Review: Impact of protein and energy supply on the fate of amino acids from absorption to milk protein in dairy cows
Lapierre, H. ; Martineau, R. ; Hanigan, M.D. ; Lingen, H.J. Van; Kebreab, E. ; Spek, J.W. ; Ouellet, D.R. - \ 2020
Animal 14 (2020)S1. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. S87 - S102.
efficiency - formulation - nitrogen - ration - requirement
Making dairy farming more cost-effective and reducing nitrogen environmental pollution could be reached through a reduced input of dietary protein, provided productivity is not compromised. This could be achieved through balancing dairy rations for essential amino acids (EAA) rather than their aggregate, the metabolizable protein (MP). This review revisits the estimations of the major true protein secretions in dairy cows, milk protein yield (MPY), metabolic fecal protein (MFP), endogenous urinary loss and scurf and associated AA composition. The combined efficiency with which MP (EffMP) or EAA (EffAA) is used to support protein secretions is calculated as the sum of true protein secretions (MPY + MFP + scurf) divided by the net supply (adjusted to remove the endogenous urinary excretion: MPadj and AAadj). Using the proposed protein and AA secretions, EffMP and EffAA were predicted through meta-analyses (807 treatment means) and validated using an independent database (129 treatment means). The effects of MPadj or AAadj, plus digestible energy intake (DEI), days in milk (DIM) and parity (primiparous v. multiparous), were significant in all models. Models using (MPadj, MPadj × MPadj, DEI and DEI × DEI) or (MPadj/DEI and MPadj/DEI × MPadj/DEI) had similar corrected Akaike's information criterion, but the model using MPadj/DEI performed better in the validation database. A model that also included this ratio was, therefore, used to fitting equations to predict EffAA. These equations predicted well EffAA in the validation database except for Arg which had a strong slope bias. Predictions of MPY from predicted EffMP based on MPadj/DEI, MPadj/DEI × MPadj/DEI, DIM and parity yielded a better fit than direct predictions of MPY based on MPadj, MPadj × MPadj, DEI, DIM and parity. Predictions of MPY based on each EffAA yielded fairly similar results among AA. It is proposed to ponder the mean of MPY predictions obtained from each EffAA by the lowest prediction to retain the potential limitation from AA with the shortest supply. Overall, the revisited estimations of endogenous urinary excretion and MFP, revised AA composition of protein secretions and inclusion of a variable combined EffAA (based on AAadj/DEI, AAadj/DEI × Aadj/DEI, DIM and parity) offer the potential to improve predictions of MPY, identify which AA are potentially in short supply and, therefore, improve the AA balance of dairy rations.
Analysis of LULUCF actions in EU member states as reported under Art. 10 of the LULUCF Decision : final study
Paquel, Kamila ; Bowyer, C. ; Allen, Ben ; Nesbit, Martin ; Martineau, Hugh ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. - \ 2017
Institute for European Environmental Policy IEEP - 163 p.
Comment : Ebola: limitations of correcting misinformation
Chandler, C. ; Fairhead, J. ; Kelly, A. ; Leach, M. ; Martineau, F. ; Mokuwa, E. ; Richards, P. - \ 2015
The Lancet 385 (2015)9975. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1275 - 1277.
health - africa
Workshop report: Proceedings of the Rank Forum on Vitamin D
Lanham-New, S.A. ; Buttriss, J.L. ; Miles, L.M. ; Ashwell, M. ; Berry, J.L. ; Boucher, B.J. ; Cashman, K.D. ; Cooper, C. ; Darling, A.L. ; Francis, R.M. ; Fraser, W.D. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Hypponen, E. ; Kiely, M. ; Lamberg-Allardt, C. ; Macdonald, H.M. ; Martineau, A.R. ; Masud, T. ; Mavroeidi, A. ; Nowson, C. ; Prentice, A. ; Stone, E.M. ; Reddy, S. ; Vieth, R. ; Williams, M. - \ 2011
The British journal of nutrition 105 (2011)1. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 144 - 156.
The Rank Forum on Vitamin D was held on 2nd and 3rd July 2009 at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. The workshop consisted of a series of scene-setting presentations to address the current issues and challenges concerning vitamin D and health, and included an open discussion focusing on the identification of the concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (a marker of vitamin D status) that may be regarded as optimal, and the implications this process may have in the setting of future dietary reference values for vitamin D in the UK. The Forum was in agreement with the fact that it is desirable for all of the population to have a serum 25(OH)D concentration above 25 nmol/l, but it discussed some uncertainty about the strength of evidence for the need to aim for substantially higher concentrations (25(OH)D concentrations>75 nmol/l). Any discussion of 'optimal' concentration of serum 25(OH)D needs to define 'optimal' with care since it is important to consider the normal distribution of requirements and the vitamin D needs for a wide range of outcomes. Current UK reference values concentrate on the requirements of particular subgroups of the population; this differs from the approaches used in other European countries where a wider range of age groups tend to be covered. With the re-emergence of rickets and the public health burden of low vitamin D status being already apparent, there is a need for urgent action from policy makers and risk managers. The Forum highlighted concerns regarding the failure of implementation of existing strategies in the UK for achieving current vitamin D recommendations
The risks associated with tail biting in pigs and possible means to reduce the need for tail docking considering the different housing and husbandry systems - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare
Blokhuis, H.J. ; Nunes Pina, T. ; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Sanaa, M. ; Edwards, S.A. ; Gunn, M. ; Martineau, G.P. ; Mendl, M. ; Prunier, A. - \ 2007
Italy : EFSA (EFSA journal 611 annex) - 98
varkens - staartbijten - huisvesting, dieren - dierhouderij - risico - dierenwelzijn - pigs - tail biting - animal housing - animal husbandry - risk - animal welfare
The Panel on Animal Health and Welfare was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on the risks associated with tail biting in pigs and possible means to reduce the need for tail docking considering the different housing and husbandry systems
|Immunodominance does not result from peptide competition for MHC class II presentation
Lo-Man, R. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Martineau, P. ; Hofnung, M. ; Meloen, R.H. ; Leclerc, C. - \ 1998
The Journal of Immunology 160 (1998)4. - ISSN 0022-1767 - p. 1759 - 1766.
Competition for binding to MHC class II molecules between processed peptides derived from a single protein Ag is considered an important parameter leading to the presentation of a limited set of peptides by APCs. We tested the relevance of this competition process in a model Ag, the MalE protein, by deleting T cell epitopes or by introducing a competitor T cell peptide. We identified in DBA/1 (I-A(q)) mice six immunodominant T cell determinants in the MalE sequence, 89-95, 116-123, 198-205, 211-219, 274- 281, and 335-341. Synthetic peptides carrying these determinants were classified in three groups as weak, intermediate, or strong I-A(q) binders in competition experiments with the PreS:T peptide of hepatitis B surface Ag. In vivo, synthetic MalE peptides with weak and intermediate MHC binding capacity were inhibited their capacity to stimulate proliferative response in the presence of the PreS:T competitor peptide, whereas the strongest MHC binder was not. Strikingly, the insertion of the potent competitor PreS:T peptide into the MalE sequence, as a single copy or as four copies, did not inhibit the proliferative response to the six immunodominant peptides of the recipient protein. Moreover, deletion in the protein sequence disrupting either the weak (198-205) or strong (335-341) MHC binding determinant of MalE did not modify the proliferative response to the remaining T cell determinants as compared with wild-type MalE protein. Altogether, these results show that peptide competition for MHC binding may not represent the most important event in processes leading to immunodominance.
In situ isolation of mRNA from individual plant cells: creation of cell-specific cDNA libraries
Karrer, E.E. ; Lincoln, J.E. ; Hogenhout, S.A. ; Bennett, A.B. ; Bostock, R.M. ; Martineau, B. ; Lucas, W.J. ; Gilchrist, D.G. ; Alexander, D. - \ 1995
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92 (1995)9. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 3814 - 3818.
A method for isolating and cloning mRNA populations from individual cells in living, intact plant tissues is described. The contents of individual cells were aspirated into micropipette tips filled with RNA extraction buffer. The mRNA from these cells was purified by binding to oligo(dT)-linked magnetic beads and amplified on the beads using reverse transcription and PCR. The cell-specific nature of the isolated mRNA was verified by creating cDNA libraries from individual tomato leaf epidermal and guard cell mRNA preparations. In testing the reproducibility of the method, we discovered an inherent limitation of PCR amplification from small amounts of any complex template. This phenomenon, which we have termed the "Monte Carlo" effect, is created by small and random differences in amplification efficiency between individual templates in an amplifying cDNA population. The Monte Carlo effect is dependent upon template concentration: the lower the abundance of any template, the less likely its true abundance will be reflected in the amplified library. Quantitative assessment of the Monte Carlo effect revealed that only rare mRNAs (< or = 0.04% of polyadenylylated mRNA) exhibited significant variation in amplification at the single-cell level. The cDNA cloning approach we describe should be useful for a broad range of cell-specific biological applications.