The global scientific research response to the public health emergency of Zika virus infection
Oliveira, Juliane Fonseca de; Pescarini, Julia Moreira ; Souza Rodrigues, Moreno de; Araujo Almeida, Bethania de; Pessanha Henriques, Claudio Maierovitch ; Gouveia, Fabio Castro ; Rabello, Elaine Teixeira ; Matta, Gustavo Correa ; Barreto, Mauricio L. ; Sampaio, Ricardo Barros - \ 2020
PLoS ONE 15 (2020)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
Background Science studies have been a field of research for different knowledge areas, and they have been successfully used to analyse the construction of scientific knowledge, practice and dissemination. In this study, we aimed to verify how the Zika epidemic has moulded the scientific articles published worldwide by analysing international collaborations and the knowledge landscape through time, as well as research topics and country involvement. Methodology We searched the Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and PubMed for studies published up to 31st December 2018 on Zika using the search terms “zika”, “zkv” or “zikv”. We analysed the scientific production regarding which countries have published the most, on which topics, as well as country level collaboration. We performed a scientometric analysis of research on Zika focusing on knowledge mapping and the scientific research path over time and space. Findings We found two well defined research areas divided into three subtopics accounting for six clusters. With regard to country analysis, the USA and Brazil were the countries with the highest numbers of publications on Zika. China entered as a new player focusing on specific research areas. When we took into consideration the epidemics and reported cases, Brazil and France were the leading research countries on related topics. As for international collaboration, the USA followed by England and France stand out as the main hubs. The research areas most published included public health-related topics from 2015 until the very beginning of 2016, followed by an increase in topics related to the clinical aspects of the disease in 2016 and the emergence of laboratory research in 2017/2018. Conclusions Mapping the response to Zika, a public health emergency, demonstrated a clear pattern of the participation of countries in the scientific advances. The pattern of knowledge production found in this study represented varying country perspectives, research capacity and interests based first on their level of exposure to the epidemic and second on their financial positions regarding science.
Uncertainty in times of medical emergency: Knowledge gaps and structural ignorance during the Brazilian Zika crisis
Kelly, Ann H. ; Lezaun, Javier ; Löwy, Ilana ; Matta, Gustavo Corrêa ; Oliveira Nogueira, Carolina de; Rabello, Elaine Teixeira - \ 2020
Social Science and Medicine 246 (2020). - ISSN 0277-9536
Brazil - Emergency research - Public health emergency - Uncertainty - Zika
Uncertainty was a defining feature of the Brazilian Zika crisis of 2015–2016. The cluster of cases of neonatal microcephaly detected in the country's northeast in the second half of 2015, and the possibility that a new virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes was responsible for this new syndrome, created a deep sense of shock and confusion in Brazil and around the world. When in February 2016 the WHO declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), it noted that it did so on the basis of what was not known about the virus and its pathogenic potential. To better understand the role that non-knowledge played in the unfolding of the Brazilian Zika crisis we differentiate between three different kinds of uncertainty: global health uncertainty, public health uncertainty, and clinical uncertainty. While these three forms of uncertainty were difficult to disentangle in the early weeks of the crisis, very soon each one began to trace a distinct trajectory. Global health uncertainty centered on the question of the causative link between Zika virus infection and congenital malformations, and was declared resolved by the time the PHEIC was lifted in November 2016. Public health and clinical uncertainty, in contrast, persisted over a longer period of time and did, in some important ways, become entrenched. This taxonomy of uncertainties allows us to explore the systematic nonproduction of knowledge in times of medical emergency, and suggests structural limitations in the framework of “emergency research” that global health institutions have developed to deal with unexpected threats.
Book review of Fondamenti di patologia vegetale. A. Matta.
Zadoks, J.C. - \ 1997
European Journal of Plant Pathology 103 (1997). - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 195 - 195.