Author Correction: Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks
MacNeil, M.A. ; Chapman, Demian D. ; Heupel, Michelle ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; Heithaus, Michael ; Meekan, Mark ; Harvey, Euan ; Goetze, Jordan ; Kiszka, Jeremy ; Bond, Mark E. ; Currey-Randall, Leanne M. ; Speed, Conrad W. ; Sherman, C.S. ; Rees, Matthew J. ; Udyawer, Vinay ; Flowers, Kathryn I. ; Clementi, Gina ; Valentin-Albanese, Jasmine ; Gorham, Taylor ; Adam, M.S. ; Ali, Khadeeja ; Pina-Amargós, Fabián ; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. ; Asher, Jacob ; Barcia, Laura García ; Beaufort, Océane ; Benjamin, Cecilie ; Bernard, Anthony T.F. ; Berumen, Michael L. ; Bierwagen, Stacy ; Bonnema, Erika ; Bown, Rosalind M.K. ; Bradley, Darcy ; Brooks, Edd ; Brown, J.J. ; Buddo, Dayne ; Burke, Patrick ; Cáceres, Camila ; Cardeñosa, Diego ; Carrier, Jeffrey C. ; Caselle, Jennifer E. ; Charloo, Venkatesh ; Claverie, Thomas ; Clua, Eric ; Cochran, Jesse E.M. ; Cook, Neil ; Cramp, Jessica ; D’Alberto, Brooke ; Graaf, Martin de; Dornhege, Mareike ; Estep, Andy ; Fanovich, Lanya ; Farabaugh, Naomi F. ; Fernando, Daniel ; Flam, Anna L. ; Floros, Camilla ; Fourqurean, Virginia ; Garla, Ricardo ; Gastrich, Kirk ; George, Lachlan ; Graham, Rory ; Guttridge, Tristan ; Hardenstine, Royale S. ; Heck, Stephen ; Henderson, Aaron C. ; Hertler, Heidi ; Hueter, Robert ; Johnson, Mohini ; Jupiter, Stacy ; Kasana, Devanshi ; Kessel, Steven T. ; Kiilu, Benedict ; Kirata, Taratu ; Kuguru, Baraka ; Kyne, Fabian ; Langlois, Tim ; Lédée, Elodie J.I. ; Lindfield, Steve ; Luna-Acosta, Andrea ; Maggs, Jade ; Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. ; Marshall, Andrea ; Matich, Philip ; McCombs, Erin ; McLean, Dianne ; Meggs, Llewelyn ; Moore, Stephen ; Mukherji, Sushmita ; Murray, Ryan ; Kaimuddin, Muslimin ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Nogués, Josep ; Obota, Clay ; O’Shea, Owen ; Osuka, Kennedy ; Papastamatiou, Yannis P. ; Perera, Nishan ; Peterson, Bradley ; Ponzo, Alessandro ; Prasetyo, Andhika ; Sjamsul Quamar, L.M. ; Quinlan, Jessica ; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei ; Sala, Enric ; Samoilys, Melita ; Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle ; Schlaff, Audrey ; Simpson, Nikola ; Smith, Adam N.H. ; Sparks, Lauren ; Tanna, Akshay ; Torres, Rubén ; Travers, Michael J. ; Zinnicq Bergmann, Maurits van; Vigliola, Laurent ; Ward, Juney ; Watts, Alexandra M. ; Wen, Colin ; Whitman, Elizabeth ; Wirsing, Aaron J. ; Wothke, Aljoscha ; Zarza-Gonzâlez, Esteban ; Cinner, Joshua E. - \ 2020
Nature (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836
An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks
MacNeil, Aaron ; Chapman, Demian D. ; Heupel, Michelle ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; Heithaus, Michael ; Meekan, Mark ; Harvey, Euan ; Goetze, Jordan ; Kiszka, Jeremy ; Bond, Mark E. ; Currey-Randall, Leanne M. ; Speed, Conrad W. ; Sherman, Samantha ; Rees, Matthew J. ; Udyawer, Vinay ; Flowers, Kathryn I. ; Clementi, Gina ; Valentin-Albanese, Jasmine ; Gorham, Taylor ; Adam, Shiham ; Khadeeja, Ali ; Pina-Amargós, Fabián ; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. ; Asher, Jacob ; García Barcia, Laura ; Beaufort, Océane ; Benjamin, Cecilie ; Bernard, Anthony T.F. ; Berumen, Michael L. ; Bierwagen, Stacy ; Bonnema, Erika ; Bown, Rosalind M.K. ; Bradley, Darcey ; Brooks, Edd ; Brown, Jed ; Buddo, Dayne ; Burke, Patrick ; Cáceres, Camila ; Cardeñosa, Diego ; Carrier, Jeffrey C. ; Caselle, Jennifer E. ; Charloo, Venkatesh ; Claverie, Thomas ; Clua, Eric ; Cochran, Jesse E.M. ; Cook, Neil ; Cramp, Jessica ; D’Alberto, Brooke ; Graaf, Martin de; Dornhege, Mareike ; Estep, Andy ; Fanovich, Lanya ; Farabough, Naomi F. ; Fernando, Daniel ; Flam, Anna L. ; Floros, Camilla ; Fourqurean, Virginia ; Garla, Ricardo ; Gastrich, Kirk ; George, Lachlan ; Graham, Rory ; Guttridge, Tristan ; Hardenstine, Royale S. ; Heck, Stephen ; Henderson, Aaron C. ; Hertler, Heidi ; Hueter, Robert ; Johnson, Mohini ; Jupiter, Stacy ; Kasana, Devanshi ; Kessel, Steven T. ; Kiilu, Benedict ; Kirata, Taratu ; Kuguru, Baraka ; Kyne, Fabian ; Langlois, Tim ; Lédée, Elodie J.I. ; Lindfield, Steve ; Luna-Acosta, Andrea ; Maggs, Jade ; Manjaji-Matsumoto, Mabel ; Marshall, Andrea ; Matich, Philip ; McCombs, Erin ; McLean, Dianne ; Meggs, Llewelyn ; Moore, Stephen ; Mukherji, Sushmita ; Murray, Ryan ; Kaimuddin, Muslimin ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Nogués, Josep ; Obota, Clay ; O’Shea, Owen ; Osuka, Kennedy ; Papastamatiou, Yannis P. ; Perera, Nishan ; Peterson, Bradley ; Ponzo, Alessandro ; Prasetyo, Andhika ; Quamar, Sjamsul ; Quinlan, Jessica ; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei ; Sala, Enric ; Samoilys, Melita ; Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle ; Schlaff, Audrey ; Simpson, Nikola ; Smith, Adam N.H. ; Sparks, Lauren ; Tanna, Akshay ; Torres, Rubén ; Travers, Michael J. ; Zinnicq Bergmann, Maurits van; Vigliola, Laurent ; Ward, Juney ; Watts, Alexandra M. ; Wen, Colin ; Whitman, Elizabeth ; Wirsing, Aaron J. ; Wothke, Aljoscha ; Zarza-Gonzâlez, Esteban ; Cinner, Joshua E. - \ 2020
Nature 583 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 801 - 806.
Decades of overexploitation have devastated shark populations, leaving considerable doubt as to their ecological status1,2. Yet much of what is known about sharks has been inferred from catch records in industrial fisheries, whereas far less information is available about sharks that live in coastal habitats3. Here we address this knowledge gap using data from more than 15,000 standardized baited remote underwater video stations that were deployed on 371 reefs in 58 nations to estimate the conservation status of reef sharks globally. Our results reveal the profound impact that fishing has had on reef shark populations: we observed no sharks on almost 20% of the surveyed reefs. Reef sharks were almost completely absent from reefs in several nations, and shark depletion was strongly related to socio-economic conditions such as the size and proximity of the nearest market, poor governance and the density of the human population. However, opportunities for the conservation of reef sharks remain: shark sanctuaries, closed areas, catch limits and an absence of gillnets and longlines were associated with a substantially higher relative abundance of reef sharks. These results reveal several policy pathways for the restoration and management of reef shark populations, from direct top-down management of fishing to indirect improvement of governance conditions. Reef shark populations will only have a high chance of recovery by engaging key socio-economic aspects of tropical fisheries.
Antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation: call to action for change in recommendation
Bourassa, Megan W. ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Adu‐Afarwuah, Seth ; Ahmed, Saima ; Ajello, Clayton ; Bergeron, Gilles ; Black, Robert ; Christian, Parul ; Cousens, Simon ; Pee, Saskia de; Dewey, Kathryn G. ; Arifeen, Shams El ; Engle‐Stone, Reina ; Fleet, Alison ; Gernand, Alison D. ; Hoddinott, John ; Klemm, Rolf ; Kraemer, Klaus ; Kupka, Roland ; McLean, Erin ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Persson, L. ; Rasmussen, Kathleen M. ; Shankar, Anuraj H. ; Smith, Emily ; Sudfeld, Christopher R. ; Udomkesmalee, Emorn ; Vosti, Stephen A. - \ 2020
Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences 1465 (2020)1. - ISSN 0077-8923 - p. 5 - 7.
Review of the evidence regarding the use of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation in low- and middle-income countries
Bourassa, Megan W. ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth ; Ahmed, Saima ; Ajello, Clayton ; Bergeron, Gilles ; Black, Robert ; Christian, Parul ; Cousens, Simon ; Pee, Saskia de; Dewey, Kathryn G. ; Arifeen, Shams El ; Engle-Stone, Reina ; Fleet, Alison ; Gernand, Alison D. ; Hoddinott, John ; Klemm, Rolf ; Kraemer, Klaus ; Kupka, Roland ; McLean, Erin ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Persson, Lars Åke ; Rasmussen, Kathleen M. ; Shankar, Anuraj H. ; Smith, Emily ; Sudfeld, Christopher R. ; Udomkesmalee, Emorn ; Vosti, Stephen A. - \ 2019
Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences 1444 (2019)1. - ISSN 0077-8923 - p. 6 - 21.
LMICs - micronutrient - pregnancy - supplements
Inadequate micronutrient intakes are relatively common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially among pregnant women, who have increased micronutrient requirements. This can lead to an increase in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. This review presents the conclusions of a task force that set out to assess the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes and adverse birth outcomes in LMICs; the data from trials comparing multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) that contain iron and folic acid (IFA) with IFA supplements alone; the risks of reaching the upper intake levels with MMS; and the cost-effectiveness of MMS compared with IFA. Recent meta-analyses demonstrate that MMS can reduce the risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in comparison with IFA alone. An individual-participant data meta-analysis also revealed even greater benefits for anemic and underweight women and female infants. Importantly, there was no increased risk of harm for the pregnant women or their infants with MMS. These data suggest that countries with inadequate micronutrient intakes should consider supplementing pregnant women with MMS as a cost-effective method to reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes.
The abandonment of maize landraces over the last 50 years in Morelos, Mexico: a tracing study using a multi-level perspective
McLean-Rodríguez, Francis Denisse ; Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina ; Almekinders, Conny J.M. ; Pè, Mario Enrico ; Dell’Acqua, Matteo ; Costich, Denise E. - \ 2019
Agriculture and Human Values 36 (2019)4. - ISSN 0889-048X - p. 651 - 668.
Conservation - Ex situ - Genetic erosion - In situ - Plant genetic resources - Zea mays
Understanding the causes of maize landrace loss in farmers’ field is essential to design effective conservation strategies. These strategies are necessary to ensure that genetic resources are available in the future. Previous studies have shown that this loss is caused by multiple factors. In this longitudinal study, we used a collection of 93 maize landrace accessions from Morelos, Mexico, and stored at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) Maize Germplasm Bank, to trace back to the original 66 donor families after 50 years and explore the causes for why they abandoned or conserved their seed lots. We used an actor-centered approach, based on interviews and focus group discussions. We adopt a Multi-Level Perspective framework to examine loss as a process, accommodating multiple causes and the interactions among them. We found that the importance of maize landrace cultivation had diminished over the last 50 years in the study area. By 2017, 13 families had conserved a total of 14 seed lots directly descended from the 1967 collection. Focus group participants identified 60 accessions that could still be found in the surrounding municipalities. Our findings showed that multiple interconnected changes in maize cultivation technologies, as well as in maize markets, other crop markets, agricultural and land policies, cultural preferences, urbanization and climate change, have created an unfavorable environment for the conservation of maize landraces. Many of these processes were location- and landrace-specific, and often led to landrace abandonment during the shift from one farmer generation to the next.
SerpinA3N is a novel hypothalamic gene upregulated by a high-fat diet and leptin in mice
Sergi, Domenico ; Campbell, Fiona M. ; Grant, Christine ; Morris, Amanda C. ; Bachmair, Eva Maria ; Koch, Christiane ; McLean, Fiona H. ; Muller, Aifric ; Hoggard, Nigel ; Roos, Baukje de; Porteiro, Begona ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; McGillicuddy, Fiona C. ; Kahn, Darcy ; Nicol, Phyllis ; Benzler, Jonas ; Mayer, Claus Dieter ; Drew, Janice E. ; Roche, Helen M. ; Muller, Michael ; Nogueiras, Ruben ; Dieguez, Carlos ; Tups, Alexander ; Williams, Lynda M. - \ 2018
Genes & Nutrition 13 (2018). - ISSN 1555-8932
High-fat diet - Hypothalamus - Leptin - SerpinA3N
Background: Energy homeostasis is regulated by the hypothalamus but fails when animals are fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and leptin insensitivity and obesity develops. To elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects, a microarray-based transcriptomics approach was used to identify novel genes regulated by HFD and leptin in the mouse hypothalamus. Results: Mouse global array data identified serpinA3N as a novel gene highly upregulated by both a HFD and leptin challenge. In situ hybridisation showed serpinA3N expression upregulation by HFD and leptin in all major hypothalamic nuclei in agreement with transcriptomic gene expression data. Immunohistochemistry and studies in the hypothalamic clonal neuronal cell line, mHypoE-N42 (N42), confirmed that alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (α1AC), the protein encoded by serpinA3, is localised to neurons and revealed that it is secreted into the media. SerpinA3N expression in N42 neurons is upregulated by palmitic acid and by leptin, together with IL-6 and TNFα, and all three genes are downregulated by the anti-inflammatory monounsaturated fat, oleic acid. Additionally, palmitate upregulation of serpinA3 in N42 neurons is blocked by the NFκB inhibitor, BAY11, and the upregulation of serpinA3N expression in the hypothalamus by HFD is blunted in IL-1 receptor 1 knockout (IL-1R1 -/- ) mice. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that serpinA3 expression is implicated in nutritionally mediated hypothalamic inflammation.
Redox sensing within the genus Shewanella
Harris, Howard W. ; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene ; McLean, Jeffrey S. ; Salas, Everett C. ; Tran, William ; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y. ; Nealson, Kenneth H. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 8 (2018)JAN. - ISSN 1664-302X
Congregation - Dissimilatory - Energy taxis - Extracellular electron transport - Insoluble electron acceptors - MR-1 - Redox sensing - Shewanella oneidensis
A novel bacterial behavior called congregation was recently described in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as the accumulation of cells around insoluble electron acceptors (IEA). It is the result of a series of "run-and-reversal" events enabled by modulation of swimming speed and direction. The model proposed that the swimming cells constantly sense their surroundings with specialized outer membrane cytochromes capable of extracellular electron transport (EET). Up to this point, neither the congregation nor attachment behavior have been studied in any other strains. In this study, the wild type of S. oneidensis MR-1 and several deletion mutants as well as eight other Shewanella strains (Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, S. sp. ANA-3, S. sp. W3-18-1, Shewanella amazonensis SB2B, Shewanella loihica PV-4, Shewanella denitrificans OS217, Shewanella baltica OS155, and Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB400) were screened for the ability to congregate. To monitor congregation and attachment, specialized cell-tracking techniques, as well as a novel cell accumulation after photo-bleaching (CAAP) confocal microscopy technique were utilized in this study. We found a strong correlation between the ability of strain MR-1 to accumulate on mineral surface and the presence of key EET genes such as mtrBC/omcA (SO_1778, SO_1776, and SO_1779) and gene coding for methyl-accepting protein (MCPs) with Ca+ channel chemotaxis receptor (Cache) domain (SO_2240). These EET and taxis genes were previously identified as essential for characteristic run and reversal swimming around IEA surfaces. CN32, ANA-3, and PV-4 congregated around both Fe(OH)3 and MnO2. Two other Shewanella spp. showed preferences for one oxide over the other: preferences that correlated with the metal content of the environments from which the strains were isolated: e.g., W3-18-1, which was isolated from an iron-rich habitat congregated and attached preferentially to Fe(OH)3, while SB2B, which was isolated from a MnO2-rich environment, preferred MnO2.
Symbionts protect aphids from parasitic wasps by attenuating herbivore-induced plant volatiles
Frago, Enric ; Mala, Mgbrta ; Weldegergis, Berhane T. ; Yang, Chenjiao ; McLean, Ailsa ; Godfray, H.C.J. ; Gols, Rieta ; Dicke, Marcel - \ 2017
Nature Communications 8 (2017)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
Plants respond to insect attack by releasing blends of volatile chemicals that attract their herbivores' specific natural enemies, while insect herbivores may carry endosymbiotic microorganisms that directly improve herbivore survival after natural enemy attack. Here we demonstrate that the two phenomena can be linked. Plants fed upon by pea aphids release volatiles that attract parasitic wasps, and the pea aphid can carry facultative endosymbiotic bacteria that prevent the development of the parasitic wasp larva and thus markedly improve aphid survival after wasp attack. We show that these endosymbionts also attenuate the systemic release of volatiles by plants after aphid attack, reducing parasitic wasp recruitment and increasing aphid fitness. Our results reveal a novel mechanism through which symbionts can benefit their hosts and emphasise the importance of considering the microbiome in understanding insect ecological interactions.
Defensive insect symbiont leads to cascading extinctions and community collapse
Sanders, Dirk ; Kehoe, Rachel ; Veen, F.J.F. van; McLean, Ailsa ; Godfray, H.C.J. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Gols, Rieta ; Frago, Enric - \ 2016
Ecology Letters 19 (2016)7. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 789 - 799.
Acyrthosiphon pisum - Aphid - Aphidius ervi - cascading extinction - defensive symbiosis - endosymbiont - experimental community ecology - Hamiltonella defensa - indirect effect - parasitoid - 016-3948
Animals often engage in mutualistic associations with microorganisms that protect them from predation, parasitism or pathogen infection. Studies of these interactions in insects have mostly focussed on the direct effects of symbiont infection on natural enemies without studying community-wide effects. Here, we explore the effect of a defensive symbiont on population dynamics and species extinctions in an experimental community composed of three aphid species and their associated specialist parasitoids. We found that introducing a bacterial symbiont with a protective (but not a non-protective) phenotype into one aphid species led to it being able to escape from its natural enemy and increase in density. This changed the relative density of the three aphid species which resulted in the extinction of the two other parasitoid species. Our results show that defensive symbionts can cause extinction cascades in experimental communities and so may play a significant role in the stability of consumer-herbivore communities in the field.
Movement patterns of three arboreal primates in a Neotropical moist forest explained by LiDAR-estimated canopy structure
McLean, Kevin A. ; Trainor, Anne M. ; Asner, Gregory P. ; Crofoot, Margaret C. ; Hopkins, Mariah E. ; Campbell, Christina J. ; Martin, Roberta E. ; Knapp, David E. ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2016
Landscape Ecology 31 (2016)8. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 1849 - 1862.
Alouatta palliata - Arboreal habitat - Ateles geoffroyi - Canopy structure - Cebus capucinus - LiDAR - Movement ecology - Primate - Step selection function
Context: Many arboreal mammals in Neotropical forests are important seed dispersers that influence the spatial patterns of tree regeneration via their movement patterns, which in turn are determined by the canopy structure of the forest itself. However, the relationship between arboreal mammal movement and canopy structure is poorly understood, due in large part to the complexity of quantifying arboreal habitat structure. Objectives: We relate detailed movement trajectories of three sympatric primate species to attributes of canopy structure derived from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) in order to understand the role of structure in arboreal movement in the tropical moist forest of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Methods: We used high-resolution LiDAR to quantify three-dimensional attributes of the forest canopy of the entire island, high-resolution GPS tracking to map the movement patterns of the monkey species, and step selection functions to relate movement decisions to canopy attributes. Results: We found that movement decisions were correlated with canopy height and distance to gaps, which indicate forest maturity and lateral connectivity, in all three species. In the two faster-moving species, step selection was also correlated with the thickness of the crown layer and the density of vegetation within the crown. Conclusions: The correlations detected are fully in line with known differences in the locomotor adaptations and movement strategies of the study species, and directly reflect maximization of energetic efficiency and ability to escape from predators. Quantification of step selection in relation to structure thus provides insight into the ways in which arboreal animals use their environment.
A restatement of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators
Godfray, H.C.J. ; Blacquière, Tjeerd ; Field, L.M. ; Hails, R.S. ; Potts, S.G. ; Raine, N.E. ; Vanbergen, A.J. ; McLean, A.R. - \ 2015
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 282 (2015)1818. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 6 p.
Bumblebee - Evidence for policy - Honeybee - Neonicotinoid - Pest management - Pollinator
Asummary is provided of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators in a format (a ‘restatement’) intended to be accessible to informed but not expert policymakers and stakeholders. Important new studies have been published since our recent review of this field (Godfray et al. 2014 Proc. R. Soc. B 281, 20140558. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0558)) and the subject continues to be an area of very active research and high policy relevance.
Evolving protocols for research in equitation science
Pierard, M. ; Hall, C. ; Konig von Borstel, U. ; Averis, A. ; Hawson, L. ; Mclean, A. ; Nevison, C. ; Visser, E.K. ; McGreevy, P. - \ 2015
Journal of Veterinary Behavior 10 (2015)3. - ISSN 1558-7878 - p. 255 - 266.
Within the emerging discipline of Equitation Science, the application of consistent methodology, including robust objective measures, is required for sound scientific evaluation. This report aims to provide an evaluation of current methodology and to propose some initial guidelines for future research. The value of research, especially that involving small sample sizes, can be enhanced by the application of consistent methodology and reporting enabling results to be compared across studies. This article includes guidelines for experimental design in studies involving the ridden horse. Equine ethograms currently used are reviewed and factors to be considered in the development of a ridden-horse ethogram are evaluated. An assessment of methods used to collect behavioral and physiological data is included and the use of equipment for measurements (e.g., rein-tension and pressure-sensing instruments) is discussed. Equitation science is a new discipline, subject to evolving viewpoints on research foci and design. Technological advances may improve the accuracy and detail of measurements but must be used within appropriate and valid experimental designs.
A restatement of the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators
Godfray, H.C.J. ; Blacquiere, T. ; Field, L.M. ; Hails, R.S. ; Petrokofsky, G. ; Potts, S.G. ; Raine, N.E. ; Vanbergen, A.J. ; McLean, A.R. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 281 (2014)1786. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 9 p.
honey-bees - declines
There is evidence that in Europe and North America many species of pollinators are in decline, both in abundance and distribution. Although there is a long list of potential causes of this decline, there is concern that neonicotinoid insecticides, in particular through their use as seed treatments are, at least in part, responsible. This paper describes a project that set out to summarize the natural science evidence base relevant to neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators in as policy-neutral terms as possible. A series of evidence statements are listed and categorized according to the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material.
Soybean SAT1 (Symbiotic Ammonium Transporter 1) encodes a bHLH transcription factor involved in nodule growth and NH4+ transport
Chiasson, D.M. ; Loughlin, P.C. ; Mazurkiewicz, D. ; Mohammadidehcheshmeh, M. ; Fedorova, E.E. ; Okamoto, M. ; McLean, E. ; Glass, A.D.M. ; Smith, S.E. ; Bisseling, T. ; Tyerman, S.D. ; Day, D.A. ; Kaiser, B.N. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)13. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 4814 - 4819.
arabidopsis-thaliana - circadian clock - lotus-japonicus - stress-response - er stress - membrane - protein - expression - domain - gene
Glycine max symbiotic ammonium transporter 1 was first documented as a putative ammonium (NH4+) channel localized to the symbiosome membrane of soybean root nodules. We show that Glycine max symbiotic ammonium transporter 1 is actually a membrane-localized basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) DNA-binding transcription factor now renamed Glycine max bHLH membrane 1 (GmbHLHm1). In yeast, GmbHLHm1 enters the nucleus and transcriptionally activates a unique plasma membrane NH4+ channel Saccharomyces cerevisiae ammonium facilitator 1. Ammonium facilitator 1 homologs are present in soybean and other plant species, where they often share chromosomal microsynteny with bHLHm1 loci. GmbHLHm1 is important to the soybean rhizobium symbiosis because loss of activity results in a reduction of nodule fitness and growth. Transcriptional changes in nodules highlight downstream signaling pathways involving circadian clock regulation, nutrient transport, hormone signaling, and cell wall modification. Collectively, these results show that GmbHLHm1 influences nodule development and activity and is linked to a novel mechanism for NH4+ transport common to both yeast and plants.
|Management of European canker
Heijne, Bart - \ 2012
A disease-forecasting system of botrytis blight ('fire') in lily
Bastiaansen, C. ; Koster, A.Th.J. ; Meer, L.J. van der; Ende, D.J.E. van den; Pennock, I. ; Buurman, F.P.M. - \ 1997
Acta Horticulturae 430 (1997). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 657 - 660.
Many flowerbulb crops can be infested by fungi of the genus Botrytis. Especially the aerial parts of the plants are vulnerable to attack. Generally, specialized species of Botrytis are involved, e.g., Botrytis tulipae in tulips (Beamont et al., 1936; Price, 1970; Doornik and Bergman, 1974), B. elliptica in lilies (Ward, 1888; McLean and Shaw, 1949) and B. gladiolorum in gladioli (Timmermans, 1941).Under conditions of high humidity and moderate temperature conidia of Botrytis spp. germinate and enter plant tissue through stomata or by penetration of the cuticule (Coley-Smith et al, 1980). Often, infected leaves or stems at first develop small, dark-coloured to necrotic spots, that are supposed to be the result of a hypersensitive response of the invaded plant tissue. Dependent on various conditions, e.g., humidity and susceptibility of the plant genotype, some of these spots develop into expanding lesions (‘fire’), on which abundant spore formation can take place. The spores may be spread by wind, rain or other mechanical means and start a new infection cycle. Dependent on the time of initial appearance of blight symptoms and final disease severity, bulb growth is affected. Next to other cultural measures, e.g., adequate crop rotation and removal of plant debris, bulb growers spray fungicides on the crop weekly or fortnightly to prevent bulb yield losses caused by Botrytis spp. (Koster and Meer, van der, 1993). Such a fixed spraying schedule does not take into account the infection conditions and, therefore, needless sprays are often applied.In The Netherlands, a long-term policy was formulated that aims at a reduction of the use of chemical pesticides. Needless sprays should be avoided. Therefore, a Botrytis disease-forecasting model is being developed to predict the infection periods and to plan necessary crop sprays with appropriate fungicides.
Stylet penetration activities by aphids
Tjallingii, W.F. - \ 1985
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): L.M. Schoonhoven. - Wageningen : Tjallingii - 100
dieren - Aphididae - voedingsgedrag - mond - animals - Aphididae - feeding behaviour - mouth
The composition of stylet penetration behaviour in aphids and its possible role in food-plant selection is the subject of these studies. Evidence is presented that the labium is devoid of external chemoreceptors (Chapter 1). In addition to other morphological data (Wensler & Filshie, 1969; Wensler, 1974) this suggests that internal chemoreceptors are involved in assessing plant quality. Internal gustation can only occur during stylet penetration. Another indication of a central role of stylet penetration in food plant selection is provided by behavioural observations (Klingauf, 1970; Tjallingii, 1976; Chapter 6) which show that differences in the reactions to host and non-host plants are inconspicuous before stylet penetration, but very distinct from the time of first penetration.For further investigation of stylet penetration a DC modified method of electrically recording this behaviour was developed. In the recorded signal, the electrical penetration graph (EPG), six different wave form patterns, A to F, have been distinguished. Some of these patterns have been correlated experimentally with penetration activities (Chapter 2). Pattern A, B, and C were correlated principally with saliva secretion and pattern D with ingestion, but some ingestion occurs during A, B, and C. Pattern E and F occur almost exclusively in combination with pattern D. During pattern D+E saliva pump muscle activity was correlated with the pulses of the E pattern. Pattern D+F could not be correlated with ingestion. These relations are somewhat coarse and mainly based on statistical correlations, not on causitive relations. A more refined analysis of the EPG relations requires knowledge of the physical backgrounds of the electrically recorded signals. In Chapter 3 it is shown that the signal is caused by resistance fluctuations in the stylet region (resistance component) and by electro motive force (emf) sources in the aphid as well as in the plant (emf component). The contribution of each component to the signal depends on the input specifications of the amplifier used, especially its input resistance. The DC method is compared with the AC method used by McLean and Kinsey 1964, 1965).In Chapter 4 and 5 the 'potential drop' (pd), a phenomenon due to an emf source, is described and experimentally related to the penetration of a plant cell membrane by the stylet tip. The membrane potential causes the sudden drop of the potential in the signal, which may last for short or longer periods. A short pd reflects a protoplast puncture for 5 to 20 s. During long pds, lasting about 10 min to several hours or longer. the signal pattern D+E is recorded (abbr.: D+E(pd)). When stylets were amputated during long pds. phloem sap immediately exuded from the severed stump in the leaf. Subsequent EM showed the maxillary stylet tips being penetrated beyond the plasmalemma into a sieve element cell.It was shown that penetration behaviour is affected by wiring and connecting an aphid to the electrical circuit (Chapter 6). Since toxic and electrical effects can probably be ruled out, the effects are presumably due mainly to locomotion restraints. The effects of wiring on some penetration behaviour parameters of aphids on host plants appear to be opposite to that of aphids on non-host plants. It is concluded that electrical recording of stylet penetration should not be applied without control experiments with free aphids. especially when susceptibility or resistance of plants to aphids is studied.
|Boekbespreking: J. Cameron, R. Cowan, B. Holmes, P. Hurst & M. McLean, International Handbook of Educational Systems, Vols. I and II
Bor, W. van den - \ 1984
Pedagogisch tijdschrift 9 (1984). - ISSN 0169-2127 - p. 214 - 214.
|Further Genetic analysis of a Temperature-Sensitive Mutant of Cowpea Mosaic Virus
Jager, C.P. de; McLean, L. - \ 1979
Virology 99 (1979). - ISSN 0042-6822 - p. 167 - 1689.