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara ; Keiter, Steffen ; Kools, Stefan A.E. ; Kruve, Anneli ; Lambropoulou, Dimitra ; Lamoree, Marja ; Leonards, Pim ; Lopez, Benjamin ; López de Alda, Miren ; Lundy, Lian ; Makovinská, Jarmila ; Marigómez, Ionan ; Martin, Jonathan W. ; McHugh, Brendan ; Miège, Cécile ; O’Toole, Simon ; Perkola, Noora ; Polesello, Stefano ; Posthuma, Leo ; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara ; Roessink, Ivo ; Rostkowski, Pawel ; Ruedel, Heinz ; Samanipour, Saer ; Schulze, Tobias ; Schymanski, Emma L. ; Sengl, Manfred ; Tarábek, Peter ; Hulscher, Dorien Ten; Thomaidis, Nikolaos ; Togola, Anne ; Valsecchi, Sara ; Leeuwen, Stefan van; Ohe, Peter von der; Vorkamp, Katrin ; Vrana, Branislav ; Slobodnik, Jaroslav - \ 2020
    Environmental Sciences Europe 32 (2020)1. - ISSN 2190-4707
    Chemical risk assessment and prioritisation - Contaminants of emerging concern - Effect-based methods - Environmental monitoring - High-resolution mass spectrometry - Non-target screening - NORMAN network - Suspect screening

    The Partnership for Chemicals Risk Assessment (PARC) is currently under development as a joint research and innovation programme to strengthen the scientific basis for chemical risk assessment in the EU. The plan is to bring chemical risk assessors and managers together with scientists to accelerate method development and the production of necessary data and knowledge, and to facilitate the transition to next-generation evidence-based risk assessment, a non-toxic environment and the European Green Deal. The NORMAN Network is an independent, well-established and competent network of more than 80 organisations in the field of emerging substances and has enormous potential to contribute to the implementation of the PARC partnership. NORMAN stands ready to provide expert advice to PARC, drawing on its long experience in the development, harmonisation and testing of advanced tools in relation to chemicals of emerging concern and in support of a European Early Warning System to unravel the risks of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and close the gap between research and innovation and regulatory processes. In this commentary we highlight the tools developed by NORMAN that we consider most relevant to supporting the PARC initiative: (i) joint data space and cutting-edge research tools for risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern; (ii) collaborative European framework to improve data quality and comparability; (iii) advanced data analysis tools for a European early warning system and (iv) support to national and European chemical risk assessment thanks to harnessing, combining and sharing evidence and expertise on CECs. By combining the extensive knowledge and experience of the NORMAN network with the financial and policy-related strengths of the PARC initiative, a large step towards the goal of a non-toxic environment can be taken.

    “We Don’t Assume That Everyone Has the Same Idea About Health, Do We?” Explorative Study of Citizens’ Perceptions of Health and Participation to Improve Their Health in a Low Socioeconomic City District
    Jong, Marja A.J.G. De; Wagemakers, Annemarie ; Koelen, Maria A. - \ 2020
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (2020)14. - ISSN 1660-4601
    In community health promotion programs that aim to reduce health inequities, citizen participation is recommended, as it strengthens citizens’ active involvement and has a positive impact on health. A prerequisite for citizen participation is recognizing and incorporating citizens’ perceptions of health. Therefore, this study aimed to explore these perceptions and actions needed to improve the health of citizens living in a low socioeconomic city district. Concept mapping was used to actively engage community members as part of the action research method. Eleven community groups (n = 89 citizens) together with community workers participated in the study. Participants in all groups agreed that health entails more than the absence of disease, and therefore it is a multidimensional concept. Social relations, physical activity, positive life attitude, healthy eating, and being in control were important perceptions about health. Although the participants were aware of the relation between lifestyle and health, actions to improve health included doing things together, collaboration, self-confidence, focusing on possibilities, and socially shared meanings. Creating a supportive environment to address health behavior appeared to be the most important action for citizens to facilitate behavior change. Concept mapping helped to involve citizens and provided community workers with valuable information to shape the program together with citizens. View Full-Text
    Scoping study for a seed laws toolbox
    Broek, Joep van den; Subedi, Abishkar ; Thijssen, Marja H. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (Report / Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation WCDI-20-100) - 53
    Assessment of the combined nitrate and nitrite exposure from food and drinking water: application of uncertainty around the nitrate to nitrite conversion factor
    Brand, Annick D. van den; Beukers, Marja ; Niekerk, Maryse ; Donkersgoed, Gerda van; Aa, Monique van der; Ven, Bianca van de; Bulder, Astrid ; Voet, Hilko van der; Sprong, Corinne R. - \ 2020
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 37 (2020)4. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 568 - 582.
    conversion factor - drinking water - exposure assessment - food additives - Nitrate - nitrite

    Dietary exposure to nitrate and nitrite occurs via three main sources; occurrence in (vegetable) foods, food additives in certain processed foods and contaminants in drinking water. While nitrate can be converted to nitrite in the human body, their risk assessment is usually based on single substance exposure in different regulatory frameworks. Here, we assessed the long-term combined exposure to nitrate and nitrite from food and drinking water. Dutch monitoring data (2012–2018) and EFSA data from 2017 were used for concentration data. These were combined with data from the Dutch food consumption survey (2012–2016) to assess exposure. A conversion factor (median 0.023; range 0.008–0.07) was used to express the nitrate exposure in nitrite equivalents which was added to the nitrite exposure. The uncertainty around the conversion factor was taken into account by using conversion factors randomly sampled from the abovementioned range. The combined dietary exposure was calculated for the Dutch population (1–79 years) with different exposure scenarios to address regional differences in nitrate and nitrite concentrations in drinking water. All scenarios resulted in a combined exposure above the acceptable daily intake for nitrite ion (70 µg/kg bw), with the mean exposure varying between 95–114 µg nitrite/kg bw/day in the different scenarios. Of all ages, the combined exposure was highest in children aged 1 year with an average of 250 µg nitrite/kg bw/day. Vegetables contributed most to the combined exposure in food in all scenarios, varying from 34%–41%. Food additive use contributed 8%–9% to the exposure and drinking water contributed 3%–19%. Our study is the first to perform a combined dietary exposure assessment of nitrate and nitrite while accounting for the uncertain conversion factor. Such a combined exposure assessment overarching different regulatory frameworks and using different scenarios for drinking water is a better instrument for protecting human health than single substance exposure.

    Decomposition of mixtures of cover crop residues increases microbial functional diversity
    Drost, Sytske M. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Wouterse, Marja ; Boer, Wietse de; Bodelier, Paul L.E. - \ 2020
    Geoderma 361 (2020). - ISSN 0016-7061
    Cover crops - Decomposition - Greenhouse gas emissions - Microbial functional diversity - Sustainable agriculture

    To improve sustainability in agricultural systems, winter cover crops are increasingly replacing fallow to stimulate soil functions that reduce nutrient losses and greenhouse gas production, reduce pests for the next cash crops, increase soil organic matter pools and reduce erosion. Several of these functions are highly dependent on soil microbes decomposing cover crop residues. Since cover crop species differ in their traits it is hypothesized that plant species residue mixtures with complementary characteristics perform better by stimulating soil microbial functional diversity. To test this, residues of cover crop monocultures and mixtures were mixed with agricultural soil in a microcosm experiment, and fungal and bacterial biomass, microbial metabolic potential, greenhouse gas emissions and soil nutrients were measured during 50 days. Fungal biomass increased for all treatments compared to the control (no additions). However, there were no significant differences between cover crop mixtures and monocultures. Biolog ECO plates were used as a proxy for the metabolic potential of the microbial community. The number of substrates used was significantly higher in soil amended with residues of cover crop mixtures indicating an increased number of substrate niches for microbes. C:N ratio of cover crop residues was shown to be an important variable in explaining dynamics of CO2 and N2O emissions. Mixtures of cover crops showed reduced N2O and CO2 emissions compared to monocultures at the start of the experiment, but did not reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the whole incubation period. Adding nitrogen to the cover crop treatment with the highest C:N ratio (oat) did increase N2O emissions, but not CO2 emissions suggesting that decomposition rate of oat residues is not limited by nitrogen availability. Overall, mixtures of cover crops stimulated microbial functional diversity in soil incubations. Although this may have positive implications for soil quality and functioning in agricultural fields, further studies are needed to verify if these results hold under field conditions.

    Gut microbial composition of C57BL/6J mice and levels of betaines in related samples
    Koistinen, Ville M. ; Kärkkäinen, Olli ; Borewicz, Klaudyna ; Zarei, Iman ; Jokkala, Jenna ; Micard, Valérie ; Rosa-Sibakov, Natalia ; Auriola, Seppo ; Aura, Anna Marja ; Smidt, Hauke ; Hanhineva, Kati - \ 2019
    University of Eastern Finland
    microbiota - betaine - metabolomics
    1) The gut microbial composition of C57BL/6J mice fed with diets enriched with rye bran and wheat aleurone, analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing. 2) Betaine levels in the colon contents of C57BL/6J mice fed with diets enriched with rye bran and wheat aleurone; 3) betaine levels in the caecal tissue of C57BL/6J mice fed with diets enriched with rye bran and wheat aleurone; 4) betaine levels in tissues of murine pathogen free (MPF) and germ-free (GF) C57BL/6NTac mice on a basal diet; 5) betaine levels in the in vitro model of the human gut; 6) betaine levels in cereal samples; all betaine levels analyzed with UPLC–QTOF-MS
    Advies toetsingkader positieflijst zoogdieren
    Hellebrekers, L.J. ; Staman, Jan ; Boer, Sietse de; Foppen, Ruud ; Kik, Marja ; Knapen, F. van; Koolhaas, J. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Zeeland, Yvonne van; Peet, G.F.V. van der; Hopster, H. - \ 2019
    Forensic microbiology reveals that Neisseria animaloris infections in harbour porpoises follow traumatic injuries by grey seals
    Foster, Geoffrey ; Whatmore, Adrian M. ; Dagleish, Mark P. ; Malnick, Henry ; Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Begeman, Lineke ; Macgregor, Shaheed K. ; Davison, Nicholas J. ; Roest, Hendrik Jan ; Jepson, Paul ; Howie, Fiona ; Muchowski, Jakub ; Brownlow, Andrew C. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Kik, Marja J.L. ; Deaville, Rob ; Doeschate, Mariel T.I. ten; Barley, Jason ; Hunter, Laura ; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L. - \ 2019
    Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

    Neisseria animaloris is considered to be a commensal of the canine and feline oral cavities. It is able to cause systemic infections in animals as well as humans, usually after a biting trauma has occurred. We recovered N. animaloris from chronically inflamed bite wounds on pectoral fins and tailstocks, from lungs and other internal organs of eight harbour porpoises. Gross and histopathological evidence suggest that fatal disseminated N. animaloris infections had occurred due to traumatic injury from grey seals. We therefore conclude that these porpoises survived a grey seal predatory attack, with the bite lesions representing the subsequent portal of entry for bacteria to infect the animals causing abscesses in multiple tissues, and eventually death. We demonstrate that forensic microbiology provides a useful tool for linking a perpetrator to its victim. Moreover, N. animaloris should be added to the list of potential zoonotic bacteria following interactions with seals, as the finding of systemic transfer to the lungs and other tissues of the harbour porpoises may suggest a potential to do likewise in humans.

    Opnieuw dode vogels door usutuvirus in Nederland; nog onverklaarde daling meldingen dode merels
    Montizaan, Margriet ; Kik, Marja ; Rijks, Jolianne ; Slaterus, Roy ; Schoppers, Jan ; Wortel, Marcel ; Sikkema, Reina ; Stroo, Arjan ; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2019
    Nature Today
    Impact of food odors signaling specific taste qualities and macronutrient content on saliva secretion and composition
    Morquecho-Campos, Paulina ; Bikker, Floris J. ; Nazmi, Kamran ; Graaf, Kees de; Laine, Marja L. ; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2019
    Appetite 143 (2019). - ISSN 0195-6663
    Cephalic phase response - Olfaction - Salivary protein - Salivation - Smell

    Olfactory food cues can induce appetite for similar food products in humans. Odors may thus signal essential information about a foods’ composition such as taste or even macronutrient content and may stimulate specific physiological responses in anticipation of food intake. Several studies have shown that sensory food cues could stimulate saliva secretion. However, potential differences between food odors in their effect on saliva secretion, or the effects of olfactory stimulation on changes in saliva composition remain to be elucidated. To gain more insight, we conducted two studies to determine the influence of various odors, representing different taste qualities (study 1) and macronutrients (study 2), on salivary biomarkers. In study 1, 36 participants were randomly exposed to no-odor, non-food, and odors signaling sweet, savory, and sour taste. In study 2, 60 participants were randomly exposed to no-odor, non-food, and odors signaling carbohydrates, protein, fat, and low-calorie food. For each condition, whole-mouth saliva was collected and saliva secretion rate determined. Furthermore, we determined mouth-watering perception (subjective salivation), visco-elasticity (study 1 only), mucin concentration, α-amylase and lingual lipase activity (study 2 only). For both studies, linear mixed model analyses showed that saliva secretion rate significantly increased by food odor exposure compared to no-odor and non-food conditions. However, no changes in salivary composition were observed. These findings indicate that food odors play a crucial role in anticipatory saliva responses and can thereby affect subsequent eating behavior.

    Effectiveness of agri-environmental management on pollinators is moderated more by ecological contrast than by landscape structure or land-use intensity
    Marja, Riho ; Kleijn, David ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Klein, Alexandra Maria ; Frank, Thomas ; Batáry, Péter - \ 2019
    Ecology Letters 22 (2019)9. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1493 - 1500.
    Agri-environmental schemes - bees - biodiversity - butterflies - ecosystem services - flower strips - hoverflies - land-use intensity - meta-analysis

    Agri-environment management (AEM) started in the 1980s in Europe to mitigate biodiversity decline, but the effectiveness of AEM has been questioned. We hypothesize that this is caused by a lack of a large enough ecological contrast between AEM and non-treated control sites. The effectiveness of AEM may be moderated by landscape structure and land-use intensity. Here, we examined the influence of local ecological contrast, landscape structure and regional land-use intensity on AEM effectiveness in a meta-analysis of 62 European pollinator studies. We found that ecological contrast was most important in determining the effectiveness of AEM, but landscape structure and regional land-use intensity played also a role. In conclusion, the most successful way to enhance AEM effectiveness for pollinators is to implement measures that result in a large ecological improvement at a local scale, which exhibit a strong contrast to conventional practices in simple landscapes of intensive land-use regions.

    Contribution of gut microbiota to metabolism of dietary glycine betaine in mice and in vitro colonic fermentation
    Koistinen, Ville M. ; Kärkkäinen, Olli ; Borewicz, Klaudyna ; Zarei, Iman ; Jokkala, Jenna ; Micard, Valérie ; Rosa-Sibakov, Natalia ; Auriola, Seppo ; Aura, Anna Marja ; Smidt, Hauke ; Hanhineva, Kati - \ 2019
    Microbiome 7 (2019)1. - ISSN 2049-2618
    Betaine - Bran - Colon model - Diet-microbiota interaction - Whole grain

    Background: Accumulating evidence is supporting the protective effect of whole grains against several chronic diseases. Simultaneously, our knowledge is increasing on the impact of gut microbiota on our health and on how diet can modify the composition of our bacterial cohabitants. Herein, we studied C57BL/6 J mice fed with diets enriched with rye bran and wheat aleurone, conventional and germ-free C57BL/6NTac mice on a basal diet, and the colonic fermentation of rye bran in an in vitro model of the human gastrointestinal system. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics on the study samples to determine the effect of bran-enriched diets on the gut microbial composition and the potential contribution of microbiota to the metabolism of a novel group of betainized compounds. Results: The bran-enriched study diets elevated the levels of betainized compounds in the colon contents of C57BL/6 J mice. The composition of microbiota changed, and the bran-enriched diets induced an increase in the relative abundance of several bacterial taxa, including Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Coriobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus, Parasutterella, and Ruminococcus, many of which are associated with improved health status or the metabolism of plant-based molecules. The levels of betainized compounds in the gut tissues of germ-free mice were significantly lower compared to conventional mice. In the in vitro model of the human gut, the production of betainized compounds was observed throughout the incubation, while the levels of glycine betaine decreased. In cereal samples, only low levels or trace amounts of other betaines than glycine betaine were observed. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that the bacterial taxa increased in relative abundance by the bran-based diet are also involved in the metabolism of glycine betaine into other betainized compounds, adding another potential compound group acting as a mediator of the synergistic metabolic effect of diet and colonic microbiota.

    Immunogenicity in Rabbits of Virus-Like Particles from a Contemporary Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus Type 2 (GI.2/RHDV2/b) Isolated in The Netherlands
    Miao, Qiuhong ; Qi, Ruibing ; Veldkamp, Luut ; Ijzer, Jooske ; Kik, Marja L. ; Zhu, Jie ; Tang, Aoxing ; Dong, Dandan ; Shi, Yonghong ; Oers, Monique M. van; Liu, Guangqing ; Pijlman, Gorben P. - \ 2019
    Viruses 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 1999-4915
    baculovirus expression - immunogenicity - insect cells - Netherlands - rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (GI.2/RHDV2/b) - virus-like particles - VP60

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) type 2 (GI.2/RHDV2/b) is an emerging pathogen in wild rabbits and in domestic rabbits vaccinated against RHDV (GI.1). Here we report the genome sequence of a contemporary RHDV2 isolate from the Netherlands and investigate the immunogenicity of virus-like particles (VLPs) produced in insect cells. RHDV2 RNA was isolated from the liver of a naturally infected wild rabbit and the complete viral genome sequence was assembled from sequenced RT-PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP60 capsid gene demonstrated that the RHDV2 NL2016 isolate clustered with other contemporary RHDV2 strains. The VP60 gene was cloned in a baculovirus expression vector to produce VLPs in Sf9 insect cells. Density-gradient purified RHDV2 VLPs were visualized by transmission electron microscopy as spherical particles of around 30 nm in diameter with a morphology resembling authentic RHDV. Immunization of rabbits with RHDV2 VLPs resulted in high production of serum antibodies against VP60, and the production of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) was significantly elevated in the immunized rabbits compared to the control group. The results demonstrate that the recombinant RHDV2 VLPs are highly immunogenic and may find applications in serological detection assays and might be further developed as a vaccine candidate to protect domestic rabbits against RHDV2 infection.

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