Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Anticipatory governance of solar geoengineering: conflicting visions of the future and their links to governance proposals
    Gupta, Aarti ; Möller, Ina ; Biermann, Frank ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kashwan, Prakash ; Mathur, Vikrom ; Morrow, David R. ; Nicholson, Simon - \ 2020
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 45 (2020). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 10 - 19.

    This article identifies diverse rationales to call for anticipatory governance of solar geoengineering, in light of a climate crisis. In focusing on governance rationales, we step back from proliferating debates in the literature on ‘how, when, whom, and where’ to govern, to address the important prior question of why govern solar geoengineering in the first place: to restrict or enable its further consideration? We link these opposing rationales to contrasting underlying visions of a future impacted by climate change. These visions see the future as either more or less threatening, depending upon whether it includes the possible future use of solar geoengineering. Our analysis links these contrasting visions and governance rationales to existing governance proposals in the literature. In doing so, we illustratewhy some proposals differ so significantly, while also showing that similar-sounding proposals may emanate from quite distinct rationales and thus advance different ends, depending upon how they are designed in practice.

    Quantifying Individual Response to PRRSV Using Dynamic Indicators of Resilience Based on Activity
    Zande, Lisette E. van der; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Mathur, Pramod K. ; Cairns, W.J. ; Keyes, Michael C. ; Eggert, John M. ; Little, Erin A. ; Dee, Scott A. ; Knol, Egbert F. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
    accelerometer - activity - dynamic indicator of resilience - pig behavior - resilience

    Pigs are faced with various perturbations throughout their lives, some of which are induced by management practices, others by natural causes. Resilience is described as the ability to recover from or cope with a perturbation. Using these data, activity patterns of an individual, as well as deviations from these patterns, can potentially be used to quantify resilience. Dynamic indicators of resilience (DIORs) may measure resilience on a different dimension by calculating variation, autocorrelation and skewness of activity from the absolute activity data. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using DIORs of activity, such as average, root mean square error (RMSE), autocorrelation or skewness as indicators of resilience to infection with the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV). For this study, individual activity was obtained from 232 pigs equipped with ear tag accelerometers and inoculated with PRRSV between seven and 9 weeks of age. Clinical scores were assigned to each individual at 13 days post-challenge and used to distinguish between a resilient and non-resilient group. Mortality post-challenge was also recorded. Average, RMSE, autocorrelation and skewness of activity were calculated for the pre- and post-challenge phases, as well as the change in activity level pre- vs. post-challenge (i.e., delta). DIORs pre-challenge were expected to predict resilience to PRRSV in the absence of PRRSV infection, whereas DIORs post-challenge and delta were expected to reflect the effect of the PRRSV challenge. None of the pre-challenge DIORs predicted morbidity or mortality post-challenge. However, a higher RMSE in the 3 days post-challenge and larger change in level and RMSE of activity from pre- to post-challenge tended to increase the probability of clinical signs at day 13 post-infection (poor resilience). A higher skewness post-challenge (tendency) and a larger change in skewness from pre- to post-challenge increased the probability of mortality. A decrease in skewness post-challenge lowered the risk of mortality. The post-challenge DIOR autocorrelation was neither linked to morbidity nor to mortality. In conclusion, results from this study showed that post-challenge DIORs of activity can be used to quantify resilience to PRRSV challenge.

    Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
    Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
    Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.

    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.

    Taking stock of national climate policies to evaluate implementation of the Paris Agreement
    Roelfsema, Mark ; Soest, Heleen L. van; Harmsen, Mathijs ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Bertram, Christoph ; Elzen, Michel den; Höhne, Niklas ; Iacobuta, Gabriela ; Krey, Volker ; Kriegler, Elmar ; Luderer, Gunnar ; Riahi, Keywan ; Ueckerdt, Falko ; Després, Jacques ; Drouet, Laurent ; Emmerling, Johannes ; Frank, Stefan ; Fricko, Oliver ; Gidden, Matthew ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Huppmann, Daniel ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Fragkiadakis, Kostas ; Gi, Keii ; Keramidas, Kimon ; Köberle, Alexandre C. ; Aleluia Reis, Lara ; Rochedo, Pedro ; Schaeffer, Roberto ; Oshiro, Ken ; Vrontisi, Zoi ; Chen, Wenying ; Iyer, Gokul C. ; Edmonds, Jae ; Kannavou, Maria ; Jiang, Kejun ; Mathur, Ritu ; Safonov, George ; Vishwanathan, Saritha Sudharmma - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Many countries have implemented national climate policies to accomplish pledged Nationally Determined Contributions and to contribute to the temperature objectives of the Paris Agreement on climate change. In 2023, the global stocktake will assess the combined effort of countries. Here, based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, we show that implementation of current policies leaves a median emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq by 2030 with the optimal pathways to implement the well below 2 °C and 1.5 °C Paris goals. If Nationally Determined Contributions would be fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by a third. Interestingly, the countries evaluated were found to not achieve their pledged contributions with implemented policies (implementation gap), or to have an ambition gap with optimal pathways towards well below 2 °C. This shows that all countries would need to accelerate the implementation of policies for renewable technologies, while efficiency improvements are especially important in emerging countries and fossil-fuel-dependent countries.

    Defining resilient pigs after a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) challenge using activity and feeding data from accelerometers
    Zande, L.E. Van Der; Dunkelberger, J.R. ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Mathur, P.K. ; Cairns, W.J. ; Keyes, M.C. ; Eggert, J.M. ; Little, E.A. ; Dee, S.A. ; Knol, E.F. - \ 2019
    In: Precision Livestock Farming 2019. - Teagasc (Precision Livestock Farming 2019 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2019 ) - ISBN 9781841706542 - p. 471 - 475.
    Accelerometers - Behaviour - Pig - PRRS - Resilience - RMSE

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious viral disease in pigs. PRRS causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory infections in growing pigs. To improve pig health and minimise economic losses, resilient pigs are preferred within the herd. Resilient pigs still become infected, yet are able to recover following infection, showing less variation in activity and feeding. In this study, 232 commercial crossbred pigs were equipped with individual accelerometer ear tags to monitor the number of active, feeding, and hyperactive events per individual per hour. At eight weeks of age, pigs were inoculated with PRRS virus 1-7-4. Data from accelerometers were collected 23 days prior to challenge and 42 days post-infection (dpi). Expected levels of activity, feeding, and hyperactivity were estimated by regressing behavioural traits on observed datapoints prior to challenge. This regression line was extended to 42 dpi. Then, deviations from the regression line were quantified as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for each individual during the following time periods: pre-challenge, 0-13 dpi, and 13-42 dpi. All traits decreased and RMSE increased post-challenge. These results are consistant with clinical signs of PRRS, including lethargy and loss of appetite. In addition, association of these traits with survival was also investigated. RMSE prior to PRRS-infection was not predictive of survival after infection. However, RMSE of feeding and activity during the peak challenge period (0-13 dpi) was predictive of survival, where pigs with less deviation in behaviour were more resilient to the PRRS challenge.

    Combining metabolomics and genomics to elucidate physiological processes related to tail damage score in pigs
    Dervishi, E. ; Zande, Lisette van der; Silva Valente, T. da; Reimert, I. ; Mathur, Pramod K. ; Lopes, M.S. ; Knol, E.F. ; Plastow, G.S. - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings of the 37th International Society for Animal Genetics Conference (ISAG). - - p. 147 - 147.
    The purpose of this study was to identify important metabolitesrelated to tail damage (TDAM) score and to identify genomic regionsassociated with variation in the metabolites. We used 181 Tempo ×Topigs-20 animals divided over 2 batches balanced for gender and selectedfor positive (n = 81) or negative (n = 100) indirect genetic effect(IGE) for growth. Half of the pigs were housed in a barren environment,and the other half in an enriched environment. The tail scores were recordedat weaning and thereafter once a week (score 1 no visible taildamage, score 2 hair removed from the tail, score 3 bite marks and score4 clearly visible wound). Blood samples collected at 8, 9 and 22 weeksof age were used to determine metabolic profiles at The MetabolomicsInnovation Centre (University of Alberta). A total of 53 compoundswere quantified. Statistical analyses were performed in R version 3.5using a generalized mixed model with repeated measurements. A singlestep genome-wide association study (ssGWAS) was performed toidentify genomic regions associated with significant metabolites for tailbiting score. Preliminary results show that serum levels of glycerol andisopropanol were significantly associated with tail damage score. Animalswith TDAM 2 had greater glycerol concentration in blood whencompared with animals with TDAM 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). In addition,animals with TDAM 1 had lower isopropanol concentration when comparedwith animals with TDAM 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). GWAS identified2 candidate regions located on chromosome 6 associated with glyceroland isopropanol (at 45Mb, and at 149Mb respectively). The candidategenes identified in these regions were ZFP14, DOCK7, ANGPTL3,USP1 and KANK4. Angiopoietin like 3 is a secreted protein encoded byANGPTL3 that is involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism.This protein is present at high levels in the liver where it can bindto adipocytes to activate lipolysis, releasing free fatty acids and glycerol.These results suggest that animals with tail damage (propensity tobeing bitten) might have impaired lipolysis processes.
    Combining metabolomics and genomics to elucidate physiological processes related to tail damage score in pigs
    Dervishi, E. ; Zande, Lisette van der; Silva Valente, T. da; Reimert, I. ; Mathur, Pramod K. ; Lopes, M.S. ; Knol, E.F. ; Plastow, G.S. - \ 2019
    The purpose of this study was to identify important metabolitesrelated to tail damage (TDAM) score and to identify genomic regionsassociated with variation in the metabolites. We used 181 Tempo ×Topigs-20 animals divided over 2 batches balanced for gender and selectedfor positive (n = 81) or negative (n = 100) indirect genetic effect(IGE) for growth. Half of the pigs were housed in a barren environment,and the other half in an enriched environment. The tail scores were recordedat weaning and thereafter once a week (score 1 no visible taildamage, score 2 hair removed from the tail, score 3 bite marks and score4 clearly visible wound). Blood samples collected at 8, 9 and 22 weeksof age were used to determine metabolic profiles at The MetabolomicsInnovation Centre (University of Alberta). A total of 53 compoundswere quantified. Statistical analyses were performed in R version 3.5using a generalized mixed model with repeated measurements. A singlestep genome-wide association study (ssGWAS) was performed toidentify genomic regions associated with significant metabolites for tailbiting score. Preliminary results show that serum levels of glycerol andisopropanol were significantly associated with tail damage score. Animalswith TDAM 2 had greater glycerol concentration in blood whencompared with animals with TDAM 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). In addition,animals with TDAM 1 had lower isopropanol concentration when comparedwith animals with TDAM 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). GWAS identified2 candidate regions located on chromosome 6 associated with glyceroland isopropanol (at 45Mb, and at 149Mb respectively). The candidategenes identified in these regions were ZFP14, DOCK7, ANGPTL3,USP1 and KANK4. Angiopoietin like 3 is a secreted protein encoded byANGPTL3 that is involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism.This protein is present at high levels in the liver where it can bindto adipocytes to activate lipolysis, releasing free fatty acids and glycerol.These results suggest that animals with tail damage (propensity tobeing bitten) might have impaired lipolysis processes.
    Defining resilient pigs after a PRRS challenge using activity and feeding data from accelerometers
    Zande, Lisette van der; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R. ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Mathur, Pramod K. ; Cairns, W.J. ; Keyes, Michael C. ; Knol, E.F. ; Dee, Scott A. ; Little, Erin A. - \ 2019
    Defining resilient pigs after a PRRS challenge using activity and feeding data from accelerometers
    Zande, Lisette van der; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Mathur, Pramod K. ; Cairns, W.J. ; Keyes, Michael C. ; Knol, E.F. ; Dee, Scott A. ; Little, Erin A. - \ 2019
    In: Trade-offs in science – keeping the balance. - Wageningen University & Research - p. 48 - 48.
    Turkey gait score measured with sensors
    Visser, L. ; Mohr, J. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Mullaart, E. ; Mathur, P.K. ; Borg, R.C. ; Grevenhof, E.M. van; Bouwman, A.C. - \ 2018
    In: Book of Abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP Book of Abstracts ) - p. 583 - 583.
    A pilot study to investigate the relationship between social behavior and serum metabolite concentration in finisher pigs.
    Dervishi, E. ; Zande, L. ; Reimert, I. ; Mathur, Pramod K. ; Knol, Egbert F. ; Plastow, Graham S. - \ 2018
    Journal of Animal Science 96 (2018)Issue supplement 3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 12 - 12.
    Social behaviour of group housed pigs is important for their welfare, health and productivity. A new breeding method including Indirect Genetic Effects, to reduce aggression in pigs was proposed. The purpose of this study was to identify important metabolites related to pig behavior and whether there are alterations in serum metabolites in animals selected for positive or negative estimated IGE for growth. Animals involved in the present study were part of a much larger study carried out at Wageningen University and Research. Here we used 48 Tempo x Topigs-20 finisher animals divided over 2 batches balanced regarding gender, selected for positive IGE for growth (27 animals) or negative IGE (21 animals). Blood samples collected at 22 weeks of age were used to determine metabolic profiles using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), with the Absolute-IDQ platform kit (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQTM p180 Kit, Biocrates Life Science AG, Innsbruck, Austria). Finally, a catecholamine assay was performed to quantify dopamine, epinephrine, tyramine, metanephrine, normetanephrine and phenylethylamine. Univariate statistical analyses were performed using R by fitting a Linear Mixed Model. Statistical significance was declared when P<0.05. Positive IGE animals had lower concentration of serotonin (5.79 ± 0.70 vs 7.64 ± 0.51 µM), epinephrine (0.54 ± 0.40 vs 2.52 ± 0.29 µM), aspartate and greater concentration of serum phenylethylamine, glycerol, pyruvic acid, creatinine, malonate, acetone, propylene glycol and dimethyl sulfone when compared to negative IGE (all, P<0.05). Positive IGE animals had a lower ratio of tryptophan/kynurenine (P<0.05). Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin which affects behavior in humans and animals. Lower concentration of epinephrine and higher concentration of phenylethylamine might suggest that Sympathetic-Adrenal-Medullary (SAM) axis response is lower in positive IGE animals. In conclusion, selection for IGE for growth is associated with changes in the concentration of several metabolites in the serum of finisher pigs. These metabolites are being tested on a larger number of samples.
    A pilot study to investigate the relationship between social behavior and serum metabolite concentration in finisher pigs.
    Dervishi, E. ; Zande, L. ; Reimert, I. ; Mathur, Pramod K. ; Knol, Egbert F. ; Plastow, Graham S. - \ 2018
    - p. 12 - 12.
    Social behaviour of group housed pigs is important for their welfare, health and productivity. A new breeding method including Indirect Genetic Effects, to reduce aggression in pigs was proposed. The purpose of this study was to identify important metabolites related to pig behavior and whether there are alterations in serum metabolites in animals selected for positive or negative estimated IGE for growth. Animals involved in the present study were part of a much larger study carried out at Wageningen University and Research. Here we used 48 Tempo x Topigs-20 finisher animals divided over 2 batches balanced regarding gender, selected for positive IGE for growth (27 animals) or negative IGE (21 animals). Blood samples collected at 22 weeks of age were used to determine metabolic profiles using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), with the Absolute-IDQ platform kit (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQTM p180 Kit, Biocrates Life Science AG, Innsbruck, Austria). Finally, a catecholamine assay was performed to quantify dopamine, epinephrine, tyramine, metanephrine, normetanephrine and phenylethylamine. Univariate statistical analyses were performed using R by fitting a Linear Mixed Model. Statistical significance was declared when P<0.05. Positive IGE animals had lower concentration of serotonin (5.79 ± 0.70 vs 7.64 ± 0.51 µM), epinephrine (0.54 ± 0.40 vs 2.52 ± 0.29 µM), aspartate and greater concentration of serum phenylethylamine, glycerol, pyruvic acid, creatinine, malonate, acetone, propylene glycol and dimethyl sulfone when compared to negative IGE (all, P<0.05). Positive IGE animals had a lower ratio of tryptophan/kynurenine (P<0.05). Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin which affects behavior in humans and animals. Lower concentration of epinephrine and higher concentration of phenylethylamine might suggest that Sympathetic-Adrenal-Medullary (SAM) axis response is lower in positive IGE animals. In conclusion, selection for IGE for growth is associated with changes in the concentration of several metabolites in the serum of finisher pigs. These metabolites are being tested on a larger number of samples.
    Genetic selection to enhance animalwelfare using meat inspection data from slaughter plants
    Mathur, Pramod K. ; Vogelzang, Roos ; Mulder, Herman A. ; Knol, Egbert F. - \ 2018
    Animals 8 (2018)2. - ISSN 2076-2615
    Disease - Genetic selection - Meat inspection - Pigs - Remark - Welfare
    Animal health and welfare are monitored during meat inspection in many slaughter plants around the world. Carcasses are examined by meat inspectors and remarks are made with respect to different diseases, injuries, and other abnormalities. This is a valuable data resource for disease prevention and enhancing animal welfare, but it is rarely used for this purpose. Records on carcass remarks on 140,375 finisher pigs were analyzed to investigate the possibility of genetic selection to reduce the risk of the most prevalent diseases and indicators of suboptimal animal welfare. As part of this, effects of some non-genetic factors such as differences between farms, sexes, and growth rates were also examined. The most frequent remarks were pneumonia (15.4%), joint disorders (9.8%), pleuritis (4.7%), pericarditis (2.3%), and liver lesions (2.2%). Joint disorders were more frequent in boars than in gilts. There were also significant differences between farms. Pedigree records were available for 142,324 pigs from 14 farms and were used for genetic analysis. Heritability estimates for pneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis, liver lesions, and joint disorders were 0.10, 0.09, 0.14, 0.24, and 0.17 on the liability scale, respectively, suggesting the existence of substantial genetic variation. This was further confirmed though genome wide associations using deregressed breeding values as phenotypes. The genetic correlations between these remarks and finishing traits were small but mostly negative, suggesting the possibility of enhancing pig health and welfare simultaneously with genetic improvement in finishing traits. A selection index based on the breeding values for these traits and their economic values was developed. This index is used to enhance animal welfare in pig farms.
    Data from: What are the prospects for citizen science in agriculture? Evidence from three continents on motivation and mobile telephone use of resource-poor farmers
    Beza, E.A. ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Etten, Jacob van; Reidsma, P. ; Fadda, Carlo ; Mittra, Sarika ; Mathur, Prem ; Kooistra, L. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University & Research
    citizen science - crowd sourcing - mobile phone - motivations - gamification - smallholder farmers
    As the sustainability of agricultural citizen science projects depends on volunteer farmers who contribute their time, energy and skills, understanding their motivation is important to attract and retain participants in citizen science projects. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) farmers' motivations to participate as citizen scientists and 2) farmers' mobile telephone usage. Building on motivational factors identified from previous citizen science studies, a questionnaire based methodology was developed which allowed the analysis of motivational factors and their relation to farmers' characteristics. The questionnaire was applied in three communities of farmers, in countries from different continents, participating as citizen scientists. We used statistical tests to compare motivational factors within and among the three countries. In addition, the relations between motivational factors and farmers characteristics were assessed. Lastly, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to group farmers based on their motivations. Although there was an overlap between the types of motivations, for Indian farmers a collectivistic type of motivation (i.e., contribute to scientific research) was more important than egoistic and altruistic motivations. For Ethiopian and Honduran farmers an egoistic intrinsic type of motivation (i.e., interest in sharing information) was most important. While fun has appeared to be an important egoistic intrinsic factor to participate in other citizen science projects, the smallholder farmers involved in this research valued 'passing free time' the lowest. Two major groups of farmers were distinguished: one motivated by sharing information (egoistic intrinsic), helping (altruism) and contribute to scientific research (collectivistic) and one motivated by egoistic extrinsic factors (expectation, expert interaction and community interaction). Country and education level were the two most important farmers' characteristics that explain around 20% of the variation in farmers motivations. For educated farmers, contributing to scientific research was a more important motivation to participate as citizen scientists compared to less educated farmers. We conclude that motivations to participate in citizen science are different for smallholders in agriculture compared to other sectors. Citizen science does have high potential, but easy to use mechanisms are needed. Moreover, gamification may increase the egoistic intrinsic motivation of farmers.
    Genetic selection to enhance animal welfare using meat inspection data from slaughter plants
    Mathur, Pramod ; Vogelzang, R.H. ; Mulder, H.A. ; Knol, Egbert F. - \ 2017
    In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group level. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863143 - p. 214 - 214.
    Metabolites as new genetic selection tools to enhance behaviour in pigs
    Zande, L. van de; Reimert, I. ; Mathur, P.K. ; Knol, Egbert F. - \ 2017
    In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group Level. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863143 - p. 216 - 216.
    Favourable social behaviour between pigs is important and desirable for animal welfare,economic benefits to farmers, and human society. Already shown to be effective is geneticselection using social breeding values (SBVs). SBVs is the genetic effect based on the growthand behaviour of an individual on its pen mates Pigs with high SBV have desirable behaviourand cause less tail damage to their pen mates. It is further desirable to have a more clearunderstanding of the biological mechanisms behind animal behaviour. It is known thatmetabolites such as serotonin, influence behaviour. However, the relationship betweenbehaviour and metabolites is not yet well understood in pigs. If metabolites are heritable in pigs,combining the knowledge genomics and metabolites might result in more accurate predictionof behaviour. Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge on genetics of behaviour inpigs. Six metabolites were measured on 480 genotyped animals housed in equal numbers inbarren and enriched housing. Behaviour was measured through video recordings. Amongthe six metabolites, the concentration of haptoglobin and IgG were affected by the housingsystems. In addition, SBV was significantly associated with haptoglobin and lymphocytes. Theheritability estimates using genomic information for haptoglobin, leukocytes, lymphocytes,serotonin, IgG, and IgM were 0.15, 0.26, 0.14, 0.21, 0.27, 0.41, respectively, which implies thatthese metabolites have a good genetic basis. There was a significant effect of SBV, haptoglobin,and IgM on tail damage as victim of undesirable behaviour. However, there was no significantcorrelation between the six metabolites and tail biting behaviour as perpetrator. Further dataanalysis is underway to investigate the usefulness of over 100 metabolites to reduce the riskof some undesirable behaviours like tail biting and for overall enhancement of pig behaviourand welfare.
    Gene networks for total number born in pigs across divergent environments
    Verardo, Lucas L. ; Lopes, Marcos S. ; Mathur, Pramod ; Madsen, Ole ; Silva, Fabyano F. ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Knol, Egbert F. ; Lopes, Paulo S. ; Guimarães, Simone E.F. - \ 2017
    Mammalian Genome 28 (2017)9-10. - ISSN 0938-8990 - p. 426 - 435.

    For reproductive traits such as total number born (TNB), variance due to different environments is highly relevant in animal breeding. In this study, we aimed to perform a gene-network analysis for TNB in pigs across different environments using genomic reaction norm models. Thus, based on relevant single-nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium blocks across environments obtained from GWAS, different sets of candidate genes having biological roles linked to TNB were identified. Network analysis across environment levels resulted in gene interactions consistent with known mammal’s fertility biology, captured relevant transcription factors for TNB biology and pointing out different sets of candidate genes for TNB in different environments. These findings may have important implication for animal production, as optimal breeding may vary depending on later environments. Based on these results, genomic diversity was identified and inferred across environments highlighting differential genetic control in each scenario.

    What are the prospects for citizen science in agriculture? Evidence from three continents on motivation and mobile telephone use of resource-poor farmers
    Beza, Eskender ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Etten, Jacob Van; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Fadda, Carlo ; Mittra, Sarika ; Mathur, Prem ; Kooistra, Lammert - \ 2017
    PLoS ONE 12 (2017)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 26 p.

    As the sustainability of agricultural citizen science projects depends on volunteer farmers who contribute their time, energy and skills, understanding their motivation is important to attract and retain participants in citizen science projects. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) farmers' motivations to participate as citizen scientists and 2) farmers' mobile telephone usage. Building on motivational factors identified from previous citizen science studies, a questionnaire based methodology was developed which allowed the analysis of motivational factors and their relation to farmers' characteristics. The questionnaire was applied in three communities of farmers, in countries from different continents, participating as citizen scientists. We used statistical tests to compare motivational factors within and among the three countries. In addition, the relations between motivational factors and farmers characteristics were assessed. Lastly, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to group farmers based on their motivations. Although there was an overlap between the types of motivations, for Indian farmers a collectivistic type of motivation (i.e., contribute to scientific research) was more important than egoistic and altruistic motivations. For Ethiopian and Honduran farmers an egoistic intrinsic type of motivation (i.e., interest in sharing information) was most important. While fun has appeared to be an important egoistic intrinsic factor to participate in other citizen science projects, the smallholder farmers involved in this research valued 'passing free time' the lowest. Two major groups of farmers were distinguished: one motivated by sharing information (egoistic intrinsic), helping (altruism) and contribute to scientific research (collectivistic) and one motivated by egoistic extrinsic factors (expectation, expert interaction and community interaction). Country and education level were the two most important farmers' characteristics that explain around 20% of the variation in farmers motivations. For educated farmers, contributing to scientific research was a more important motivation to participate as citizen scientists compared to less educated farmers. We conclude that motivations to participate in citizen science are different for smallholders in agriculture compared to other sectors. Citizen science does have high potential, but easy to use mechanisms are needed. Moreover, gamification may increase the egoistic intrinsic motivation of farmers.

    Genetics of carcass condemnations and relationships with growth, backfat and uniformity in pigs
    Mulder, H.A. ; Mathur, P.K. ; Vogelzang, R.H. ; Knol, E. - \ 2016
    In: Book of Abstracts of the 67th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP Book of Abstracts ) - ISBN 9789086862849 - p. 488 - 488.
    Genetic variation for farrowing rate in pigs in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature
    Sevillano del Aguila, Claudia ; Mulder, H.A. ; Rashidi, H. ; Mathur, P.K. ; Knol, E.F. - \ 2016
    Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)8. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3185 - 3197.
    Ambient temperature - Farrowing rate - Photoperiod - Pig - Reaction norm - Seasonal infertility

    Seasonal infertility is often observed as anestrus and a lower conception rate resulting in a reduced farrowing rate (FR) during late summer and early autumn. This is often regarded as an effect of heat stress; however, we observed a reduction in the FR of sows even after correcting for ambient temperature in our data. Therefore, we added change in photoperiod in the analysis of FR considering its effect on sow fertility. Change in photoperiod was modeled using the cosine of the day of first insemination within a year. On an average, the FR decreased by 2% during early autumn with decreasing daily photoperiod compared with early summer with almost no change in daily photoperiod. It declined 0.2% per degree Celsius of ambient temperature above 19.2°C. This result is a step forward in disentangling the 2 environmental components responsible for seasonal infertility. Our next aim was to estimate the magnitude of genetic variation in FR in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature to explore opportunities for selecting pigs to have a constant FR throughout the year. We used reaction norm models to estimate additive genetic variation in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature. The results revealed a larger genetic variation at stressful environments when daily photoperiod decreased and ambient temperatures increased above 19.2°C compared with neutral environments. Genetic correlations between stressful environments and non-stressful environments ranged from 0.90 (±0.03) to 0.46 (±0.13) depending on the severity of the stress, indicating changes in expression of FR depending on the environment. The genetic correlation between responses of pigs to changes in photoperiod and to those in ambient temperature were positive, indicating that pigs tolerant to decreasing daily photoperiod are also tolerant to high ambient temperatures. Therefore, selection for tolerance to decreasing daily photoperiod should also increase tolerance to high ambient temperatures or vice versa.

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