Detecting temporal changes in the extent of High Nature Value farmlands : The case-study of the Entre-Douro-e-Minho Region, Portugal
Lomba, A. ; Buchadas, A. ; Corbelle-Rico, E. ; Jongman, R. ; McCracken, D. - \ 2020
Landscape and Urban Planning 195 (2020). - ISSN 0169-2046
In the European Union, the socio-ecological systems underlying the maintenance of low-intensity farming systems supporting the occurrence of several species and habitats are known as High Nature Value farmlands (HNVf). Detecting trends of change in the extent and location of HNVf is essential to monitor the impact of policies on biodiversity. However, assessing changes in HNVf extent is challenging, due to the lack of tested approaches and lack of data with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions. We address such challenge by evaluating the usefulness of an existing methodological framework to analyse changes in the extent of HNVf in the agrarian region of Entre-Douro-e-Minho, Northwestern Portugal between 1989 and 2009. Changes in the extent of HNVf between 1989 and 2009 were analysed for whole study area, and within and outside areas designated for conservation. Results depicted a trend of decreasing extent of HNVf between 1989 and 2009, irrespective of being inside or outside a nature conservation designation. This provides an early warning that nature conservation designation does not ensure HNVf persistence. We consider that this research represents an advance in the field of HNVf assessment and monitoring. In particular, by providing an approach to analyze the location and changes over time of HNVf types in relation to areas under distinct legal protection (such as the Natura 2000 network), it can help assess the role that such nature conservation designations have in protecting HNVf and indicate where additional agricultural or nature conservation policy and support mechanisms may need to be targeted.
Back to the future: rethinking socioecological systems underlying high nature value farmlands
Lomba, Angela ; Moreira, Francisco ; Klimek, Sebastian ; Jongman, Robert H.G. ; Sullivan, Caroline ; Moran, James ; Poux, Xavier ; Honrado, João P. ; Pinto-Correia, Teresa ; Plieninger, Tobias ; McCracken, David I. - \ 2020
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 18 (2020)1. - ISSN 1540-9295 - p. 36 - 42.
Farmlands are currently among the dominant uses of the land. When managed under low-input farming systems, farmlands are associated with diverse cultural and natural heritages around the world. Known in Europe as high nature value (HNV) farmlands, these agricultural landscapes and their associated farming systems evolved as tightly coupled socioecological systems, and are essential to biodiversity conservation and the delivery of ecosystem services to society. However, HNV farmlands are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes that lead to either agricultural intensification or land abandonment. We present a range of plausible future scenarios for HNV farmlands, and discuss the related management options and expected socioecological outcomes for each scenario. We then provide recommendations for policy, practice, and research on how to best ensure the socioecological viability of HNV farming systems in the future.
Meta-analysis reveals that pollinator functional diversity and abundance enhance crop pollination and yield
Woodcock, B.A. ; Garratt, M.P.D. ; Powney, G.D. ; Shaw, R.F. ; Osborne, J.L. ; Soroka, J. ; Lindström, S.A.M. ; Stanley, D. ; Ouvrard, P. ; Edwards, M.E. ; Jauker, F. ; McCracken, M.E. ; Zou, Y. ; Potts, S.G. ; Rundlöf, M. ; Noriega, J.A. ; Greenop, A. ; Smith, H.G. ; Bommarco, R. ; Werf, W. van der; Stout, J.C. ; Steffan-Dewenter, I. ; Morandin, L. ; Bullock, J.M. ; Pywell, R.F. - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723
How insects promote crop pollination remains poorly understood in terms of the contribution of functional trait differences between species. We used meta-analyses to test for correlations between community abundance, species richness and functional trait metrics with oilseed rape yield, a globally important crop. While overall abundance is consistently important in predicting yield, functional divergence between species traits also showed a positive correlation. This result supports the complementarity hypothesis that pollination function is maintained by non-overlapping trait distributions. In artificially constructed communities (mesocosms), species richness is positively correlated with yield, although this effect is not seen under field conditions. As traits of the dominant species do not predict yield above that attributed to the effect of abundance alone, we find no evidence in support of the mass ratio hypothesis. Management practices increasing not just pollinator abundance, but also functional divergence, could benefit oilseed rape agriculture.
Neutral and functionally important genes shed light on phylogeography and the history of high-altitude colonization in a widespread New World duck
Lozano-Jaramillo, Maria ; McCracken, Kevin G. ; Cadena, Carlos Daniel - \ 2018
Ecology and Evolution 8 (2018)13. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 6515 - 6528.
adaptation - hypoxia - migration - natural selection
Phylogeographic studies often infer historical demographic processes underlying species distributions based on patterns of neutral genetic variation, but spatial variation in functionally important genes can provide additional insights about biogeographic history allowing for inferences about the potential role of adaptation in geographic range evolution. Integrating data from neutral markers and genes involved in oxygen (O2)-transport physiology, we test historical hypotheses about colonization and gene flow across low- and high-altitude regions in the Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), a widely distributed species in the New World. Using multilocus analyses that for the first time include populations from the Colombian Andes, we also examined the hypothesis that Ruddy Duck populations from northern South America are of hybrid origin. We found that neutral and functional genes appear to have moved into the Colombian Andes from both North America and southern South America, and that high-altitude Colombian populations do not exhibit evidence of adaptation to hypoxia in hemoglobin genes. Therefore, the biogeographic history of Ruddy Ducks is likely more complex than previously inferred. Our new data raise questions about the hypothesis that adaptation via natural selection to high-altitude conditions through amino acid replacements in the hemoglobin protein allowed Ruddy Ducks to disperse south along the high Andes into southern South America. The existence of shared genetic variation with populations from both North America and southern South America as well as private alleles suggests that the Colombian population of Ruddy Ducks may be of old hybrid origin. This study illustrates the breadth of inferences one can make by combining data from nuclear and functionally important loci in phylogeography, and underscores the importance of complete range-wide sampling to study species history in complex landscapes.
Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside
Araujo Rodrigues Lomba, Angela de; Alves, Paulo ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; McCracken, D. - \ 2015
Ecology and Evolution 5 (2015)5. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 1031 - 1044.
Agri-environment schemes - agro-biodiversity - conservation and monitoring programs - indicators
Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes
under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity
levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been
highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent
potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes
where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the
continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. 2 Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems’ data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. 3 This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. 4 Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation.
Mapping and monitoring High Nature Value farmlands: Challenges in European landscapes
Lomba, A. ; Guerra, C. ; Alonso, J. ; Honrado, J.P. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; McCracken, D. - \ 2014
Journal of Environmental Management 143 (2014). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 140 - 150.
common agricultural policy - plant-species richness - land-use - biodiversity conservation - farm-management - intensity - intensification - conflicts - systems - cover
The importance of low intensity farming for the conservation of biodiversity throughout Europe was acknowledged early in the 1990s when the concept of ‘High Nature Value farmlands’ (HNVf) was devised. HNVf has subsequently been given high priority within the EU Rural Development Programme. This puts a requirement on each EU Member State not only to identify the extent and condition of HNVf within their borders but also to track trends in HNVf over time. However, the diversity of rural landscapes across the EU, the scarcity of (adequate) datasets on biodiversity, land cover and land use, and the lack of a common methodology for HNVf mapping currently represent obstacles to the implementation of the HNVf concept across Europe. This manuscript provides an overview of the characteristics of HNVf across Europe together with a description of the development of the HNVf concept. Current methodological approaches for the identification and mapping of HNVf across EU-27 and Switzerland are then reviewed, the main limitations of these approaches highlighted and recommendations made as to how the identification, mapping and reporting of HNVf state and trends across Europe can potentially be improved and harmonised. In particular, we propose a new framework that is built on the need for strategic HNVf monitoring based on a hierarchical, bottom-up structure of assessment units, coincident with the EU levels of political decision and devised indicators, and which is linked strongly to a collaborative European network that can provide the integration and exchange of data from different sources and scales under common standards. Such an approach is essential if the scale of the issues facing HNVf landscapes are to be identified and monitored properly at the European level. This would then allow relevant agrienvironmental measures to be developed, implemented and evaluated at the scale(s) required to maintain the habitats and species of high nature conservation value that are intimately associated with those landscapes.
Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea home range and habitat use during the non-breeding season in Assam, India
Namgail, T. ; Takekawa, J.Y. ; Sivananinthaperumal, B. ; Areendran, G. ; Sathiyaselvam, P. ; Mundkur, T. ; Mccracken, T. ; Newman, S. - \ 2011
Wildfowl 61 (2011). - ISSN 0954-6324 - p. 182 - 193.
India is an important non-breeding ground for migratory waterfowl in the Central Asian Flyway. Millions of birds visit wedands across the country, yet information on their distribution, abundance, and use of resources is rudimentary at best. Limited information suggests that populations of several species of migratory ducks are declining due to encroachment of wedand habitats largely by agriculture and industry. The development of conservation strategies is stymied by a lack of ecological information on these species. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the home range and habitat use of Ruddy Shelduck Tadornaferruginea in the northeast Indian state of Assam. Seven Ruddy Shelducks were fitted with solar-powered Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite transmitters, and were tracked on a daily basis during the winter of 2009-2010. Locations from all seven were used to describe habitat use, while locations from four were used to quantify their home range, as the other three had too few locations (<30) for home range estimation. A Brownian Bridge Movement Model (BBMM), used to estimate home ranges, found that the Ruddy Shelduck had an average core use area (i.e. the contour defining 50% of positions) of 40 km 2 (range = 22-87 km2) and an average home range (95% contour) of 610 km2 (range = 222-1,550 km2). Resource Selection Functions (RSF), used to describe habitat use, showed that the birds frequented riverine wetlands more than expected, occurred on grasslands and shrublands in proportion to their availability, and avoided woods and cropland habitats. The core use areas for three individuals (75%) were on the Brahmaputra River, indicating their preference for riverine habitats. Management and protection of riverine habitats and nearby grasslands may benefit conservation efforts for the Ruddy Shelduck and waterfowl species that share these habitats during the non-breeding season
Identifying and managing the conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity conservation in Europe–A review
Henle, K. ; Alard, D. ; Clitherow, J. ; Cobb, P. ; Firbank, L.G. ; Kull, T. ; McCracken, D. ; Moritz, R.F.A. ; Niemelä, J. ; Rebane, M. ; Wascher, D.M. ; Watt, A. ; Young, J. - \ 2008
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 124 (2008)1-2. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 60 - 71.
agri-environment schemes - promoting biodiversity - farmland biodiversity - land-use - policy - management - landscapes - restoration - countryside - quality
This paper reviews conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural activities in agricultural landscapes and evaluates strategies to reconcile such conflicts. Firstly, a historical perspective on the development of conflicts related to biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is presented. Secondly, recent trends in agricultural policies of the European Union that contribute to biodiversity decline in agricultural landscapes are considered. Three major processes responsible for creating biodiversity-related conflicts are described: the intensification of agriculture, the abandonment of marginally productive but High Nature Value Farmland, and the changing scale of agricultural operations. Conflicts created by these processes and approaches to their reconciliation are identified, emphasizing the need for monitoring as an integral part of conflict reconciliation strategies. A generic approach comprising three types of monitoring is developed for measuring success of reconciliation strategies: monitoring of the intensity of the conflict between stakeholders, of the social and economic effects on farmers, and of the status and trends in biodiversity. Surprisingly, we found no evidence in the literature that the first type of monitoring has ever been undertaken for biodiversity-related conflicts in agricultural landscapes. For each type of monitoring, suitable indicators are outlined. Finally, challenges for conflict management in agricultural landscapes are summarized
Transfer of nitrofuran residues from parent broiler breeder chickens to broiler progeny
McCracken, R.J. ; Rhijn, J.A. van; Kennedy, D.G. - \ 2005
British Poultry Science 46 (2005)3. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 287 - 292.
furazolidone metabolite 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone - porcine tissues - pig hepatocytes
1. The use of nitrofuran antibiotics in food-producing animals is prohibited within the EU. Countries in the EU, as well those intending to export food to the EU, must ensure that their products are free from nitrofuran residues. 2. As a result of recent global problems where chicken meat from a wide range of countries has been contaminated with nitrofuran metabolites, an investigation was performed to discover whether or not residues of the nitrofurans might be transferred from parent breeder chickens to their offspring broilers. 3. Four groups of broiler breeders were each treated with one of the nitrofurans: furazolidone, nitrofurazone, nitrofurantoin or furaltadone. Residues of their side-chain metabolites, AOZ, SEM, AHD and AMOZ, were detected in the fertilised eggs at concentrations up to 1567?µg/kg. 4. However, in the chicks that subsequently hatched from these eggs, residue concentrations of SEM, for example, were only found up to 26·6 and 32·5?µg/kg in liver and muscle, respectively, for 1-d-old chicks. Residue concentrations in tissues had fallen below the detection limit of the analytical method for 40-d-old broiler chicks, for all compounds except for semicarbazide (SEM, the nitrofurazone metabolite). 5. Relatively high concentrations of nitrofurans are available to the newly hatched chick through the egg yolk. However, most of these residues are neither utilised nor deposited in the liver or muscle.
The occurence of nitrofuran metabolites in the tissues of chickens exposed to very low dietary concentration in the nitrofurans
McCracken, R.J. ; Rhijn, J.A. van; Kennedy, D.G. - \ 2005
Food Additives and Contaminants 22 (2005)6. - ISSN 0265-203X - p. 567 - 572.
furazolidone metabolite - liquid-chromatography - porcine tissues - mass-spectrometry - residues - 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone - nicarbazin - contamination - feeds
The global problem of food products contaminated by residues of the banned carcinogenic nitrofuran drugs has prompted research into how such residues accumulate in tissues. In the study described here, two aspects have been investigated where the nitrofurans accumulate in tissues from chickens exposed to either a dietary or an environmental source of contamination. Twenty groups of broilers were fed a diet containing one of the nitrofurans: furazolidone, nitrofurazone, nitrofurantoin or furaltadone at concentrations of 30, 100, 300, 1000 and 3000?µg?kg-1. At the lowest concentration of furazolidone contamination (0.01% of the therapeutic dose) tissue bound AOZ metabolite residues were detected in liver (1.1?±?0.2?µg?kg-1) and in muscle (0.33?±?0.03?µg?kg-1). Similar results were obtained for AMOZ (0.6?±?0.2?µg?kg-1 in liver), the tissue bound metabolite of furaltadone. There was no appreciable accumulation of nitrofurantoin in chicken muscle. The AHD metabolite was not detected in muscle from birds fed nitrofurantoin at either 30 or 100?µg?kg-1. For nitrofurazone the concentrations of the SEM metabolite were higher in muscle than in liver for all dietary concentrations. The potential for a contaminated environment to cause nitrofuran residues in chickens was investigated. Six chickens were placed in a pen that was previously occupied by birds fed a diet containing 3000?µg?kg-1 of furazolidone. After 24 hours¿ exposure of the chickens to the litter in the pen, AOZ residues of 0.13?±?0.04 and 0.10?±?0.03?µg?kg-1 were detected in liver and muscle, respectively. The results of both experiments have implications for the poultry industry in trying to eliminate nitrofurans from their production systems, and for regulatory analysts faced with the detection of low concentrations of the drugs, both in tissues and in feedingstuffs
Depletion of four nitrofuran antibiotics and their tissue-bound metabolites in porcine tissues and determination using LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV
Cooper, K.M. ; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Rhijn, J.A. van; Kovacsics, L. ; McCracken, R.J. ; Young, P.B. ; Kennedy, D.G. - \ 2005
Food Additives and Contaminants 22 (2005)5. - ISSN 0265-203X - p. 406 - 414.
performance liquid-chromatography - furazolidone residues - mass-spectrometry - electrochemical detection - muscle tissues - furaltadone - pigs - 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone - stability - chicken
Depletion of the nitrofuran antibiotics furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazone and their tissue-bound metabolites AOZ, AMOZ, AHD and SEM from pig muscle, liver and kidney tissues is described. Groups of pigs were given feed medicated with one of the nitrofuran drugs at a therapeutic concentration (400?mg?kg -1 ) for ten days. Animals were slaughtered at intervals and tissue samples collected for analysis for six weeks following withdrawal of medicated feed. These samples were analysed both for parent nitrofurans (using LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV), and for tissue-bound metabolites (using LC-MS/MS). The parent drugs were detectable only sporadically and only in pigs subjected to no withdrawal period whatsoever. This confirms the instability of the four major nitrofuran antibiotics in edible tissues. In contrast, the metabolites accumulated to high concentrations in tissues (ppm levels) and had depletion half lives of between 5.5 and 15.5 days. The metabolites of all four drugs were still readily detectable in tissues six weeks after cessation of treatment. This emphasizes the benefits of monitoring for the stable metabolites of the nitrofurans
|Transfer of nitrofuran residues from parent broiler breeder chickens to the broiler progeny
McCracken, R.J. ; Rhijn, J.A. van; Kennedy, D.G. - \ 2004
In: Residues of veterinary drugs in food: proceedings of the EuroResidue Conference V, 10-12 May 2004, Noordwijkerhout Utrecht : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - p. 660 - 663.
|The occurrence of nitrofuran metabolites in the tissues of chickens exposed to very low dietary concentrations of the nitrofurans
McCracken, R.J. ; Rhijn, J.A. van; Kennedy, D.G. - \ 2004
In: Residues of veterinary drugs in food: proceedings of the EuroResidue Conference V, 10-12 May 2004, Noordwijkerhout Utrecht : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - p. 655 - 659.
Isolation of bound residues of nitrofuran drugs from tissue by solid-phase extraction with determination by liquid chromatography with UV and tandem mass spectrometric detection
Conneely, A. ; Nugent, A. ; O'Keeffe, M. ; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Rhijn, J.A. van; Kovacsics, L. ; Fodor, A. ; McCracken, R.J. ; Kennedy, D.G. - \ 2003
Analytica Chimica Acta 483 (2003)1-2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 91 - 98.
furazolidone metabolite - 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone - furaltadone - liver - pigs
Use of nitrofuran drugs in food-producing animals has been prohibited within the EU because they may represent a public health risk. Monitoring compliance with the ban has focused on the detection of protein-bound nitrofuran metabolites which, in contrast to the parent compounds, are stable and persist in animal tissues. This paper describes a solid phase extraction clean-up procedure for the protein-bound metabolite of furazolidone, 3-amino-2-oxazolidone (AOZ), allowing detection of the derivatised metabolite, NPAOZ, at residue level. Validation studies for the method on porcine liver samples fortified at 5 and 25 ng g¿1 show mean recovery of 84±19.2 and 90±16.3%, respectively. Comparison between liquid chromatography with UV or tandem mass spectrometric detection shows agreement within 10% for incurred porcine liver samples.
Individuele voeropnamekenmerken en darmfysiologie van gespeende biggen
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Lensen, E. ; Schellingerhout, A.B. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der - \ 2002
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (Praktijkboek / Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij 15) - 25
biggen - spenen - voeropname - darmen - voedingsfysiologie - dierhouderij - piglets - weaning - feed intake - intestines - nutrition physiology - animal husbandry
Speendiarree is een regelmatig terugkerend probleem in de Nederlandse varkenshouderij. Onderzoek van onder meer McCracken et al. (1995), Pluske et al. (1996a,b) en Van Beers-Schreurs (1996) heeft sterke aanwijzingen opgeleverd dat deze problemen vlak na spenen gerelateerd zijn aan de voeropname. Indien de voeropname van gespeende biggen voldoende op peil blijft, blijft de barriOrefunctie van de darmwand als mede de vertering op peil en vindt er geen verstoring plaats van de microbiële activiteit, zodat de kans op problemen met de gezondheid (bijvoorbeeld speendiarree) aanmerkelijk kleiner is. Onderzoek met individueel gehuisveste gespeende biggen (Makkink, 1993) heeft aangetoond dat de voeropname de eerste dagen na spenen effect heeft op onder meer de morfologie van de darmwand. Dit onderzoek vormde de basis voor de hypothese dat biggen die meteen na spenen beginnen met het opnemen van voer en vervolgens ook doorgaan met het opnemen van voer minder kans hebben op problemen met de darmgezondheid doordat de darmmorfologie en vertering op peil blijft. :Biggen waarvan de voeropname na spenen pas laat op gang komt, hebben volgens deze theorie aanmerkelijk meer darmschade en een verlaagde verteringscapaciteit. Indien de voeropname van deze biggen vervolgens nog eens zeer sterk toeneemt, zou het maagdarmkanaal overbelast raken waardoor onverteerde nutriënten op het eind van het maagdarmkanaal ter beschikking komen van (schadelijke) micro-organismen. :Inmiddels is aangetoond dat er een aanzienlijke variatie bestaat in individuele voeropnamekenmerken van in groepen gehuisveste gespeende biggen (Bruininx et al., 2001). Door de veronderstelde relatie tussen individuele voeropname en darmgezondheid is het waarschijnlijk dat er binnen groepen van gespeende biggen ook aanzienlijke variatie is in darmgezondheid. Op het Praktijkcentrum Rosmalen is met behulp van voerstations nagegaan of er relaties zijn tussen individuele voeropname kernmerken (tijd tussenopleg en eerste voeropname, dagelijkse stijging van de voeropname) van groepsgehuisveste gespeende biggen en kenmerken van darmgezondheid (enzymactiviteiten en histologie van de dunne darm en microbiële kenmerken van de inhoud van de dikke darm). In dit onderzoek wordt door middel van het toetsen van de hypothese van Makkink (1993) nagegaan of de veronderstelde relatie tussen voeropname en darmgezondheid aanwezig is.
|Gut Microbiology and growth-promoting antibiotics in swine
Anderson, D.B. ; McCracken, V.J. ; Aminovi, R.I. ; Simpson, J.M. ; Mackie, R.I. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gaskins, H.R. - \ 1999
Pig News and Information 20 (1999). - p. 115 - 122.
|Nutritional effects on metabolic rate and physical activity in group-housed, 50 kg pigs.
Schrama, J.W. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Haaksma, J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1998
In: Energy metabolism in farm animals. Effects of housing, stress and disease / McCracken, K., Wallingford, UK : CAB International - p. 275 - 278.
|Effects of cell-mediated immune response on energy metabolism in weanling piglets.
Moon, H.K. ; Han, I.K. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 1998
In: Energy metabolism in farm animals. Effects of housing, stress and disease / McCracken, K., Wallingford, UK : CAB International - p. 143 - 146.
|Energy cost of activity (standing versus lying) in group-housed young pigs.
Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Swinkels, J.W.G.M. - \ 1998
In: Energy metabolism in farm animals. Effects of housing, stress and disease / McCracken, K., Wallingford, UK : CAB International - p. 287 - 290.
|Energy metabolism of lactating first litter sows as affected by feeding level and diet composition.
Brand, H. van den; Schrama, J.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Kemp, B. - \ 1998
In: Proc. 14th Symposium on Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, Newcastle, Northern Ireland, K. McCracken et al (eds.), CAB International - p. 85 - 88.