Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effects of diabetes mellitus on fibrin clot structure and mechanics in a model of acute neutrophil extracellular traps (Nets) formation
    Vries, Judith J. de; Hoppenbrouwers, Tamara ; Martinez-Torres, Cristina ; Majied, Rezin ; Özcan, Behiye ; Hoek, Mandy van; Leebeek, Frank W.G. ; Rijken, Dingeman C. ; Koenderink, Gijsje H. ; Maat, Moniek P.M. de - \ 2020
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21 (2020)19. - ISSN 1661-6596 - 15 p.
    Arterial thrombosis - Diabetes mellitus - Fibrin - Fibrinolysis - Neutrophil extracellular traps

    Subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased risk of arterial thrombosis, to which changes in clot structure and mechanics may contribute. Another contributing factor might be an increased formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in DM. NETs are mainly formed during the acute phase of disease and form a network within the fibrin matrix, thereby influencing clot properties. Previous research has shown separate effects of NETs and DM on clot properties, therefore our aim was to study how DM affects clot properties in a model resembling an acute phase of disease with NETs formation. Clots were prepared from citrated plasma from subjects with and without DM with the addition of NETs, induced in neutrophils by S. aureus bacteria or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Structural parameters were measured using scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties using rheology, and sensitivity to lysis using a fluorescence-based fibrinolysis assay. Plasma clots from subjects with DM had significantly thicker fibers and fewer pores and branch points than clots from subjects without DM. In addition, fibrinolysis was significantly slower, while mechanical properties were similar between both groups. In conclusion, in a model of acute NETs formation, DM plasma shows prothrombotic effects on fibrin clots.

    Ein ungewisses Schicksal für den EU-Schweinesektor : mögliche Folgen des Ausbruchs der Afrikanischen Schweinpest im Jahr 2019 in Ostasien
    Jongeneel, Roel ; Gonzalez-Martinez, Ana ; Hoste, Robert - \ 2020
    EuroChoices (2020). - ISSN 1478-0917

    The presence of African Swine Fever (ASF) and its impacts on the global pig meat market has been gaining increased attention in recent times. Although more than 2,400 ASF events have been observed across the world since 2016, none of them have had the unprecedented consequences of the current outbreak in China. In an attempt to control the disease that has been spreading through East Asia since 2018, massive slaughtering has been taking place, with important consequences for both Chinese and international pork prices. With around half of the Chinese herd having to be slaughtered, a number of questions arise with regard to the prospects for the pork market and the uncertainties about the paths that prices will follow in responding to long-term market fundamentals. This article focuses on the impact of the ASF outbreak in East Asia on the European pig sector. In particular it analyses potential global pork market developments under two different recovery paths, employing a combination of an Equilibrium Displacement Model and the AGMEMOD modelling system, to provide results at EU and global levels to 2030. Our simulation results point to a short to medium-term expansion of production capacity in response to higher market prices.

    A Cloud-Based Environment for Generating Yield Estimation Maps From Apple Orchards Using UAV Imagery and a Deep Learning Technique
    Apolo-Apolo, Orly Enrique ; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel ; Martínez-Guanter, Jorge ; Valente, João - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-462X
    apple - deep learning - fruit - Google Colab - photogrammetry - yield map

    Farmers require accurate yield estimates, since they are key to predicting the volume of stock needed at supermarkets and to organizing harvesting operations. In many cases, the yield is visually estimated by the crop producer, but this approach is not accurate or time efficient. This study presents a rapid sensing and yield estimation scheme using off-the-shelf aerial imagery and deep learning. A Region-Convolutional Neural Network was trained to detect and count the number of apple fruit on individual trees located on the orthomosaic built from images taken by the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The results obtained with the proposed approach were compared with apple counts made in situ by an agrotechnician, and an R2 value of 0.86 was acquired (MAE: 10.35 and RMSE: 13.56). As only parts of the tree fruits were visible in the top-view images, linear regression was used to estimate the number of total apples on each tree. An R2 value of 0.80 (MAE: 128.56 and RMSE: 130.56) was obtained. With the number of fruits detected and tree coordinates two shapefile using Python script in Google Colab were generated. With the previous information two yield maps were displayed: one with information per tree and another with information per tree row. We are confident that these results will help to maximize the crop producers' outputs via optimized orchard management.

    Harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja) nesting at Refugio Amazonas, Tambopata, Peru feed on abundant disturbance-tolerant species
    Bowler, Mark ; Couceiro, Daniel ; Martinez, Rocio ; Orihuela, Gabriela ; Shoobridge, Juan Diego ; Nycander, Eduardo ; Miranda, Everton B.P. de; Tobler, Mathias W. - \ 2020
    Food Webs 24 (2020). - ISSN 2352-2496

    The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is one of the main predators of arboreal mammals in the neotropics, affecting the ecology and behaviour these species. Knowledge of harpy eagle diets across their geographical range is patchy, the ability of harpy eagles to adapt to changing habitats is still open to question. The three main species in the diet of harpy eagles nesting at Tambopata were porcupines (Coendou sp.) (n = 7) howler monkeys (Alouatta sara) (n = 6) and two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus) (n = 4), all species that do well in disturbed forests. We conclude that harpy eagles can reproduce in secondary forests, feeding on abundant disturbance-tolerant species, if they themselves are not hunted and their nesting trees are conserved. Harpy eagle nests have a high value for tourism, and strategies that allow landowners to benefit from harpy eagles nesting on their property through revenues from tourism may be instrumental in incentivising the conservation of forests and emergent trees, and the regeneration of forests in anthropogenic landscapes.

    Effect of HDAC inhibitor TSA on haploid embryogenesis [dataset 1] [Brassica napus]
    Siemons, Charlotte ; Corral Martinez, Patricia ; Boutilier, Kim - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    GSE140969 - PRJNA591595 - Brassica napus
    Haploid embryos can be induced from cultured immature pollen following a stress treatment. In Brassica napus, application of the histone/lysine deacetylase (HDAC/KDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) to pollen cultures enhances the production of differentiated embryos and embryogenic callus when applied together with heat stress (Li et al., 2014). To identify genes associated with the induction of B. napus haploid embryogenesis, we compared the transcriptomes of untreated pollen cultures and pollen cultures treated with either heat-stress or heat-stress plus TSA
    Introducing a mechanistic model in digital soil mapping to predict soil organic matter stocks in the Cantabrian region (Spain)
    Hendriks, Chantal Mechtildis Johanna ; Stoorvogel, Jetse Jacob ; Álvarez-Martínez, Jose Manuel ; Claessens, Lieven ; Pérez-Silos, Ignacio ; Barquín, José - \ 2020
    European Journal of Soil Science (2020). - ISSN 1351-0754
    Cordillera cantábrica - Natura2000 - organic carbon - soil-forming processes - sustainable development

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) is an effective mapping technique that supports the increased need for quantitative soil data. In DSM, soil properties are correlated with environmental characteristics using statistical models such as regression. However, many of these relationships are explicitly described in mechanistic simulation models. Therefore, the mechanistic relationships can, in theory, replace the statistical relationships in DSM. This study aims to develop a mechanistic model to predict soil organic matter (SOM) stocks in Natura2000 areas of the Cantabria region (Spain). The mechanistic model is established in four steps: (a) identify major processes that influence SOM stocks, (b) review existing models describing the major processes and the respective environmental data that they require, (c) establish a database with the required input data, and (d) calibrate the model with field observations. The SOM stocks map resulting from the mechanistic model had a mean error (ME) of −2 t SOM ha−1 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 66 t SOM ha−1. The Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.47 and the amount of variance explained (AVE) was 0.21. The results of the mechanistic model were compared to the results of a statistical model. It turned out that the correlation coefficient between the two SOM stock maps was 0.8. This study illustrated that mechanistic soil models can be used for DSM, which brings new opportunities. Mechanistic models for DSM should be considered for mapping soil characteristics that are difficult to predict by statistical models, and for extrapolation purposes. Highlights: Theoretically, mechanistic models can replace the statistical relationships in digital soil mapping. Mechanistic soil models were used to develop a mechanistic model for digital soil mapping that predicted SOM stocks. The applicability of the mechanistic approach needs to be explored for different soil properties and regions.

    Live Imaging of embryogenic structures in Brassica napus microspore embryo cultures highlights the developmental plasticity of induced totipotent cells
    Corral-Martínez, Patricia ; Siemons, Charlotte ; Horstman, Anneke ; Angenent, Gerco C. ; Ruijter, Norbert de; Boutilier, Kim - \ 2020
    Plant Reproduction (2020). - ISSN 2194-7953
    Brassica napus - LEAFY COTYLEDON1 - Microspore embryogenesis - Suspensor - Time-lapse imaging - Totipotency

    Key message: In vitro embryo development is highly plastic; embryo cell fate can be re-established in tissue culture through 17 different pathways. Abstract: In most angiosperms, embryo development from the single-celled zygote follows a defined pattern of cell divisions in which apical (embryo proper) and basal (root and suspensor) cell fates are established within the first cell divisions. By contrast, embryos that are induced in vitro in the absence of fertilization show a less regular initial cell division pattern yet develop into histodifferentiated embryos that can be converted into seedlings. We used the Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis system, in which the male gametophyte is reprogrammed in vitro to form haploid embryos, to identify the developmental fates of the different types of embryogenic structures found in culture. Using time-lapse imaging of LEAFY COTYLEDON1-expressing cells, we show that embryogenic cell clusters with very different morphologies are able to form haploid embryos. The timing of surrounding pollen wall (exine) rupture is a major determinant of cell fate in these clusters, with early exine rupture leading to the formation of suspensor-bearing embryos and late rupture to suspensorless embryos. In addition, we show that embryogenic callus, which develops into suspensor-bearing embryos, initially expresses transcripts associated with both basal- and apical-embryo cell fates, suggesting that these two cell fates are fixed later in development. This study reveals the inherent plasticity of in vitro embryo development and identifies new pathways by which embryo cell fate can be established.

    The global abundance of tree palms
    Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
    above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density

    Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.

    Halotolerance mechanisms of the methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum
    Bordel, Sergio ; Pérez, Rebeca ; Rodríguez, Elisa ; Cantera, Sara ; Fernández-González, Nuria ; Martínez, María A. ; Muñoz, Raúl - \ 2020
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering (2020). - ISSN 0006-3592
    ectoine - halotolerance - metabolism - metanotrophy - respiratory chains - RNA-seq

    Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum is an alkaliphilic and halotolerant methanotroph. The physiological responses of M. alcaliphilum to high NaCl concentrations, were studied using RNA sequencing and metabolic modeling. This study revealed that M. alcaliphilum possesses an unusual respiratory chain, in which complex I is replaced by a Na+ extruding NQR complex (highly upregulated under high salinity conditions) and a Na+ driven adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase coexists with a conventional H+ driven ATP synthase. A thermodynamic and metabolic model showing the interplay between these different components is presented. Ectoine is the main osmoprotector used by the cells. Ectoine synthesis is activated by the transcription of an ect operon that contains five genes, including the ectoine hydroxylase coding ectD gene. Enzymatic tests revealed that the product of ectD does not have catalytic activity. A new Genome Scale Metabolic Model for M. alcaliphilum revealed a higher flux in the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway leading to NADPH production and contributing to resistance to oxidative stress.

    Relationship of weather types on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield in the western Mediterranean basin
    Peña-Angulo, D. ; Nadal-Romero, E. ; González-Hidalgo, J.C. ; Albaladejo, J. ; Andreu, V. ; Barhi, H. ; Bernal, S. ; Biddoccu, M. ; Bienes, R. ; Campo, J. ; Campo-Bescós, M.A. ; Canatário-Duarte, A. ; Cantón, Y. ; Casali, J. ; Castillo, V. ; Cavallo, E. ; Cerdà, A. ; Cid, P. ; Cortesi, N. ; Desir, G. ; Díaz-Pereira, E. ; Espigares, T. ; Estrany, J. ; Farguell, J. ; Fernández-Raga, M. ; Ferreira, C.S. ; Ferro, V. ; Gallart, F. ; Giménez, R. ; Gimeno, E. ; Gómez, J.A. ; Gómez-Gutiérrez, A. ; Gómez-Macpherson, H. ; González-Pelayo, O. ; Kairis, O. ; Karatzas, G.P. ; Keesstra, S. ; Klotz, S. ; Kosmas, C. ; Lana-Renault, N. ; Lasanta, T. ; Latron, J. ; Lázaro, R. ; Bissonnais, Y. Le; Bouteiller, C. Le; Licciardello, F. ; López-Tarazón, J.A. ; Lucía, A. ; Marín-Moreno, V.M. ; Marín, C. ; Marqués, M.J. ; Martínez-Fernández, J. ; Martínez-Mena, M. ; Mateos, L. ; Mathys, N. ; Merino-Martín, L. ; Moreno-de las Heras, M. ; Moustakas, N. ; Nicolau, J.M. ; Pampalone, V. ; Raclot, D. ; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L. ; Rodrigo-Comino, J. ; Romero-Díaz, A. ; Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D. ; Rubio, J.L. ; Schnabel, S. ; Senciales-González, J.M. ; Solé-Benet, A. ; Taguas, E.V. ; Taboada-Castro, M.T. ; Taboada-Castro, M.M. ; Todisco, F. ; Úbeda, X. ; Varouchakis, E.A. ; Wittenberg, L. ; Zabaleta, A. ; Zorn, M. - \ 2020
    Atmosphere 11 (2020)6. - ISSN 2073-4433
    Erosion - Mediterraneanbasin - Rainfall - Runoff - Seasonal analyses - Sediment yield - Weather types

    Rainfall is the key factor to understand soil erosion processes, mechanisms, and rates. Most research was conducted to determine rainfall characteristics and their relationship with soil erosion (erosivity) but there is little information about how atmospheric patterns control soil losses, and this is important to enable sustainable environmental planning and risk prevention. We investigated the temporal and spatial variability of the relationships of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield with atmospheric patterns (weather types, WTs) in the western Mediterranean basin. For this purpose, we analyzed a large database of rainfall events collected between 1985 and 2015 in 46 experimental plots and catchments with the aim to: (i) evaluate seasonal differences in the contribution of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield produced by the WTs; and (ii) to analyze the seasonal efficiency of the different WTs (relation frequency and magnitude) related to rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield. The results indicate two different temporal patterns: the first weather type exhibits (during the cold period: autumn and winter) westerly flows that produce the highest rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield values throughout the territory; the second weather type exhibits easterly flows that predominate during the warm period (spring and summer) and it is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, the cyclonic situations present high frequency throughout the whole year with a large influence extended around the western Mediterranean basin. Contrary, the anticyclonic situations, despite of its high frequency, do not contribute significantly to the total rainfall, runoff, and sediment (showing the lowest efficiency) because of atmospheric stability that currently characterize this atmospheric pattern. Our approach helps to better understand the relationship of WTs on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield with a regional scale based on the large dataset and number of soil erosion experimental stations.

    Cancer-id: Toward identification of cancer by tumor-derived extracellular vesicles in blood
    Rikkert, L.G. ; Beekman, Pepijn ; Caro, J. ; Coumans, F.A.W. ; Enciso-Martinez, A. ; Jenster, G. ; Gac, S. le; Lee, W. ; Leeuwen, T.G. van; Loozen, G.B. ; Nanou, A. ; Nieuwland, R. ; Offerhaus, H.L. ; Otto, C. ; Pegtel, D.M. ; Piontek, M.C. ; Pol, E. van der; Rond, L. de; Roos, W.H. ; Schasfoort, R.B.M. ; Wauben, M.H.M. ; Zuilhof, H. ; Terstappen, L.W.M.M. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Oncology 10 (2020). - ISSN 2234-943X
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have great potential as biomarkers since their composition and concentration in biofluids are disease state dependent and their cargo can contain disease-related information. Large tumor-derived EVs (tdEVs, >1 μm) in blood from cancer patients are associated with poor outcome, and changes in their number can be used to monitor therapy effectiveness. Whereas, small tumor-derived EVs (<1 μm) are likely to outnumber their larger counterparts, thereby offering better statistical significance, identification and quantification of small tdEVs are more challenging. In the blood of cancer patients, a subpopulation of EVs originate from tumor cells, but these EVs are outnumbered by non-EV particles and EVs from other origin. In the Dutch NWO Perspectief Cancer-ID program, we developed and evaluated detection and characterization techniques to distinguish EVs from non-EV particles and other EVs. Despite low signal amplitudes, we identified characteristics of these small tdEVs that may enable the enumeration of small tdEVs and extract relevant information. The insights obtained from Cancer-ID can help to explore the full potential of tdEVs in the clinic.
    Disentangling drivers of soil microbial potential enzyme activity across rain regimes : An approach based on the functional trait framework
    Piton, Gabin ; Foulquier, Arnaud ; Martínez-García, Laura B. ; Legay, Nicolas ; Hedlund, Katarina ; Martins da Silva, Pedro ; Nascimento, Eduardo ; Reis, Filipa ; Sousa, José Paulo ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Clement, Jean Christophe - \ 2020
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 148 (2020). - ISSN 0038-0717
    Bacteria - Climate change - Enzymatic stoichiometry - Fungi - PLFA - Structural equation model

    The functional trait framework provides a powerful corpus of integrated concepts and theories to assess how environmental factors influence ecosystem functioning through community assembly. While common in plant ecology, this approach is under-used in microbial ecology. After an introduction of this framework in the context of microbial ecology and enzymology, we propose an approach 1) to elucidate new links between soil microbial community composition and microbial traits; and 2) to disentangle mechanisms underlying “total” potential enzyme activity in soil (sum of 7 hydrolase potential activities). We address these objectives using a terrestrial grassland ecosystem model experiment with intact soil monoliths from three European countries (Switzerland, France and Portugal) and two management types (Conventional-intensive and Ecological-intensive), subjected to 4 rain regimes (Dry, Wet, Intermittent and Normal) under controlled conditions in a common climate chamber. We found tight associations between proxies of microbial ecoenzymatic community-weighted mean traits (enzymatic stoichiometry and biomass-specific activity) and community composition, bringing new information on resource acquisition strategy associated with fungi, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. We demonstrate that microbial biomass explained most of the total enzyme activity before altered rain regimes, whereas adjustments in biomass-specific activity (enzyme activity per unit of microbial biomass) explained most variation under altered rain regime scenarios. Furthermore, structural equation models revealed that the variation of community composition was the main driver of the variation in biomass-specific enzyme activity prior to rain perturbation, whereas physiological acclimation or evolutionary adaptation became an important driver only under altered rain regimes. This study presents a promising trait-based approach to investigate soil microbial community response to environmental changes and potential consequences for ecosystem functioning. We argue that the functional trait framework should be further implemented in microbial ecology to guide experimental and analytical design.

    CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis of the tomato susceptibility gene PMR4 for resistance against powdery mildew
    Santillán Martínez, Miguel I. ; Bracuto, Valentina ; Koseoglou, Eleni ; Appiano, Michela ; Jacobsen, Evert ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Wolters, Anne-Marie A. ; Bai, Yuling - \ 2020
    BMC Plant Biology 20 (2020)1. - ISSN 1471-2229
    CRISPR/Cas9 - PMR4 - Powdery mildew - Susceptibility gene - Targeted mutagenesis

    Background: The development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology has facilitated targeted mutagenesis in an efficient and precise way. Previously, RNAi silencing of the susceptibility (S) gene P owdery M ildew R esistance 4 (PMR4) in tomato has been shown to enhance resistance against the powdery mildew pathogen Oidium neolycopersici (On). Results: To study whether full knock-out of the tomato PMR4 gene would result in a higher level of resistance than in the RNAi-silenced transgenic plants we generated tomato PMR4 CRISPR mutants. We used a CRISPR/Cas9 construct containing four single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) targeting the tomato PMR4 gene to increase the possibility of large deletions in the mutants. After PCR-based selection and sequencing of transformants, we identified five different mutation events, including deletions from 4 to 900-bp, a 1-bp insertion and a 892-bp inversion. These mutants all showed reduced susceptibility to On based on visual scoring of disease symptoms and quantification of relative fungal biomass. Histological observations revealed a significantly higher occurrence of hypersensitive response-like cell death at sites of fungal infection in the pmr4 mutants compared to wild-type plants. Both haustorial formation and hyphal growth were diminished but not completely inhibited in the mutants. Conclusion: CRISPR/Cas-9 targeted mutagenesis of the tomato PMR4 gene resulted in mutants with reduced but not complete loss of susceptibility to the PM pathogen On. Our study demonstrates the efficiency and versatility of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a powerful tool to study and characterize S-genes by generating different types of mutations.

    Estimating crop yield supply responses to be used for market outlook models : Application to major developed and developing countries
    Jongeneel, Roel ; Gonzalez-Martinez, Ana Rosa - \ 2020
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 92 (2020). - ISSN 1573-5214
    Mixed estimation - Prior information - Yield price responsiveness

    The evolution of yields is one of the driving factors explaining crop supply growth. Part of this is explained by how yields react to prices, though there is a lot of uncertainty about the price-responsiveness of yields. Using information from various sources such as agronomy, economic theory and economic literature an in-depth assessment of yield price responsiveness is made. The result is used as a set of prior-information, which is subsequently taken into account to re-estimate yield price supply responses for 20 main crops in major producing developed and developing countries, using OLS and Mixed Estimation (ME) approaches. The outcomes indicate that price-responsiveness is usually low. Moreover, the ME results are different than the current estimates used in the OECD-FAO's market outlook model, showing stronger differentiation among crops/countries. The Mixed Estimation is found useful to overcome typical problems encountered when estimating yield-price responsiveness, such as violations of economic theory, insignificance of estimated parameters and inconsistencies with agronomic knowledge regarding the size of the estimated responses.

    Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
    Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
    Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.

    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.

    Convergence between satellite information and farmers’ perception of drought in rangelands of North-West Patagonia, Argentina
    Solano-Hernandez, A. ; Bruzzone, O. ; Groot, J. ; Laborda, L. ; Martínez, A. ; Tittonell, P. ; Easdale, M.H. - \ 2020
    Land Use Policy 97 (2020). - ISSN 0264-8377
    Irrigated Land - Livestock - NDVI - Pastoralism - Traditional ecological knowledge - Wavelets

    Drought is a complex natural hazard with social and environmental implications. Satellite information is increasingly used to support decision-makers in preventing or coping with the negative impacts of drought. The integration of local and scientific knowledge to support drought monitoring is still far from being the main procedure in the development of drought monitoring and early warning systems. This study aimed at assessing the degree of convergence between satellite information on the effect of droughts on rangeland vegetation, from time series analysis, and farmers’ perception of drought in North-West Patagonia, Argentina. We characterised the scientific evidence of drought in terms of duration, spatial distribution, most severe years and recovery for the period 2000–2018 by identifying inter-annual NDVI changes. Farmers’ perceptions and experiences of drought were studied with open-ending interviews, with respect to occurrence, duration and recovery for that period. Satellite information matched farmers’ perception of drought at a regional scale, emphasising the value of remote sensing tools in supporting regional policy decision-making. However, farmers’ perceptions and recall of past drought impacts were more diverse than satellite information at a local level, highlighting the need for knowledge integration at finer scales.

    A schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors
    Espín, Silvia ; Andevski, Jovan ; Duke, Guy ; Eulaers, Igor ; Gómez-Ramírez, Pilar ; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor ; Helander, Björn ; Herzke, Dorte ; Jaspers, Veerle L.B. ; Krone, Oliver ; Lourenço, Rui ; María-Mojica, Pedro ; Martínez-López, Emma ; Mateo, Rafael ; Movalli, Paola ; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo ; Shore, Richard F. ; Sonne, Christian ; Brink, Nico W. van den; Hattum, Bert van; Vrezec, Al ; Wernham, Chris ; García-Fernández, Antonio J. - \ 2020
    Ambio (2020). - ISSN 0044-7447
    Best practices - Birds of prey - Falcons - Large-scale biomonitoring - Owls - Pan-European network

    Birds of prey, owls and falcons are widely used as sentinel species in raptor biomonitoring programmes. A major current challenge is to facilitate large-scale biomonitoring by coordinating contaminant monitoring activities and by building capacity across countries. This requires sharing, dissemination and adoption of best practices addressed by the Networking Programme Research and Monitoring for and with Raptors in Europe (EURAPMON) and now being advanced by the ongoing international COST Action European Raptor Biomonitoring Facility. The present perspective introduces a schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors. We provide guidance on sample collection with a view to increasing sampling capacity across countries, ensuring appropriate quality of samples and facilitating harmonization of procedures to maximize the reliability, comparability and interoperability of data. The here presented protocol can be used by professionals and volunteers as a standard guide to ensure harmonised sampling methods for contaminant monitoring in raptors.

    Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
    Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
    Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.

    The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.

    Anthocyanin profile, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of a strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch) genetic resource collection
    Dzhanfezova, Tsaneta ; Barba-Espín, Gregorio ; Müller, Renate ; Joernsgaard, Bjarne ; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark ; Madsen, Bjoern ; Larsen, Dorthe H. ; Martínez Vega, Mabel ; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo - \ 2020
    Food Bioscience 36 (2020). - ISSN 2212-4292
    Anthocyanins - Antioxidant - Cyanidin 3-O-Glucoside - Fragaria ananassa - Pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside - Phenolic content

    Screening of strawberry anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacities are important in the characterization and development of sources of natural colors. Here, Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) and three commercial (cultivars ‘Elsanta’, ‘Korona’ and ‘Honeyoe’) and 14 non-commercial cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa Duch. were characterized in terms of anthocyanin content and composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities for two consecutive growing seasons. Twelve non-commercial strawberry cultivars had higher anthocyanin contents when compared to previous reports, varying between 1.13 and 1.89 g kg-1 fresh weight (fw) in total, with pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside as the major (50–90%) and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as the second most abundant (1–47%) anthocyanins. Among the characterized cultivars, S 94 combined high antioxidant activities (4.6 mmol Trolox equivalents g-1 fw and 24.6 mmol Fe2+ g-1 fw on average for both years) and total anthocyanin (1.76 g kg-1 fw) and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside contents. Furthermore, the breeding potential of wild strawberry was highlighted as it had the highest antioxidant activity among tested cultivars and 44% of anthocyanins as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. This study identified strawberry cultivars with traits desirable for colorants, which might guide future breeding programs for healthier strawberries.

    Connectivity and plasticity determine collagen network fracture
    Burla, Federica ; Dussi, Simone ; Martinez-Torres, Cristina ; Tauber, Justin ; Gucht, Jasper van der; Koenderink, Gijsje H. - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020)15. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8326 - 8334.
    Collagen - Connectivity - Fracture - Network

    Collagen forms the structural scaffold of connective tissues in all mammals. Tissues are remarkably resistant against mechanical deformations because collagen molecules hierarchically self-assemble in fibrous networks that stiffen with increasing strain. Nevertheless, collagen networks do fracture when tissues are overloaded or subject to pathological conditions such as aneurysms. Prior studies of the role of collagen in tissue fracture have mainly focused on tendons, which contain highly aligned bundles of collagen. By contrast, little is known about fracture of the orientationally more disordered collagen networks present in many other tissues such as skin and cartilage. Here, we combine shear rheology of reconstituted collagen networks with computer simulations to investigate the primary determinants of fracture in disordered collagen networks. We show that the fracture strain is controlled by the coordination number of the network junctions, with less connected networks fracturing at larger strains. The hierarchical structure of collagen fine-tunes the fracture strain by providing structural plasticity at the network and fiber level. Our findings imply that low connectivity and plasticity provide protective mechanisms against network fracture that can optimize the strength of biological tissues.

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