Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Living in Saharan Heat
    Scheffer, Marten - \ 2020
    An invitation for more research on transnational corporations and the biosphere
    Folke, Carl ; Österblom, Henrik ; Jouffray, Jean Baptiste ; Lambin, Eric F. ; Adger, Neil ; Scheffer, Marten ; Crona, Beatrice I. ; Nyström, Magnus ; Levin, Simon A. ; Carpenter, Stephen R. ; Anderies, John M. ; Chapin, Stuart ; Crépin, Anne Sophie ; Dauriach, Alice ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Line J. ; Kautsky, Nils ; Walker, Brian H. ; Watson, James R. ; Wilen, James ; Zeeuw, Aart de - \ 2020
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 4 (2020). - ISSN 2397-334X
    Social dimensions of fertility behavior and consumption patterns in the Anthropocene
    Barrett, Scott ; Dasgupta, Aisha ; Dasgupta, Partha ; Neil Adger, W. ; Anderies, John ; Bergh, Jeroen van den; Bledsoe, Caroline ; Bongaarts, John ; Carpenter, Stephen ; Stuart Chapin, F. ; Crépin, Anne Sophie ; Daily, Gretchen ; Ehrlich, Paul ; Folke, Carl ; Kautsky, Nils ; Lambin, Eric F. ; Levin, Simon A. ; Mäler, Karl Göran ; Naylor, Rosamond ; Nyborg, Karine ; Polasky, Stephen ; Scheffer, Marten ; Shogren, Jason ; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard ; Walker, Brian ; Wilen, James - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020)12. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 6300 - 6307.
    Consumption - Fertility - Socially embedded preferences

    We consider two aspects of the human enterprise that profoundly affect the global environment: population and consumption. We show that fertility and consumption behavior harbor a class of externalities that have not been much noted in the literature. Both are driven in part by attitudes and preferences that are not egoistic but socially embedded; that is, each household's decisions are influenced by the decisions made by others. In a famous paper, Garrett Hardin [G. Hardin, Science 162, 1243-1248 (1968)] drew attention to overpopulation and concluded that the solution lay in people “abandoning the freedom to breed.” That human attitudes and practices are socially embedded suggests that it is possible for people to reduce their fertility rates and consumption demands without experiencing a loss in wellbeing. We focus on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa and consumption in the rich world and argue that bottom-up social mechanisms rather than top-down government interventions are better placed to bring about those ecologically desirable changes.

    Effect of fructans, prebiotics and fibres on the human gut microbiome assessed by 16S rRNA-based approaches : a review
    Swanson, K.S. ; Vos, W.M. de; Martens, E.C. ; Gilbert, J.A. ; Menon, R.S. ; Soto-Vaca, A. ; Hautvast, J. ; Meyer, P.D. ; Borewicz, K. ; Vaughan, E.E. ; Slavin, J.L. - \ 2020
    Beneficial Microbes 11 (2020)2. - ISSN 1876-2883 - p. 101 - 129.
    health - intestine - inulin - microbiota - nutrition

    The inherent and diverse capacity of dietary fibres, nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) and prebiotics to modify the gut microbiota and markedly influence health status of the host has attracted rising interest. Research and collective initiatives to determine the composition and diversity of the human gut microbiota have increased over the past decade due to great advances in high-throughput technologies, particularly the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. Here we reviewed the application of 16S rRNA-based molecular technologies, both community wide (sequencing and phylogenetic microarrays) and targeted methodologies (quantitative PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridisation) to study the effect of chicory inulin-type fructans, NDOs and specific added fibres, such as resistant starches, on the human intestinal microbiota. Overall, such technologies facilitated the monitoring of microbiota shifts due to prebiotic/fibre consumption, though there are limited community-wide sequencing studies so far. Molecular studies confirmed the selective bifidogenic effect of fructans and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in human intervention studies. Fructans only occasionally decreased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes or stimulated other groups. The sequencing studies for various resistant starches, polydextrose and beta-glucan showed broader effects with more and different types of gut microbial species being enhanced, often including phylotypes of Ruminococcaceae. There was substantial variation in terms of magnitude of response and in individual responses to a specific fibre or NDO which may be due to numerous factors, such as initial presence and relative abundance of a microbial type, diet, genetics of the host, and intervention parameters, such as intervention duration and fibre dose. The field will clearly benefit from a more systematic approach that will support defining the impact of prebiotics and fibres on the gut microbiome, identify biomarkers that link gut microbes to health, and address the personalised response of an individual's microbiota to prebiotics and dietary fibres.

    Author Correction: A global database for metacommunity ecology, integrating species, traits, environment and space
    Jeliazkov, Alienor ; Mijatovic, Darko ; Chantepie, Stéphane ; Andrew, Nigel ; Arlettaz, Raphaël ; Barbaro, Luc ; Barsoum, Nadia ; Bartonova, Alena ; Belskaya, Elena ; Bonada, Núria ; Brind’Amour, Anik ; Carvalho, Rodrigo ; Castro, Helena ; Chmura, Damian ; Choler, Philippe ; Chong-Seng, Karen ; Cleary, Daniel ; Cormont, Anouk ; Cornwell, William ; Campos, Ramiro de; Voogd, Nicole de; Doledec, Sylvain ; Drew, Joshua ; Dziock, Frank ; Eallonardo, Anthony ; Edgar, Melanie J. ; Farneda, Fábio ; Hernandez, Domingo Flores ; Frenette-Dussault, Cédric ; Fried, Guillaume ; Gallardo, Belinda ; Gibb, Heloise ; Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago ; Higuti, Janet ; Humbert, Jean Yves ; Krasnov, Boris R. ; Saux, Eric Le ; Lindo, Zoe ; Lopez-Baucells, Adria ; Lowe, Elizabeth ; Marteinsdottir, Bryndis ; Martens, Koen ; Meffert, Peter ; Mellado-Díaz, Andres ; Menz, Myles H.M. ; Meyer, Christoph F.J. ; Miranda, Julia Ramos ; Mouillot, David ; Ossola, Alessandro ; Pakeman, Robin ; Pavoine, Sandrine ; Pekin, Burak ; Pino, Joan ; Pocheville, Arnaud ; Pomati, Francesco ; Poschlod, Peter ; Prentice, Honor C. ; Purschke, Oliver ; Raevel, Valerie ; Reitalu, Triin ; Renema, Willem ; Ribera, Ignacio ; Robinson, Natalie ; Robroek, Bjorn ; Rocha, Ricardo ; Shieh, Sen Her ; Spake, Rebecca ; Staniaszek-Kik, Monika ; Stanko, Michal ; Tejerina-Garro, Francisco Leonardo ; Braak, Cajo ter; Urban, Mark C. ; Klink, Roel van; Villéger, Sébastien ; Wegman, Ruut ; Westgate, Martin J. ; Wolff, Jonas ; Żarnowiec, Jan ; Zolotarev, Maxim ; Chase, Jonathan M. - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463

    Following publication of this Data Descriptor it was found that the affiliation of Oliver Purschke was stated incorrectly. The correct affiliations are stated below: Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden Biodiversity, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden This has been corrected in both the HTML and PDF versions.

    Measurement of Dynamical Resilience Indicators Improves the Prediction of Recovery Following Hospitalization in Older Adults
    Gijzel, Sanne M.W. ; Rector, Jerrald ; Meulen, Fokke B. van; Loeff, Rolinka Schim van der; Leemput, Ingrid A. van de; Scheffer, Marten ; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G.M. ; Melis, René J.F. - \ 2020
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 21 (2020)4. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 525 - 530.e4.
    Adaptive capacity - personalized medicine - resistance - time series analysis - wearable sensor

    Objectives: Acute illnesses and subsequent hospital admissions present large health stressors to older adults, after which their recovery is variable. The concept of physical resilience offers opportunities to develop dynamical tools to predict an individual's recovery potential. This study aimed to investigate if dynamical resilience indicators based on repeated physical and mental measurements in acutely hospitalized geriatric patients have added value over single baseline measurements in predicting favorable recovery. Design: Intensive longitudinal study. Setting and Participants: 121 patients (aged 84.3 ± 6.2 years, 60% female) admitted to the geriatric ward for acute illness. Measurements: In addition to preadmission characteristics (frailty, multimorbidity), in-hospital heart rate and physical activity were continuously monitored with a wearable sensor. Momentary well-being (life satisfaction, anxiety, discomfort) was measured by experience sampling 4 times per day. The added value of dynamical indicators of resilience was investigated for predicting recovery at hospital discharge and 3 months later. Results: 31% of participants satisfied the criteria of good recovery at hospital discharge and 50% after 3 months. A combination of a frailty index, multimorbidity, Clinical Frailty Scale, and or gait speed predicted good recovery reasonably well on the short term [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.79], but only moderately after 3 months (AUC = 0.70). On addition of dynamical resilience indicators, the AUC for predicting good 3-month recovery increased to 0.79 (P = .03). Variability in life satisfaction and anxiety during the hospital stay were independent predictors of good 3-month recovery [odds ratio (OR) = 0.24, P = .01, and OR = 0.54, P = .04, respectively]. Conclusions and Implications: These results highlight that measurements capturing the dynamic functioning of multiple physiological systems have added value in assessing physical resilience in clinical practice, especially those monitoring mental responses. Improved monitoring and prediction of physical resilience could help target intensive treatment options and subsequent geriatric rehabilitation to patients who will most likely benefit from them.

    Shedding light on the rich-poor gap
    Scheffer, Marten ; Mirza, Usman - \ 2020
    A global database for metacommunity ecology, integrating species, traits, environment and space
    Jeliazkov, Alienor ; Mijatovic, Darko ; Chantepie, Stéphane ; Andrew, Nigel ; Arlettaz, Raphaël ; Barbaro, Luc ; Barsoum, Nadia ; Bartonova, Alena ; Belskaya, Elena ; Bonada, Núria ; Brind’Amour, Anik ; Carvalho, Rodrigo ; Castro, Helena ; Chmura, Damian ; Choler, Philippe ; Chong-Seng, Karen ; Cleary, Daniel ; Cormont, Anouk ; Cornwell, William ; Campos, Ramiro de; Voogd, Nicole de; Doledec, Sylvain ; Drew, Joshua ; Dziock, Frank ; Eallonardo, Anthony ; Edgar, Melanie J. ; Farneda, Fábio ; Hernandez, Domingo Flores ; Frenette-Dussault, Cédric ; Fried, Guillaume ; Gallardo, Belinda ; Gibb, Heloise ; Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago ; Higuti, Janet ; Humbert, Jean Yves ; Krasnov, Boris R. ; Saux, Eric Le ; Lindo, Zoe ; Lopez-Baucells, Adria ; Lowe, Elizabeth ; Marteinsdottir, Bryndis ; Martens, Koen ; Meffert, Peter ; Mellado-Díaz, Andres ; Menz, Myles H.M. ; Meyer, Christoph F.J. ; Miranda, Julia Ramos ; Mouillot, David ; Ossola, Alessandro ; Pakeman, Robin ; Pavoine, Sandrine ; Pekin, Burak ; Pino, Joan ; Pocheville, Arnaud ; Pomati, Francesco ; Poschlod, Peter ; Prentice, Honor C. ; Purschke, Oliver ; Raevel, Valerie ; Reitalu, Triin ; Renema, Willem ; Ribera, Ignacio ; Robinson, Natalie ; Robroek, Bjorn ; Rocha, Ricardo ; Shieh, Sen Her ; Spake, Rebecca ; Staniaszek-Kik, Monika ; Stanko, Michal ; Tejerina-Garro, Francisco Leonardo ; Braak, Cajo ter; Urban, Mark C. ; Klink, Roel van; Villéger, Sébastien ; Wegman, Ruut ; Westgate, Martin J. ; Wolff, Jonas ; Żarnowiec, Jan ; Zolotarev, Maxim ; Chase, Jonathan M. - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463

    The use of functional information in the form of species traits plays an important role in explaining biodiversity patterns and responses to environmental changes. Although relationships between species composition, their traits, and the environment have been extensively studied on a case-by-case basis, results are variable, and it remains unclear how generalizable these relationships are across ecosystems, taxa and spatial scales. To address this gap, we collated 80 datasets from trait-based studies into a global database for metaCommunity Ecology: Species, Traits, Environment and Space; “CESTES”. Each dataset includes four matrices: species community abundances or presences/absences across multiple sites, species trait information, environmental variables and spatial coordinates of the sampling sites. The CESTES database is a live database: it will be maintained and expanded in the future as new datasets become available. By its harmonized structure, and the diversity of ecosystem types, taxonomic groups, and spatial scales it covers, the CESTES database provides an important opportunity for synthetic trait-based research in community ecology.

    Innovatiesubsidie voor medicijnmakers
    Wijffels, Rene ; Adamo, Sarah D'; Barbosa, Maria ; Martens, Dirk ; Südfeld, Christian - \ 2020
    Direct Visualization of Native CRISPR Target Search in Live Bacteria Reveals Cascade DNA Surveillance Mechanism
    Vink, Jochem N.A. ; Martens, Koen J.A. ; Vlot, Marnix ; McKenzie, Rebecca E. ; Almendros, Cristóbal ; Estrada Bonilla, Boris ; Brocken, Daan J.W. ; Hohlbein, Johannes ; Brouns, Stan J.J. - \ 2020
    Molecular Cell 77 (2020)1. - ISSN 1097-2765 - p. 39 - 50.e10.
    arms race - Cascade - CRISPR-Cas - PALM - PAM - photo-activation localization microscopy - single molecule - single-particle tracking - target search

    Vink et al. tracked single CRISPR RNA-surveillance complexes (Cascade) in the native host cell and determined the influence of Cascade copy numbers, PAM scanning speed, and the presence of CRISPR arrays and transcription on their ability to find and clear invading mobile genetic elements from the cell.

    Similar factors underlie tree abundance in forests in native and alien ranges
    Sande, Masha T. van der; Bruelheide, Helge ; Dawson, Wayne ; Dengler, Jürgen ; Essl, Franz ; Field, Richard ; Haider, Sylvia ; Kleunen, Mark van; Kreft, Holger ; Pagel, Joern ; Pergl, Jan ; Purschke, Oliver ; Pyšek, Petr ; Weigelt, Patrick ; Winter, Marten ; Attorre, Fabio ; Aubin, Isabelle ; Bergmeier, Erwin ; Chytrý, Milan ; Dainese, Matteo ; Sanctis, Michele De; Fagundez, Jaime ; Golub, Valentin ; Guerin, Greg R. ; Gutiérrez, Alvaro G. ; Jandt, Ute ; Jansen, Florian ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Kattge, Jens ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Klotz, Stefan ; Kramer, Koen ; Moretti, Marco ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Peet, Robert K. ; Penuelas, Josep ; Petřík, Petr ; Reich, Peter B. ; Sandel, Brody ; Schmidt, Marco ; Sibikova, Maria ; Violle, Cyrille ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wohlgemuth, Thomas ; Knight, Tiffany M. - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)2. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 281 - 294.
    abundance - dissimilarity - forest - functional traits - global - plant invasion - trees

    Aim: Alien plant species can cause severe ecological and economic problems, and therefore attract a lot of research interest in biogeography and related fields. To identify potential future invasive species, we need to better understand the mechanisms underlying the abundances of invasive tree species in their new ranges, and whether these mechanisms differ between their native and alien ranges. Here, we test two hypotheses: that greater relative abundance is promoted by (a) functional difference from locally co-occurring trees, and (b) higher values than locally co-occurring trees for traits linked to competitive ability. Location: Global. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees. Methods: We combined three global plant databases: sPlot vegetation-plot database, TRY plant trait database and Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database. We used a hierarchical Bayesian linear regression model to assess the factors associated with variation in local abundance, and how these relationships vary between native and alien ranges and depend on species’ traits. Results: In both ranges, species reach highest abundance if they are functionally similar to co-occurring species, yet are taller and have higher seed mass and wood density than co-occurring species. Main conclusions: Our results suggest that light limitation leads to strong environmental and biotic filtering, and that it is advantageous to be taller and have denser wood. The striking similarities in abundance between native and alien ranges imply that information from tree species’ native ranges can be used to predict in which habitats introduced species may become dominant.

    The relationship between job demands, job resources and teachers’ professional learning: is it explained by self-determination theory?
    Jansen in de Wal, Joost ; Beemt, Antoine van den; Martens, Rob L. ; Brok, Perry J. den - \ 2020
    Studies in Continuing Education 42 (2020)1. - ISSN 0158-037X - p. 17 - 39.
    Job demands - job resources - motivation - self-determination theory - teacher professional learning

    Although teachers’ commitment to continuous professional learning is crucial for high quality education, research shows that this learning cannot be taken for granted. To better understand how teachers’ learning at work can be supported, this study investigates how effects of job demands (i.e. work pressure and emotional pressure) and job resources (i.e. task autonomy, transformational leadership, and collegial support) on teachers’ learning commitment (i.e. learning frequency and engagement) can be explained by basic psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation, as posited by self-determination theory. At two occasions, approximately one year apart, data was collected in a sample of 678 (T1) and 536 (T2) Dutch secondary school teachers. Structural equation models showed the consecutive positive longitudinal relationships between teachers’ experience of job resources, basic psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and commitment to professional learning. Job demands were not related to basic need satisfaction over and above the effects of job resources. Implications for how self-determination theory and the job demands resources model can mutually inform each other are discussed. In addition, implications for stimulating teachers’ professional learning in practice are provided.

    Zetmeelvertering onder de loep: rol van varkensmaag groter dan gedacht
    Martens, Bianca - \ 2019

    Promotie onderzoek Bianca Martens

    The role of the stomach in starch digestion
    Martens, Bianca - \ 2019
    In vitro and in vivo digestion of starches from various feed ingredients; can we accurately predict digestion kinetics?
    Martens, Bianca - \ 2019
    Metabolic shift induced by synthetic co-cultivation promotes high yield of chain elongated acids from syngas
    Diender, Martijn ; Parera Olm, Ivette ; Gelderloos, Marten ; Koehorst, Jasper J. ; Schaap, Peter J. ; Stams, Alfons J.M. ; Sousa, Diana Z. - \ 2019
    Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Bio-catalytic processes for sustainable production of chemicals and fuels receive increased attention within the concept of circular economy. Strategies to improve these production processes include genetic engineering of bio-catalysts or process technological optimization. Alternatively, synthetic microbial co-cultures can be used to enhance production of chemicals of interest. It remains often unclear however how microbe to microbe interactions affect the overall production process and how this can be further exploited for application. In the present study we explored the microbial interaction in a synthetic co-culture of Clostridium autoethanogenum and Clostridium kluyveri, producing chain elongated products from carbon monoxide. Monocultures of C. autoethanogenum converted CO to acetate and traces of ethanol, while during co-cultivation with C. kluyveri, it shifted its metabolism significantly towards solventogenesis. In C. autoethanogenum, expression of the genes involved in the central carbon- and energy-metabolism remained unchanged during co-cultivation compared to monoculture condition. Therefore the shift in the metabolic flux of C. autoethanogenum appears to be regulated by thermodynamics, and results from the continuous removal of ethanol by C. kluyveri. This trait could be further exploited, driving the metabolism of C. autoethanogenum to solely ethanol formation during co-cultivation, resulting in a high yield of chain elongated products from CO-derived electrons. This research highlights the important role of thermodynamic interactions in (synthetic) mixed microbial communities and shows that this can be exploited to promote desired conversions.

    Kennisagenda klimaat en gezondheid
    Huynen, Maud ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Staatsen, Brigit ; Zwartkruis, Joyce ; Kruize, Hanneke ; Betgen, C.D. ; Verboom, J. ; Martens, Pim - \ 2019
    Den Haag : ZonMw - 106 p.
    health - climate - care - behaviour
    Veel meldingen exotische hooikoortsplant in 2018
    Verhofstad, Michiel J.J.M. ; Odé, Baudewijn ; Leferink, Jenneke ; Martens, Maurice ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Weger, L.A. de - \ 2019
    Nature Today
    Vorig jaar werden bijna zeventig procent meer waarnemingen gedaan van Alsemambrosia in het openbaar dan in voorgaande jaren. Het is echter nog onduidelijk of de warmte van vorig jaar tot meer zaadzetting heeft geleid. Om te voorkomen dat deze plant het hooikoortsseizoen verlengt, starten we vandaag weer met de jaarlijkse Ambrosiacampagne. Doe ook mee!
    Breakthrough in Marine Invertebrate Cell Culture : Sponge Cells Divide Rapidly in Improved Nutrient Medium
    Conkling, Megan ; Hesp, Kylie ; Munroe, Stephanie ; Sandoval, Kenneth ; Martens, Dirk E. ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Wijffels, Rene H. ; Pomponi, Shirley A. - \ 2019
    Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

    Sponges (Phylum Porifera) are among the oldest Metazoa and considered critical to understanding animal evolution and development. They are also the most prolific source of marine-derived chemicals with pharmaceutical relevance. Cell lines are important tools for research in many disciplines, and have been established for many organisms, including freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates. Despite many efforts over multiple decades, there are still no cell lines for marine invertebrates. In this study, we report a breakthrough: we demonstrate that an amino acid-optimized nutrient medium stimulates rapid cell division in 9 sponge species. The fastest dividing cells doubled in less than 1 hour. Cultures of 3 species were subcultured from 3 to 5 times, with an average of 5.99 population doublings after subculturing, and a lifespan from 21 to 35 days. Our results form the basis for developing marine invertebrate cell models to better understand early animal evolution, determine the role of secondary metabolites, and predict the impact of climate change to coral reef community ecology. Furthermore, sponge cell lines can be used to scale-up production of sponge-derived chemicals for clinical trials and develop new drugs to combat cancer and other diseases.

    Continuous production of Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane vesicles
    Gerritzen, Matthias J.H. ; Stangowez, Lilli ; Waterbeemd, Bas van de; Martens, Dirk E. ; Wijffels, René H. ; Stork, Michiel - \ 2019
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 103 (2019)23-24. - ISSN 0175-7598
    Chemostat - Continuous processing - Neisseria meningitidis - OMV - Outer membrane vesicles

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nanoparticles secreted by Gram-negative bacteria that can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. Interesting applications have been developed, where OMVs are the basis of drug delivery, enzyme carriers, adjuvants, and vaccines. Historically, OMV research has mainly focused on vaccines. Therefore, current OMV production processes have been based on batch processes. The production of OMVs in batch mode is characterized by relatively low yields and high costs. Transition of OMV production processes from batch to continuous processes could increase the volumetric productivity, reduce the production and capital costs, and result in a higher quality product. Here, we study the continuous production of Neisseria meningitidis OMVs to improve volumetric productivity. Continuous cultivation of N. meningitidis resulted in a steady state with similar high OMV concentrations as are reached in current batch processes. The steady state was reproducible and could be maintained for at least 600 h. The volumetric productivity of a continuous culture reached 4.0 × 1014 OMVs per liter culture per day, based on a dilution rate of 1/day. The tested characteristics of the OMVs did not change during the experiments showing feasibility of a continuous production process for the production of OMVs for any application.

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