An international outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis linked to eggs from Poland: a microbiological and epidemiological study
Pijnacker, Roan ; Dallman, Timothy J. ; Tijsma, Aloys S.L. ; Hawkins, Gillian ; Larkin, Lesley ; Kotila, Saara M. ; Amore, Giusi ; Amato, Ettore ; Suzuki, Pamina M. ; Denayer, Sarah ; Klamer, Sofieke ; Pászti, Judit ; McCormick, Jacquelyn ; Hartman, Hassan ; Hughes, Gareth J. ; Brandal, Lin C.T. ; Brown, Derek ; Mossong, Joël ; Jernberg, Cecilia ; Müller, Luise ; Palm, Daniel ; Severi, Ettore ; Gołębiowska, Joannna ; Hunjak, Blaženka ; Owczarek, Slawomir ; Hello, Simon Le; Garvey, Patricia ; Mooijman, Kirsten ; Friesema, Ingrid H.M. ; Weijden, Coen van der; Voort, Menno van der; Rizzi, Valentina ; Franz, Eelco ; Bertrand, Sophie ; Brennan, Martine ; Browning, Lynda ; Bruce, Ryan ; Cantaert, Vera ; Chattaway, Marie ; Coia, John ; Couper, Sarah ; Žohar Čretnik, Tjaša ; Daniel, Ondřej ; Dionisi, Anna Maria ; Fabre, Laetitia ; Fitz-James, Ife ; Florek, Karolina ; Florianová, Martina ; Fox, Eithne ; Frelih, Tatjana ; Grilc, Eva ; Katalinic Jankovic, Vera ; Jourdan, Nathalie ; Karpíšková, Renata ; Kerkhof, Hans van den; Kuiling, Sjoerd ; Kurečić Filipović, Sanja ; Laisnez, Valeska ; Lange, Heidi ; deLappes, Niall ; Leblanc, Judith ; Luzzi, Ida ; Mandilara, Georgia ; Mather, Henry ; Mattheus, Wesley ; Mellou, Kassiani ; Morgan, Deborah ; Pinna, Elizabeth de; Ragimbeau, Catherine ; Røed, Margrethe Hovda ; Salmenlinna, Saara ; Smith, Robert ; Smith-Palmer, Alison ; Špačková, Michaela ; Torpdahl, Mia ; Trkov, Marija ; Trönnberg, Linda ; Tzani, Myrsini ; Utsi, Lara ; Wasyl, Dariusz ; Weicherding, Pierre - \ 2019
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 19 (2019)7. - ISSN 1473-3099 - p. 778 - 786.
Background: Salmonella spp are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe. We investigated a large multi-country outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in the EU and European Economic Area (EEA). Methods: A confirmed case was defined as a laboratory-confirmed infection with the outbreak strains of S Enteritidis based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS), occurring between May 1, 2015, and Oct 31, 2018. A probable case was defined as laboratory-confirmed infection with S Enteritidis with the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis outbreak profile. Multi-country epidemiological, trace-back, trace-forward, and environmental investigations were done. We did a case-control study including confirmed and probable cases and controls randomly sampled from the population registry (frequency matched by age, sex, and postal code). Odds ratios (ORs) for exposure rates between cases and controls were calculated with unmatched univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Findings: 18 EU and EEA countries reported 838 confirmed and 371 probable cases. 509 (42%) cases were reported in 2016, after which the number of cases steadily increased. The case-control study results showed that cases more often ate in food establishments than did controls (OR 3·4 [95% CI 1·6–7·3]), but no specific food item was identified. Recipe-based food trace-back investigations among cases who ate in food establishments identified eggs from Poland as the vehicle of infection in October, 2016. Phylogenetic analysis identified two strains of S Enteritidis in human cases that were subsequently identified in salmonella-positive eggs and primary production premises in Poland, confirming the source of the outbreak. After control measures were implemented, the number of cases decreased, but increased again in March, 2017, and the increase continued into 2018. Interpretation: This outbreak highlights the public health value of multi-country sharing of epidemiological, trace-back, and microbiological data. The re-emergence of cases suggests that outbreak strains have continued to enter the food chain, although changes in strain population dynamics and fewer cases indicate that control measures had some effect. Routine use of WGS in salmonella surveillance and outbreak response promises to identify and stop outbreaks in the future. Funding: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; Directorate General for Health and Food Safety, European Commission; and National Public Health and Food Safety Institutes of the authors' countries (see Acknowledgments for full list).
FACSIMILE: Field and Computer Simulation in Landscape Evolution
Mather, A.E. ; Armitage, J. ; Attal, M. ; Benito, G. ; Brewer, P.A. ; Briant, R.M. ; Cohen, K.M. ; Coulthard, T. ; Gorp, W. van; Macklin, M.G. ; Schoorl, J.M. - \ 2018
Model-Data comparison: The Late Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of the Rio Bergantes catchment, Spain
Mather, A.E. ; Armitage, J. ; Attal, M. ; Benito, G. ; Brewer, P. ; Briant, B. ; Cohen, K. ; Coulthart, T. ; Gorp, W. van; Macklin, M. ; Schoorl, J.M. - \ 2018
In: Book of abstracts QRA Annual Discussion Meeting 2018. - Plymouth : Plymouth University - p. 71 - 71.
Evaluation of producing and marketing entire male pigs
Backus, G.B.C. ; Broek, E.M.F. van den; Fels, J.B. van der; Heres, L. ; Immink, V.M. ; Kornelis, M. ; Mather, P.K. ; Peet-Schwering, Carola van der; Riel, Johannes van; Snoek, H.M. ; Smet, A. de; Tacken, G.M.L. ; Valeeva, N.I. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van - \ 2016
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 76 (2016). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 29 - 41.
Boars; - Castration; - Detection; - Behaviour; - Consumer acceptance; - Breeding
This paper presents the results of a research program that was aimed at evaluating: (1) sensory evaluation of meat from entire male pigs, (2) preventive measures to reduce boar taint prevalence, (3) accuracy of detection for boar taint, and (4) the relationship between farm management characteristics and levels of mounting and aggressive behaviour of boars. Using observational and experimental studies data were collected in various segments of the pork supply chain. Consumer acceptance of meat from entire male pigs was evaluated. The effectiveness of preventive measures to reduce boar taint prevalence was determined. The relationship of farm (management) characteristics with boar taint prevalence, animal behaviour, skin lesions and lameness respectively was analysed. The similarity of the rank order between consumer perception of odour and human nose scores, skatole and androstenone levels respectively was determined. Consumers evaluate meat that passed the boar taint detection test comparable to meat from gilts. Meat samples that did not pass this test were evaluated less favourable. Ranking AI boars on their genomic breeding values for low boar taint resulted in a reduction in boar taint prevalence of 40%. The skatole level is lower in boars fed via a long trough than in boars fed by a single space feeder. Few eating places, restricted feeding, a low level of amino acids in the diet, insufficient water supply of the drinking system, illness of the pigs, a suboptimal climate and fear for humans were associated with a higher level of sexual and aggressive behaviour and more skin lesions. A partly open pen wall, clean pens and pigs, wider gaps of the slats, feeding by a long trough, and feeding wet by-products were associated with less sexual and aggressive behaviour and less skin lesions. Having more than 30 animals per pen was associated with a higher probability of high boar taint prevalence levels. Hygienic conditions were associated with lower boar taint prevalence levels. Assessing similarity of the rank order comparison between consumer perception and three selected boar taint detection parameters for the consumer perception attribute odour of meat resulted in the highest Kendall's W values for the human nose scores. In conclusion, boar tainted meat was rated as less pleasant by consumers compared to meat of gilts and non-tainted boar meat, indicating the need of detection as a safety net at the slaughter line. Breeding was an effective preventive measure to reduce boar taint. Farms with appropriate management, feeding and housing conditions have reduced levels of mounting and aggressive behaviour. Human nose scores were a better predictor of the rank order of consumer perception, compared to skatole levels and to androstenone levels.
General procedure to initialize the cyclic soil water balance by the Thornthwaite and Mather method
Dourado-Neto, D. ; Lier, Q.D. van; Metselaar, K. ; Reichardt, K. ; Nielsen, D.R. - \ 2010
Scientia agricola 67 (2010)1. - ISSN 0103-9016 - p. 87 - 95.
recharge - climate - brazil
The original Thornthwaite and Mather method, proposed in 1955 to calculate a climatic monthly cyclic soil water balance, is frequently used as an iterative procedure due to its low input requirements and coherent estimates of water balance components. Using long term data sets to establish a characteristic water balance of a location, the initial soil water storage is generally assumed to be at field capacity at the end of the last month of the wet season, unless the climate is (semi-) arid when the soil water storage is lower than the soil water holding capacity. To close the water balance, several iterations might be necessary, which can be troublesome in many situations. For (semi-) arid climates with one dry season, Mendon a derived in 1958 an equation to quantify the soil water storage monthly at the end of the last month of the wet season, which avoids iteration procedures and closes the balance in one calculation. The cyclic daily water balance application is needed to obtain more accurate water balance output estimates. In this note, an equation to express the water storage for the case of the occurrence of more than one dry season per year is presented as a generalization of Mendon a's equation, also avoiding iteration procedures.
|Linking Land-change science and policy: current lessons and future integration
Reid, R.S. ; Tomich, T.P. ; Xu, J. ; Geist, H.J. ; Mather, A. ; DeFries, R. ; Liu, J. ; Alves, D. ; Agbola, B. ; Lambin, E.F. ; Chabbra, A. ; Veldkamp, A. ; Kok, K. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Thomas, D. ; Palm, C. ; Verburg, P.H. - \ 2006
In: Land-use and land-cover change Heidelberg, Germany : Springer - ISBN 9783540322016 - p. 157 - 171.
Geochemical records in recent sediments of Lake Erhai: implications for environmental changes in a low latitude–high altitude lake in southwest China
Wan, G.J. ; Bai, Z.G. ; Qing, H. ; Mather, J.D. ; Huang, R.G. ; Wang, H.R. ; Tang, D.G. ; Xiao, B.H. - \ 2003
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 21 (2003)5. - ISSN 1367-9120 - p. 489 - 502.
organic-matter - early diagenesis - marine-sediments - atmospheric co2 - carbon-cycle - surface sediments - continental-shelf - phanerozoic time - phosphorus - model
Sediment cores were collected from Lake Erhai, which is located on the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, a landform formed by the uplift of the Himalayas. These sediments were deposited up to about 697±15 years ago based on 210Pbex and 137Cs dating. d13Cinorg, d18Oinorg and d13Corg values and concentrations of Cinorg, Corg, N and P within the sediment cores have been measured. Corg has an average deposition flux of 12.7 g/m2, and an accumulation flux of 7.20 g/m2. The calculated decomposition rate constant is 0.017 a-1 with a half life of 40 a. d13Cinorg and d18Oinorg values range from -1.6 to -7.9‰ and -5.7 to -13.6‰, respectively, and show similar trends over the past 700 years, which is interpreted to be controlled mainly by temperature, corresponding to climatic changes of two and half periods of a ‘warm–cold–warm’ cycle. d13Corg ranges from -25 to -28‰, indicating that the organic matter originated mainly from land-derived plants, with overprinting from anthropogenic activities over the past 460 years (since 1537 Image ). N and Porg concentrations show a similar vertical distribution to Corg. Atomic ratios of organic carbon and nitrogen (C/N) are 5.8 and 6.8 for the deposition and accumulation stages, respectively, similar to the Redfield ratio in the ocean. The C/P ratio, however, is higher than that in the ocean. The vertical distribution of carbon in the sediment cores indicates that Lake Erhai has the characteristics of both an inland lake (land-derived organic matter) and the ocean (similar C/N ratio). The lower C/N and C/P ratios in the lake Erhai sediments are characteristic for a lake at high altitude and in a subtropical region. This ‘low latitude–high altitude effect’ is probably related to the uplift of the Himalayas.
|Exploring pathways to sustainable living: the role of environmental education
Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2003
In: Encyclopedia of life support systems / Mather, A., Bryden, J., Oxford, UK : EOLSS Publishers - p. 147 - 180.
|The Thornwaite-mather procedure as a simple engineering method to predict recharge.
Steenhuis, T. ; Molen, W.H. van der - \ 1986
Journal of Hydrology 84 (1986). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 221 - 229.
|Effect of sulphur dioxide on the.chemical composition and odour of mustard paste
Frijters, J.E.R. ; Griffiths, N.M. ; Mather, A.M. ; Reynolds, J. ; Fenwick, G.R. - \ 1981
Chemical Senses 6 (1981). - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 33 - 43.
|An effect of sulphur dioxide on the odour of mustard paste
Griffiths, N.M. ; Mather, A.M. ; Fenwick, G.R. ; Frijters, J.E.R. ; Merz, J.H. - \ 1980
Chemistry & Industry 2 (1980). - ISSN 0009-3068 - p. 239 - 240.