Records 1 - 20 / 2142
Uncovering dryland woody dynamics using optical, microwave, and field data-prolonged above-average rainfall paradoxically contributes to woody plant die-off in the Western Sahel
Bernardino, Paulo N. ; Brandt, Martin ; Keersmaecker, Wanda De; Horion, Stéphanie ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Storms, Ilié ; Wigneron, Jean Pierre ; Verbesselt, Jan ; Somers, Ben - \ 2020
Remote Sensing 12 (2020)14. - ISSN 2072-4292
Drought - Drylands - NDVI - Passive microwave - Time series - Vegetation optical depth - Woody vegetation dynamics
Dryland ecosystems are frequently struck by droughts. Yet, woody vegetation is often able to recover from mortality events once precipitation returns to pre-drought conditions. Climate change, however, may impact woody vegetation resilience due to more extreme and frequent droughts. Thus, better understanding how woody vegetation responds to drought events is essential. We used a phenology-based remote sensing approach coupled with field data to estimate the severity and recovery rates of a large scale die-off event that occurred in 2014-2015 in Senegal. Novel low (L-band) and high-frequency (Ku-band) passive microwave vegetation optical depth (VOD), and optical MODIS data, were used to estimate woody vegetation dynamics. The relative importance of soil, human-pressure, and before-drought vegetation dynamics influencing the woody vegetation response to the drought were assessed. The die-off in 2014-2015 represented the highest dry season VOD drop for the studied period (1989-2017), even though the 2014 drought was not as severe as the droughts in the 1980s and 1990s. The spatially explicit Die-off Severity Index derived in this study, at 500 m resolution, highlights woody plants mortality in the study area. Soil physical characteristics highly affected die-off severity and post-disturbance recovery, but pre-drought biomass accumulation (i.e., in areas that benefited from above-normal rainfall conditions before the 2014 drought) was the most important variable in explaining die-off severity. This study provides new evidence supporting a better understanding of the "greening Sahel", suggesting that a sudden increase in woody vegetation biomass does not necessarily imply a stable ecosystem recovery from the droughts in the 1980s. Instead, prolonged above-normal rainfall conditions prior to a drought may result in the accumulation of woody biomass, creating the basis for potentially large-scale woody vegetation die-off events due to even moderate dry spells.
Pathologists and entomologists must join forces against forest pest and pathogen invasions
Jactel, Hervé ; Desprez-Loustau, Marie Laure ; Battisti, Andrea ; Brockerhoff, Eckehard ; Santini, Alberto ; Stenlid, Jan ; Björkman, Christer ; Branco, Manuela ; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina ; Douma, Jacob C. ; Drakulic, Jassy ; Drizou, Fryni ; Eschen, René ; Franco, José Carlos ; Gossner, Martin M. ; Green, Samantha ; Kenis, Marc ; Klapwijk, Maartje J. ; Liebhold, Andrew M. ; Orazio, Christophe ; Prospero, Simone ; Robinet, Christelle ; Schroeder, Martin ; Slippers, Bernard ; Stoev, Pavel ; Sun, Jianghua ; Dool, Robbert van den; Wingfield, Michael J. ; Zalucki, Myron P. - \ 2020
NeoBiota 58 (2020). - ISSN 1619-0033 - p. 107 - 127.
Capacity building - Detection - Disease - Exotic - Forest health - Fungi - Identification - Insects - Interdisciplinarity - Management
The world's forests have never been more threatened by invasions of exotic pests and pathogens, whose causes and impacts are reinforced by global change. However, forest entomologists and pathologists have, for too long, worked independently, used different concepts and proposed specific management methods without recognising parallels and synergies between their respective fields. Instead, we advocate increased collaboration between these two scientific communities to improve the long-term health of forests. Our arguments are that the pathways of entry of exotic pests and pathogens are often the same and that insects and fungi often coexist in the same affected trees. Innovative methods for preventing invasions, early detection and identification of non-native species, modelling of their impact and spread and prevention of damage by increasing the resistance of ecosystems can be shared for the management of both pests and diseases. We, therefore, make recommendations to foster this convergence, proposing in particular the development of interdisciplinary research programmes, the development of generic tools or methods for pest and pathogen management and capacity building for the education and training of students, managers, decision-makers and citizens concerned with forest health.
The global abundance of tree palms
Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
Global Ecology and Biogeography (2020). - ISSN 1466-822X
above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density
Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
Effects of Potassium or Sodium Supplementation on Mineral Homeostasis : A Controlled Dietary Intervention Study
Humalda, Jelmer K. ; Yeung, Stanley M.H. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gijsbers, Lieke ; Riphagen, Ineke J. ; Hoorn, Ewout J. ; Rotmans, Joris I. ; Vogt, Liffert ; Navis, Gerjan ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Borst, Martin H. de - \ 2020
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 105 (2020)9. - ISSN 0021-972X - 11 p.
calcium-phosphate metabolism - Diet controlled clinical trial - fibroblast growth factor 23 - nutrition - potassium - sodium
CONTEXT: Although dietary potassium and sodium intake may influence calcium-phosphate metabolism and bone health, the effects on bone mineral parameters, including fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), are unclear. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the effects of potassium or sodium supplementation on bone mineral parameters. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: We performed a post hoc analysis of a dietary controlled randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Prehypertensive individuals not using antihypertensive medication (n = 36) received capsules containing potassium chloride (3 g/d), sodium chloride (3 g/d), or placebo. Linear mixed-effect models were used to estimate treatment effects. RESULTS: Potassium supplementation increased plasma phosphate (from 1.10 ± 0.19 to 1.15 ± 0.19 mmol/L, P = 0.004), in line with an increase in tubular maximum of phosphate reabsorption (from 0.93 ± 0.21 to 1.01 ± 0.20 mmol/L, P < 0.001). FGF23 decreased (114.3 [96.8-135.0] to 108.5 [93.5-125.9] RU/mL, P = 0.01), without change in parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3. Fractional calcium excretion decreased (from 1.25 ± 0.50 to 1.11 ± 0.46 %, P = 0.03) without change in plasma calcium. Sodium supplementation decreased both plasma phosphate (from 1.10 ± 0.19 to 1.06 ± 0.21 mmol/L, P = 0.03) and FGF23 (from 114.3 [96.8-135.0] to 108.7 [92.3-128.1] RU/mL, P = 0.02). Urinary and fractional calcium excretion increased (from 4.28 ± 1.91 to 5.45 ± 2.51 mmol/24 hours, P < 0.001, and from 1.25 ± 0.50 to 1.44 ± 0.54 %, P = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Potassium supplementation led to a decrease in FGF23, which was accompanied by increase in plasma phosphate and decreased calcium excretion. Sodium supplementation reduced FGF23, but this was accompanied by decrease in phosphate and increase in fractional calcium excretion. Our results indicate distinct effects of potassium and sodium intake on bone mineral parameters, including FGF23. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01575041.
The NORMAN Association and the European Partnership for Chemicals Risk Assessment (PARC): let’s cooperate!
Dulio, Valeria ; Koschorreck, Jan ; Bavel, Bert van; Brink, Paul van den; Hollender, Juliane ; Munthe, John ; Schlabach, Martin ; Aalizadeh, Reza ; Agerstrand, Marlene ; Ahrens, Lutz ; Allan, Ian ; Alygizakis, Nikiforos ; Barcelo, Damia ; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla ; Boutroup, Susanne ; Brack, Werner ; Bressy, Adèle ; Christensen, Jan H. ; Cirka, Lubos ; Covaci, Adrian ; Derksen, Anja ; Deviller, Geneviève ; Dingemans, Milou M.L. ; Engwall, Magnus ; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo ; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo ; Hernández, Félix ; Herzke, Dorte ; Hilscherová, Klára ; Hollert, Henner ; Junghans, Marion ; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara ; Keiter, Steffen ; Kools, Stefan A.E. ; Kruve, Anneli ; Lambropoulou, Dimitra ; Lamoree, Marja ; Leonards, Pim ; Lopez, Benjamin ; López de Alda, Miren ; Lundy, Lian ; Makovinská, Jarmila ; Marigómez, Ionan ; Martin, Jonathan W. ; McHugh, Brendan ; Miège, Cécile ; O’Toole, Simon ; Perkola, Noora ; Polesello, Stefano ; Posthuma, Leo ; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara ; Roessink, Ivo ; Rostkowski, Pawel ; Ruedel, Heinz ; Samanipour, Saer ; Schulze, Tobias ; Schymanski, Emma L. ; Sengl, Manfred ; Tarábek, Peter ; Hulscher, Dorien Ten; Thomaidis, Nikolaos ; Togola, Anne ; Valsecchi, Sara ; Leeuwen, Stefan van; Ohe, Peter von der; Vorkamp, Katrin ; Vrana, Branislav ; Slobodnik, Jaroslav - \ 2020
Environmental Sciences Europe 32 (2020)1. - ISSN 2190-4707
Chemical risk assessment and prioritisation - Contaminants of emerging concern - Effect-based methods - Environmental monitoring - High-resolution mass spectrometry - Non-target screening - NORMAN network - Suspect screening
The Partnership for Chemicals Risk Assessment (PARC) is currently under development as a joint research and innovation programme to strengthen the scientific basis for chemical risk assessment in the EU. The plan is to bring chemical risk assessors and managers together with scientists to accelerate method development and the production of necessary data and knowledge, and to facilitate the transition to next-generation evidence-based risk assessment, a non-toxic environment and the European Green Deal. The NORMAN Network is an independent, well-established and competent network of more than 80 organisations in the field of emerging substances and has enormous potential to contribute to the implementation of the PARC partnership. NORMAN stands ready to provide expert advice to PARC, drawing on its long experience in the development, harmonisation and testing of advanced tools in relation to chemicals of emerging concern and in support of a European Early Warning System to unravel the risks of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and close the gap between research and innovation and regulatory processes. In this commentary we highlight the tools developed by NORMAN that we consider most relevant to supporting the PARC initiative: (i) joint data space and cutting-edge research tools for risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern; (ii) collaborative European framework to improve data quality and comparability; (iii) advanced data analysis tools for a European early warning system and (iv) support to national and European chemical risk assessment thanks to harnessing, combining and sharing evidence and expertise on CECs. By combining the extensive knowledge and experience of the NORMAN network with the financial and policy-related strengths of the PARC initiative, a large step towards the goal of a non-toxic environment can be taken.
Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks
MacNeil, Aaron ; Chapman, Demian D. ; Heupel, Michelle ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; Heithaus, Michael ; Meekan, Mark ; Harvey, Euan ; Goetze, Jordan ; Kiszka, Jeremy ; Bond, Mark E. ; Currey-Randall, Leanne M. ; Speed, Conrad W. ; Sherman, Samantha ; Rees, Matthew J. ; Udyawer, Vinay ; Flowers, Kathryn I. ; Clementi, Gina ; Valentin-Albanese, Jasmine ; Gorham, Taylor ; Adam, Shiham ; Khadeeja, Ali ; Pina-Amargós, Fabián ; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. ; Asher, Jacob ; García Barcia, Laura ; Beaufort, Océane ; Benjamin, Cecilie ; Bernard, Anthony T.F. ; Berumen, Michael L. ; Bierwagen, Stacy ; Bonnema, Erika ; Bown, Rosalind M.K. ; Bradley, Darcey ; Brooks, Edd ; Brown, Jed ; Buddo, Dayne ; Burke, Patrick ; Cáceres, Camila ; Cardeñosa, Diego ; Carrier, Jeffrey C. ; Caselle, Jennifer E. ; Charloo, Venkatesh ; Claverie, Thomas ; Clua, Eric ; Cochran, Jesse E.M. ; Cook, Neil ; Cramp, Jessica ; D’Alberto, Brooke ; Graaf, Martin de; Dornhege, Mareike ; Estep, Andy ; Fanovich, Lanya ; Farabough, Naomi F. ; Fernando, Daniel ; Flam, Anna L. ; Floros, Camilla ; Fourqurean, Virginia ; Garla, Ricardo ; Gastrich, Kirk ; George, Lachlan ; Graham, Rory ; Guttridge, Tristan ; Hardenstine, Royale S. ; Heck, Stephen ; Henderson, Aaron C. ; Hertler, Heidi ; Hueter, Robert ; Johnson, Mohini ; Jupiter, Stacy ; Kasana, Devanshi ; Kessel, Steven T. ; Kiilu, Benedict ; Kirata, Taratu ; Kuguru, Baraka ; Kyne, Fabian ; Langlois, Tim ; Lédée, Elodie J.I. ; Lindfield, Steve ; Luna-Acosta, Andrea ; Maggs, Jade ; Manjaji-Matsumoto, Mabel ; Marshall, Andrea ; Matich, Philip ; McCombs, Erin ; McLean, Dianne ; Meggs, Llewelyn ; Moore, Stephen ; Mukherji, Sushmita ; Murray, Ryan ; Kaimuddin, Muslimin ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Nogués, Josep ; Obota, Clay ; O’Shea, Owen ; Osuka, Kennedy ; Papastamatiou, Yannis P. ; Perera, Nishan ; Peterson, Bradley ; Ponzo, Alessandro ; Prasetyo, Andhika ; Quamar, Sjamsul ; Quinlan, Jessica ; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei ; Sala, Enric ; Samoilys, Melita ; Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle ; Schlaff, Audrey ; Simpson, Nikola ; Smith, Adam N.H. ; Sparks, Lauren ; Tanna, Akshay ; Torres, Rubén ; Travers, Michael J. ; Zinnicq Bergmann, Maurits van; Vigliola, Laurent ; Ward, Juney ; Watts, Alexandra M. ; Wen, Colin ; Whitman, Elizabeth ; Wirsing, Aaron J. ; Wothke, Aljoscha ; Zarza-Gonzâlez, Esteban ; Cinner, Joshua E. - \ 2020
Nature 583 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 801 - 806.
Decades of overexploitation have devastated shark populations, leaving considerable doubt as to their ecological status1,2. Yet much of what is known about sharks has been inferred from catch records in industrial fisheries, whereas far less information is available about sharks that live in coastal habitats3. Here we address this knowledge gap using data from more than 15,000 standardized baited remote underwater video stations that were deployed on 371 reefs in 58 nations to estimate the conservation status of reef sharks globally. Our results reveal the profound impact that fishing has had on reef shark populations: we observed no sharks on almost 20% of the surveyed reefs. Reef sharks were almost completely absent from reefs in several nations, and shark depletion was strongly related to socio-economic conditions such as the size and proximity of the nearest market, poor governance and the density of the human population. However, opportunities for the conservation of reef sharks remain: shark sanctuaries, closed areas, catch limits and an absence of gillnets and longlines were associated with a substantially higher relative abundance of reef sharks. These results reveal several policy pathways for the restoration and management of reef shark populations, from direct top-down management of fishing to indirect improvement of governance conditions. Reef shark populations will only have a high chance of recovery by engaging key socio-economic aspects of tropical fisheries.
Moderate pollination limitation in some entomophilous crops of Europe
Holland, John M. ; Sutter, Louis ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Pfister, Sonja C. ; Schirmel, Jens ; Entling, Martin H. ; Kaasik, Riina ; Kovacs, Gabriella ; Veromann, Eve ; Bartual, Agustín M. ; Marini, Simone ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Szalai, Márk ; Helsen, Herman ; Winkler, Karin ; Lof, Marjolein E. ; Werf, Wopke van der; McHugh, Niamh M. ; Smith, Barbara M. ; Wallis, David W. ; Cresswell, James E. - \ 2020
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 302 (2020). - ISSN 0167-8809
Agroecology - Crop yield - Entomophilous crops - Landscape ecology - Pollination - Pollinators
Pollination services to crops may be worsening because of declines in farmland pollinators, but the consequences for yields have been uncertain. We therefore investigated pollination limitation in four entomophilous crops (oilseed rape, sunflower, pears and pumpkin) by quantifying the difference in harvestable mass between open-pollinated and saturation-pollinated (hand-pollinated) flowers. We also examined whether pollination limitation in the four crops was associated with the number of flower visits by insects. Across 105 commercial fields in six European countries, the average decrease in harvestable mass due to pollination limitation was 2.8 % (SE = 1.15). Among crops, the highest decreases were in sunflowers (8%) and in one of three oilseed rape production regions (6%). We observed substantial variation among crops in the numbers of insect visits received by flowers, but it did not significantly correspond with the levels of pollination limitation. Our results suggest that yields in these crops were not severely pollination-limited in the regions studied and that other factors besides visitation by pollinators influenced the degree of pollination limitation.
Eindrapportage monitoring- en onderzoeksprogramma Natuurcompensatie Voordelta (PMR-NCV)
Prins, Theo ; Meer, Jaap van der; Herman, Peter ; Spek, Ad van der; Chen, Chun ; Wymenga, Eddy ; Zee, Els van der; Stienen, Eric ; Aarts, Geert ; Meijer-Holzhauer, Harriëtte ; Adema, Jeroen ; Craeymeersch, Johan ; Wolfshaar, Karen van; Bolle, Loes ; Poot, Martin ; Hintzen, Niels ; Horssen, Peter van; Fijn, Ruben ; Glorius, Sander ; Beier, Ulrika ; Courtens, Wouter ; Neitzel, Sophie ; Hoof, Luc van - \ 2020
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C053/20) - 183
Meetrapport verzamelen van plastics van MSC Zoe: zeevogels, vissen, zeebodem, stranden : Beknopt verslag van werkzaamheden in 2019
Baptist, Martin ; Volwater, Joey ; Hal, Ralf van; Zwol, Jetze van; Troost, Karin ; Franeker, Jan Andries van; Kühn, Suse ; Strietman, Wouter Jan - \ 2020
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C009/20) - 25
In de nacht van 1 op 2 januari 2019 raakte het containerschip MSC Zoe ter hoogte van Terschelling de zeebodem waardoor in totaal 342 containers overboord geslagen zijn en verspreid geraakt over het gebied tussen Terschelling en Schiermonnikoog. Rijkswaterstaat heeft Wageningen University & Research opdracht gegeven onderzoek te doen naar de mogelijke gevolgen van de containerramp op het ecosysteem van de Noordzee en Waddenzee. De doelstelling van dit onderzoek is het in 2019 geregistreerd verzamelen van plastics en organismen die plastics kunnen hebben ingenomen, aansluitend bij bestaande monitoringprogramma’s. In 2019 is in het kader van deze opdracht zwerfvuil verzameld bij monitoring, en daarnaast zijn vissen, vismagen en vogels verzameld en veiliggesteld voor analyse op aanwezigheid van (micro)plastics. Zwerfvuil: Het registreren van zwerfvuil van de zeebodem is een reguliere activiteit tijdens visbestandsopnames met bodemtrawl netten in het IBTS-programma. Volgens hetzelfde protocol is aanvullend zwerfvuil op de zeebodem geregistreerd tijdens twee andere vissurveys en tijdens schelpdierinventarisaties. Ook is er een analyse gedaan naar zwerfvuil verzameld op Griend. Het zwerfvuilonderzoek richt zich op grotere objecten dan microplastics. Vogels: er zijn ten minste 43 dood gevonden Noordse Stormvogels verzameld, waarvan verreweg het grootste deel op de Waddeneilanden en de Fries-Groninger waddenkust. Daarnaast zijn ten minste 14 Zwarte Zee-eenden, 1 Grote Zee-eend en 4 Drieteenmeeuwen verzameld, allen dood aangetroffen in het Waddengebied. Vissen: er zijn tijdens reguliere visbestandsopnames in het gebied boven de Nederlandse eilanden tot aan Helgoland 211 magen van vissen uit de vangsten verzameld, en 4856 vissen uit de gehele Noordzee tijdens het reguliere onderzoek naar bijvangsten van de visserij. Begin 2020 gaf RWS opdracht aan WMR om (een deel van) de biologische monsters in 2020 te analyseren.
Different lipid forms of omega-3 and their effect on small intestine in mice
Schothorst, Evert van; Kucharikova, P. ; Bunschoten, Annelies ; Horakova, Olga ; Rossmeisl, Martin ; Kopecky, Jan ; Keijer, Jaap - \ 2020
GSE93151 - PRJNA360138 - Mus musculus
Omega - 3 fatty acids of marine origin exert beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and can protect against insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed animals. Simultaneously, recent studies showed that different lipid forms could have numerous consequences regarding the regulation of energy balance, nutrient absorption, and substrate metabolism. Indeed, when omega-3 was provided as triglycerides (TG, i.e. fish oil), it induced dose-dependently the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism as well as fatty acid oxidation in small intestine of C57BL/6 mice fed various HFDs. As the underlying mechanism(s) explaining the differences in EPA/DHA bioavailability among various lipid forms of Omega-3 is not entirely clear, we performed a mouse study (n=8 per group) using purified HFDs with control HFD based on corn oil (cHF) and part of the lipids were replaced by omega-3 fish lipids in different forms: as either TG (cHF-F), marine phospholipids (PL; Krill oil, given at two different doses Krill-low (Krill-L) and Krill-high (Krill-H)), and as wax esters in the extract from the zooplankton Calanus finmarchicus (Calanus oil CAL-L representing same omega-3 levels as Krill-L diet). As a healthy control we fed a subset of mice standard chow (STD). All mice were fed their diet for 8 weeks and after sacrifice, whole small intestine was isolated, frozen and used for RNA isolation and microarray gene expression analysis using 8x60K Agilent arrays. Results showed that PL-H versus control cHFc induced specifically metabolic lipid pathways, while TG and PL-L mainly affected cytoskeleton regulation.
Omega-3 phospholipids from krill oil enhance intestinal fatty acid oxidation more effectively than omega-3 triacylglycerols in high-fat diet-fed obese mice
Kroupova, Petra ; Schothorst, Evert M. van; Keijer, Jaap ; Bunschoten, Annelies ; Vodicka, Martin ; Irodenko, Ilaria ; Oseeva, Marina ; Zacek, Petr ; Kopecky, Jan ; Rossmeisl, Martin ; Horakova, Olga - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 2072-6643 - 20 p.
High-fat diet - Krill oil - Omega-3 index - Omega-3 phospholipids - Small intestine
Antisteatotic effects of omega-3 fatty acids (Omega-3) in obese rodents seem to vary depending on the lipid form of their administration. Whether these effects could reflect changes in intestinal metabolism is unknown. Here, we compare Omega-3-containing phospholipids (krill oil; ω3PL-H) and triacylglycerols (ω3TG) in terms of their effects on morphology, gene expression and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the small intestine. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed for 8 weeks with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or supplemented with 30 mg/g diet of ω3TG or ω3PL-H. Omega-3 index, reflecting the bioavailability of Omega-3, reached 12.5% and 7.5% in the ω3PL-H and ω3TG groups, respectively. Compared to HFD mice, ω3PL-H but not ω3TG animals had lower body weight gain (−40%), mesenteric adipose tissue (−43%), and hepatic lipid content (−64%). The highest number and expression level of regulated intestinal genes was observed in ω3PL-H mice. The expression of FA ω-oxidation genes was enhanced in both Omega-3-supplemented groups, but gene expression within the FA β-oxidation pathway and functional palmitate oxidation in the proximal ileum was significantly increased only in ω3PL-H mice. In conclusion, enhanced intestinal FA oxidation could contribute to the strong antisteatotic effects of Omega-3 when administered as phospholipids to dietary obese mice.
Plural valuation of nature for equity and sustainability : Insights from the Global South
Zafra-Calvo, Noelia ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Pascual, Unai ; Merçon, Juliana ; Martín-López, Berta ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Mwampamba, Tuyeni Heita ; Lele, Sharachchandra ; Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe ; Arias-Arévalo, Paola ; Cabrol, Diego ; Cáceres, Daniel M. ; O'Farrell, Patrick ; Subramanian, Suneetha Mazhenchery ; Devy, Soubadra ; Krishnan, Siddhartha ; Carmenta, Rachel ; Guibrunet, Louise ; Kraus-Elsin, Yoanna ; Moersberger, Hannah ; Cariño, Joji ; Díaz, Sandra - \ 2020
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 63 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
Environmental valuation - Knowledge co-production - Power relations - Transdisciplinarity - Values
Plural valuation is about eliciting the diverse values of nature articulated by different stakeholders in order to inform decision making and thus achieve more equitable and sustainable outcomes. We explore what approaches align with plural valuation on the ground, as well as how different social-ecological contexts play a role in translating plural valuation into decisions and outcomes. Based on a co-constructed analytical approach relying on empirical information from ten cases from the Global South, we find that plural valuation contributes to equitable and sustainable outcomes if the valuation process: 1) is based on participatory value elicitation approaches; 2) is framed with a clear action-oriented purpose; 3) provides space for marginalized stakeholders to articulate their values in ways that can be included in decisions; 4) is used as a tool to identify and help reconcile different cognitive models about human-nature relations; and 5) fosters open communication and collaboration among stakeholders. We also find that power asymmetries can hinder plural valuation. As interest and support for undertaking plural valuation grows, a deeper understanding is needed regarding how it can be adapted to different purposes, approaches, and social-ecological contexts in order to contribute to social equity and sustainability.
Relationship of weather types on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield in the western Mediterranean basin
Peña-Angulo, D. ; Nadal-Romero, E. ; González-Hidalgo, J.C. ; Albaladejo, J. ; Andreu, V. ; Barhi, H. ; Bernal, S. ; Biddoccu, M. ; Bienes, R. ; Campo, J. ; Campo-Bescós, M.A. ; Canatário-Duarte, A. ; Cantón, Y. ; Casali, J. ; Castillo, V. ; Cavallo, E. ; Cerdà, A. ; Cid, P. ; Cortesi, N. ; Desir, G. ; Díaz-Pereira, E. ; Espigares, T. ; Estrany, J. ; Farguell, J. ; Fernández-Raga, M. ; Ferreira, C.S. ; Ferro, V. ; Gallart, F. ; Giménez, R. ; Gimeno, E. ; Gómez, J.A. ; Gómez-Gutiérrez, A. ; Gómez-Macpherson, H. ; González-Pelayo, O. ; Kairis, O. ; Karatzas, G.P. ; Keesstra, S. ; Klotz, S. ; Kosmas, C. ; Lana-Renault, N. ; Lasanta, T. ; Latron, J. ; Lázaro, R. ; Bissonnais, Y. Le; Bouteiller, C. Le; Licciardello, F. ; López-Tarazón, J.A. ; Lucía, A. ; Marín-Moreno, V.M. ; Marín, C. ; Marqués, M.J. ; Martínez-Fernández, J. ; Martínez-Mena, M. ; Mateos, L. ; Mathys, N. ; Merino-Martín, L. ; Moreno-de las Heras, M. ; Moustakas, N. ; Nicolau, J.M. ; Pampalone, V. ; Raclot, D. ; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L. ; Rodrigo-Comino, J. ; Romero-Díaz, A. ; Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D. ; Rubio, J.L. ; Schnabel, S. ; Senciales-González, J.M. ; Solé-Benet, A. ; Taguas, E.V. ; Taboada-Castro, M.T. ; Taboada-Castro, M.M. ; Todisco, F. ; Úbeda, X. ; Varouchakis, E.A. ; Wittenberg, L. ; Zabaleta, A. ; Zorn, M. - \ 2020
Atmosphere 11 (2020)6. - ISSN 2073-4433
Erosion - Mediterraneanbasin - Rainfall - Runoff - Seasonal analyses - Sediment yield - Weather types
Rainfall is the key factor to understand soil erosion processes, mechanisms, and rates. Most research was conducted to determine rainfall characteristics and their relationship with soil erosion (erosivity) but there is little information about how atmospheric patterns control soil losses, and this is important to enable sustainable environmental planning and risk prevention. We investigated the temporal and spatial variability of the relationships of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield with atmospheric patterns (weather types, WTs) in the western Mediterranean basin. For this purpose, we analyzed a large database of rainfall events collected between 1985 and 2015 in 46 experimental plots and catchments with the aim to: (i) evaluate seasonal differences in the contribution of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield produced by the WTs; and (ii) to analyze the seasonal efficiency of the different WTs (relation frequency and magnitude) related to rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield. The results indicate two different temporal patterns: the first weather type exhibits (during the cold period: autumn and winter) westerly flows that produce the highest rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield values throughout the territory; the second weather type exhibits easterly flows that predominate during the warm period (spring and summer) and it is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, the cyclonic situations present high frequency throughout the whole year with a large influence extended around the western Mediterranean basin. Contrary, the anticyclonic situations, despite of its high frequency, do not contribute significantly to the total rainfall, runoff, and sediment (showing the lowest efficiency) because of atmospheric stability that currently characterize this atmospheric pattern. Our approach helps to better understand the relationship of WTs on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield with a regional scale based on the large dataset and number of soil erosion experimental stations.
Wat wil de grote stern?
Baptist, Martin ; Leopold, Mardik - \ 2020
Scope and strategies for sustainable intensification of potato production in Northern China
Wang, Na ; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Ittersum, Martin K. van - \ 2020
Agronomy Journal (2020). - ISSN 0002-1962
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important staple crop in China, however, potato yields are low, and thus a general aim is to produce more crop with fewer resources and minimal environmental effects. This study aimed to assess the relationships between yield, resource use efficiencies, and environmental performance of potato production in China. Three major potato production regions (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Heilongjiang) were surveyed. The current production performance was evaluated, and the scope for improvement was assessed based on a lower and upper target for yield (financial breakeven point and 85% of the potential yield, respectively), water productivity (upper target is 85% of the potential water productivity), nitrogen use efficiency (50 and 90%) and nitrogen surplus (upper target is 80 kg ha−1). Long-term situations were evaluated to identify the target values of nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen surplus based on currently available technologies. The results indicate that in the short-term nitrogen fertilizer input can be reduced by allowing for soil nitrogen mining to improve the nitrogen use efficiency and reduce nitrogen surplus. Water productivity can be increased by enhancing yield, and water surplus can be reduced by more efficient management of irrigation and rainfall water. In the long-term, with good agronomy, we assess it is feasible to improve yield (from 33–43 to 46–57 t FM ha−1), improve nitrogen use efficiency (to 84%), and reduce nitrogen surplus (from 50–156 to 16–34 kg N ha−1) simultaneously. The latter should be validated experimentally.
Interactions Between the Amazonian Rainforest and Cumuli Clouds: A Large‐Eddy Simulation, High‐Resolution ECMWF, and Observational Intercomparison Study
Vilà‐Guerau De Arellano, J. ; Wang, Xuemei ; Pedruzo‐Bagazgoitia, X. ; Sikma, M. ; Agustí‐Panareda, A. ; Boussetta, S. ; Balsamo, G. ; Machado, L.A.T. ; Biscaro, T. ; Gentine, P. ; Martin, S.T. ; Fuentes, J.D. ; Gerken, T. - \ 2020
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 1942-2466 - 33 p.
The explicit coupling at meter and second scales of vegetation's responses to the atmospheric‐boundary layer dynamics drives a dynamic heterogeneity that influences canopy‐top fluxes and cloud formation. Focusing on a representative day during the Amazonian dry season, we investigate the diurnal cycle of energy, moisture and carbon dioxide at the canopy top, and the transition from clear to cloudy conditions. To this end, we compare results from a large‐eddy simulation technique, a high‐resolution global weather model, and a complete observational data set collected during the GoAmazon14/15 campaign. The overall model‐observation comparisons of radiation and canopy‐top fluxes, turbulence, and cloud dynamics are very satisfactory, with all the modeled variables lying within the standard deviation of the monthly aggregated observations. Our analysis indicates that the timing of the change in the daylight carbon exchange, from a sink to a source, remains uncertain and is probably related to the stomata closure caused by the increase in vapor pressure deficit during the afternoon. We demonstrate quantitatively that heat and moisture transport from the subcloud layer into the cloud layer are misrepresented by the global model, yielding low values of specific humidity and thermal instability above the cloud base. Finally, the numerical simulations and observational data are adequate settings for benchmarking more comprehensive studies of plant responses, microphysics, and radiation
Learning Organization for Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation; Unravelling the Intricate Relationship Between Organizational and Operational Learning Organization Characteristics
Osagie, Eghe ; Wesselink, Renate ; Blok, Vincent ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2020
Organization & Environment (2020). - ISSN 1086-0266
corporate social responsibility - CSR implementation - learning organization - sustainable development - workplace learning
Because corporate social responsibility (CSR) is potentially beneficial for companies, it is important to understand the factors that improve a company’s CSR practice. Scholars hypothesize that facilitating learning organization characteristics, which are divided in characteristics at the organizational and the operational level, may improve CSR implementation. These characteristics stimulate companies and their members to be critical, learn from the past, and embrace change, but there is limited empirical evidence of this approach. This study addresses this gap by surveying 280 CSR professionals and performing bootstrap mediation analyses to test multiple hypotheses. Learning organization characteristics at the organizational level, play a key role in supporting CSR implementation: leadership for learning, system connection, and group learning show a direct relationship with CSR implementation. It is striking that the role of the learning organization characteristics at the operational level is only indirect; the organizational characteristics mediate their relationship with CSR implementation.
Genomic Blocks in Aethionema arabicum Support Arabideae as Next Diverging Clade in Brassicaceae
Walden, Nora ; Nguyen, Thu Phuong ; Mandáková, Terezie ; Lysak, Martin A. ; Schranz, Michael Eric - \ 2020
Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-462X
Aethionema - Arabideae - Brassicaceae - comparative genomics - genomic blocks - synteny
The tribe Aethionemeae is sister to all other crucifers, making it a crucial group for unraveling genome evolution and phylogenetic relationships within the crown group Brassicaceae. In this study, we extend the analysis of Brassicaceae genomic blocks (GBs) to Aethionema whereby we identified unique block boundaries shared only with the tribe Arabideae. This was achieved using bioinformatic methods to analyze synteny between the recently updated genome sequence of Aethionema arabicum and other high-quality Brassicaceae genome sequences. We show that compared to the largely conserved genomic structure of most non-polyploid Brassicaceae lineages, GBs are highly rearranged in Aethionema. Furthermore, we detected similarities between the genomes of Aethionema and Arabis alpina, in which also a high number of genomic rearrangements compared to those of other Brassicaceae was found. These similarities suggest that tribe Arabideae, a clade showing conflicting phylogenetic position between studies, may have diverged before diversification of the other major lineages, and highlight the potential of synteny information for phylogenetic inference.
Can big data explain yield variability and water productivity in intensive cropping systems?
Silva, João Vasco ; Tenreiro, Tomás R. ; Spätjens, Léon ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Ittersum, Martin K. van; Reidsma, Pytrik - \ 2020
Field Crops Research 255 (2020). - ISSN 0378-4290
Arable crops - Crop coefficients (kc) - Crop ecology - The Netherlands - Yield gaps
Yield gaps and water productivity are key indicators to monitor the progress towards more sustainable and productive cropping systems. Individual farmers are collecting increasing amounts of data (‘big data’), which can help monitor the process of sustainable intensification at local level. In this study, we build upon such data to quantify the magnitude and identify the biophysical and management determinants of on-farm yield gaps and water productivity for the main arable crops cultivated in the Netherlands. The analysis focused on ware, seed and starch potatoes, sugar beet, spring onion, winter wheat and spring barley and covered the period 2015–2017. A crop modelling approach based on crop coefficients (kc) and daily weather data was used to estimate the potential yield (Yp), radiation intercepted and potential evapotranspiration (ETP) for each crop. Yield gaps were estimated to be ca. 10% of Yp for sugar beet, 25–30% of Yp for ware, seed and starch potato and spring barley, and 35–40% of Yp for spring onion and winter wheat. Variation in actual yields was associated with water availability in key periods of the growing season as well as with sowing and harvest dates. However, the R2 of the fitted regressions was rather low (20–49%). Current levels of crop water productivity ranged between 13 kg DM ha−1 mm−1 for spring barley, ca. 15 kg DM ha−1 mm−1 for seed potato, spring onion and winter wheat, 23 kg DM ha−1 mm−1 for ware potato and ca. 25 kg DM ha−1 mm−1 for starch potato and sugar beet. These values are about half of their potential, but increasing actual water productivity further is restricted by rainfall amount and distribution. However, doing so should not be prioritized over reducing environmental impacts of these intensive cropping systems in the short-term and may require large investments from farm to regional levels in the long-term. Although these findings are most relevant to similar cropping systems in NW Europe, the underlying methods are generic and can be used to benchmark crop performance in other cropping systems. Based on this work, we argue that ‘big data’ are currently most useful to describe cropping systems at regional scale and derive benchmarks of farm performance but not as much to predict and explain crop yield variability in time and space.
Lerende evaluatie van het Natuurpact 2020 : Gezamenlijk de puzzel leggen voor natuur, economie en maatschappij: tweede rapportage
Folkert, Rob ; Bouwma, Irene ; Kuindersma, Wiebren ; Hoek, Dirk-Jan van der; Gerritsen, Alwin ; Kunseler, Eva ; Buijs, Arjen ; Broekhoven, Saskia van; Knegt, Bart de; Aalbers, Carmen ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Doren, Didi van; Klaassen, Pim ; Wit-de Vries, Esther de; Roelofsen, Hans ; Agricola, Herman ; Os, Jaap van; Frissel, Joep ; Donders, Josine ; Verwoerd, Lisa ; Giesen, Paul ; Sanders, Marlies ; Goossen, Martin ; Nuesink, Nienke ; Arnouts, Rikke ; Boer, Tineke de; Dam, Rosalie van - \ 2020
Den Haag : PBL Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL-publicatie 3852) - 183