Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Verlagen van de ammoniakemissie in de Proeftuin Veenweiden : ontwikkeling op melkveehouderij pilotbedrijven met 25% reductie als streven
Verloop, Koos ; Verhoeff, Teus ; Meerkerk, Barend ; Haan, Michel de - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1188) - 29
Combining grazing and high mineral efficiency
Haan, M.H.A. de; Noord, Tim van; Meerkerk, Barend ; Philipsen, A.P. ; Pol, A. van den - \ 2018
In: Sustainable meat and milk production from grasslands Wageningen : European Grassland Federation EGF (Grassland Science in Europe ) - ISBN 9781841706436 - p. 152 - 153.
In the Netherlands many farmers assume pasture grazing for dairy cows to be less efficient in terms of mineral utilisation than indoor housing systems. The gross annual grass yield is assumed to be lower as well. Since 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are obliged to use the ANCA-tool (Annual Nutrient Cycling Assessment) to show the mineral efficiency of their farms. Farmers claim that pasture grazing leads to a worse ANCA performance than indoor housing. This claim puts pressure on pasture grazing. Therefore, a study was performed to analyse the effect of grazing on mineral efficiency. The analysis of a dataset containing 2,725 ANCA results of Dutch dairy farms showed that the average phosphorus and nitrogen excretion for farms that apply pasture grazing for their cows for less than 1000 hours cow-1 yr-1 were not significantly different from the indoor housing systems. On farms that apply grazing for more than that, the mineral excretion was higher. Measures were identified to improve the mineral efficiency, e.g. less young stock, feeding additional roughage and concentrate low in protein and phosphorus. This study shows that farms with restricted grazing can combine grazing and mineral efficiency.
Minder ammoniakemissie uit de melkveehouderij in het veenweidegebied : 25% reductie een haalbaar doel
Verloop, Koos ; Verhoeff, Teus ; Oenema, Oenema ; Hoving, Idse ; Meerkerk, Barend ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Migchels, Gerard ; Haan, Michel de; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1129) - 31
An anatomy of colonial states and fiscal regimes in Portuguese Africa: long-term transformations in Angola and Mozambique, 1850s-1970s
Alexopoulou, Kleoniki - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema; E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk, co-promotor(en): J.M.H.M. Santos. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463433747 - 220
Deindustrialization in East Africa: textile production in an era of globalization and colonization, c. 1830-1940
Frederick, Katharine - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema; E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432405 - 200
Inzicht in ammoniakemissie op veenweidebedrijven : Analyse van bedrijfsresultaten van de KringloopWijzer (2013-2015)
Plomp, Marleen ; Noord, Tim van; Meerkerk, Barend ; Haan, Michel de - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1080) - 27
Scandinavian Economic History Review (Journal)
Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise van - \ 2018
Scandinavian Economic History Review (2018). - ISSN 0358-5522
International Review of Social History (Journal)
Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise van - \ 2018
International Review of Social History (2018).
Workshop Colonialism and education in a comparative perspective
Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise van - \ 2017
Colonialism and education in a comparative perspective: Analysing gendered civilizing missions (ca. 1850-1970)
Selling Sex in the City : A Global History of Prostitution, 1600s-2000s
Rodriguez Garcia, Magaly ; Heerma van Voss, L. ; Nederveen Meerkerk, E.J.V. van - \ 2017
Brill Academic Publishers (Studies in Global Social History ) - ISBN 9789004346246 - 894 p.
Selling Sex in the City offers a worldwide analysis of prostitution that takes a long historical approach which covers a time period from 1600 to the 2000s. The overviews in this volume examine sex work in more than twenty notorious “sin cities” around the world, ranging from Sydney to Singapore and from Casablanca to Chicago. Situated within a comparative framework of local developments, the book takes up themes such as labour relations, coercion, agency, gender, and living and working conditions. Selling Sex in the City thus reveals how prostitution and societal reactions to the trade have been influenced by colonization, industrialization, urbanization, the rise of nation states, imperialism, and war, as well as by revolutions in politics, transport, and communication.
A gender analysis of global sex work, 1600 to the present
Nederveen Meerkerk, E.J.V. van - \ 2017
In: Selling Sex in the City / Rodriguez Garcia, Magaly, Heerma van Voss, Lex, van Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise, Brill Academic Publishers (Studies in Global Social History ) - ISBN 9789004346246 - p. 801 - 832.
Selling Sex in World Cities, 1600s–2000s: An Introduction
Rodriguez Garcia, Magaly ; Nederveen Meerkerk, E.J.V. van; Heerma van Voss, L. - \ 2017
In: Selling Sex in the City / Rodriguez Garcia, Magaly, Heerma van Voss, Lex, van Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise, Brill Academic Publishers (Studies in Global Social History ) - ISBN 9789004346246 - p. 1 - 21.
Sex Sold in World Cities, 1600s–2000s: Some Conclusions to the Project
Nederveen Meerkerk, E.J.V. van; Rodriguez Garcia, Magaly ; Heerma van Voss, L. - \ 2017
In: Selling Sex in the City / Rodriguez Garcia, Magaly, Heerma van Voss, Lex, van Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise, Brill Academic Publishers (Studies in Global Social History ) - ISBN 9789004346246 - p. 859 - 880.
Entangled histories - Unravelling the impact of colonial connections of both Javanese and Dutch women’s work and household labour relations, c. 1830-1940
Nederveen Meerkerk, E.J.V. van - \ 2017
Tijdschrift voor Genderstudies 20 (2017)1. - ISSN 1388-3186 - p. 35 - 59.
women’s work, colonial history, entanglements, Dutch empire
In this article I investigate changing household labour relations and women’s
work in the Dutch empire. I question how colonial connections affected the
division of work between men, women, and children, not only in the colony –
the Dutch East Indies (i.c. Java), but also in the metropolis – the Netherlands.
Entanglements can be found in the influences of colonial economic policies
on both colony and metropolis, as well as in the more indirect effects of
colonial exploitation and taxation, and, finally in the sphere of sociopolitics
and ideologies. I will analyse the entanglements between the Netherlands
and Java in these domains, comparing similarities and differences, but also
paying attention to the connections and transfers between both parts of the
Dutch empire. Although some of the conditions and developments were
highly specific to the Dutch empire, I aim to show that the method of
comparing and establishing direct and indirect connections between different
parts of an empire can lead to new insights that can also be applied to
other parts of the world and different time periods.
Temporary Service? A Global Perspective on Domestic Work and the Life Cycle from Pre-Industrial Times to the Present
Nederveen Meerkerk, E.J.V. van - \ 2017
Geschichte und Gesellschaft 43 (2017)2. - ISSN 0340-613X - p. 217 - 239.
In recent years, labor history has taken a “global turn”, increasingly focusing on labor relations in the non-Western world. This article aims to challenge existing perceptions of the history of domestic work in Europe from a global labor history perspective by comparing them with the histories of domestic workers the world over. It seeks to discern continuities and discontinuities in the life cycles of domestic workers around the world over a long period of time. The profound influence of globalization and women’s emancipation on the contemporary international division of labor may make it seem quite new, but it remains rooted in older patterns of migration, colonial relations, and gender and ethnic stereotypes.
Social Science History (Journal)
Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise van - \ 2017
Social Science History (2017).
Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Patients with End-Stage Cystic Fibrosis Stabilize After the Start of Enteral Tube Feeding
Hollander, Francis M. ; Roos, Nicole M. de; Belle-Van Meerkerk, Gerdien ; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand ; Heijerman, Harry G.M. ; Graaf, Ed A. van de - \ 2017
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 117 (2017)11. - ISSN 2212-2672 - p. 1808 - 1815.
Body mass index - Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes - End-stage lung disease - Enteral tube feeding - Pulmonary function
Background: Enteral tube feeding (ETF) is widely used in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and end-stage lung disease, but previous studies have been limited to investigating whether ETF improves outcomes in patients with moderately or mildly impaired pulmonary function. Objective: This study investigated body weight, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m2), pulmonary function, and the presence of CF-related diabetes before and after the start of ETF. Design: This was a retrospective observational study. Participants/setting: Data from 26 adult patients in an outpatient setting who had end-stage CF (19 women) and had been using ETF for at least 6 months between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed. Main outcome measures: Body weight, BMI, pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percent of predicted) and incidence of CF-related diabetes from 6 months before to 6 months after starting ETF. Statistical analyses performed: Time effects were tested with one-way analysis of variance for data that were normally distributed and the Friedman test for non-parametric data. Correlations were tested with Pearson's r or Spearman's ρ, depending on the distribution of the data. Results: Mean body weight increased by 3.5 kg (95% CI 2.2 to 4.8 kg) after patients started ETF. In women, mean BMI decreased by 0.7 in the 6 months before the start of ETF (P<0.05) and increased by 1.4 in the 6 months thereafter (P<0.05). In men, BMI changes were similar (-0.8 and +1.1), but not statistically significant. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percent of predicted significantly decreased in time from a median of 28% to 26% at the start of ETF to 25% after 6 months (P=0.0013), with similar trends in women and men. There was no correlation between changes in weight and lung function. CF-related diabetes was already present in 12 patients and developed in 1 more patient after the start of ETF. Conclusions: ETF improved body weight and BMI but not pulmonary function in 26 patients with end-stage CF. Clinical outcomes were similar in women and men, but the sample size of men was too small to determine statistical significance.
A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860
Dalrymple-Smith, Angus - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema; E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk, co-promotor(en): M. van Rossum. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436199 - 283
slavery - history - colonialism - trade - commodities - gold - law - social change - economic change - west africa - slavernij - geschiedenis - kolonialisme - handel - basisproducten - goud - recht - sociale verandering - economische verandering - west-afrika

The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a result of the British decision to abolish their transatlantic slave trade in 1807 and subsequently persuading or forcing other nations to do the same. This thesis makes two principal contributions to this debate. Firstly, it reviews new evidence which shows that the commercial transition in West Africa’s most important slave exporting regions, the Gold Coast, the Bight of Biafra and the Bight of Benin, can be predicted by the patterns of trade established in previous centuries. It then presents a model of analysis which sets out which interrelated factors shaped their export economies and ultimately determined how they responded to the changing political and economic environment of the Atlantic world from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. This study offers an important comparative, long term quantitative perspective on the transition from slave exports to so-called ‘legitimate commerce’.

Chapter 1 shows that the speed and timing of the nineteenth century commercial transition differed considerably across the case study regions. Along the Gold Coast there was a sudden, and effectively total end to transatlantic slave trading after 1807. In the Bight of Biafra slave exports gradually declined until largely ceasing in the 1830s. Lastly in the Bight of Benin export slavery continued until the 1850s. The chapter argues that earlier studies have tended to ignore long term trends and also lack a comparative approach, as many are focused on individual regions. It then suggests a new model of analysis and dismisses two factors as irrelevant; the British slave trade patrol and changing demands for, or changing supply of, African slaves. The chapter argues that regional variations can be explained by five key factors: 1) the nature and duration of long-term trade relations; 2) the identity of the principal European trade partner; 3) certain aspects of the ecology of the different regions; 4) the regional political contexts; and 5) the development of institutions that either encouraged or discouraged elite participation in non-slave exports.

Chapter 2 provides a broad overview of each case study region’s patterns of trade from the fifteenth to the eighteenth Centuries based on secondary and primary qualitative sources. It then reviews quantitative evidence of commodity trading patterns from the earlier eighteenth century from British and Dutch commodity traders and slaving vessels that bought commodities. It argues that the expansion of slavery in the Bight of Biafra did not crowd out other forms of commerce. On the Gold Coast the early eighteenth century saw continued engagement in commodity exports while the slave trade expanded. However, by the 1780s, both slave and commodity exports seem to have begun to decline. In the Dahomean-controlled area of the Bight of Benin, there is no evidence of slavery crowding out other forms of commerce, as captives were always the only item of trade with the Atlantic world.

Chapter 3 investigates the extent to which the 18th century intensification of the trans-Atlantic slave trade boosted commercial agriculture in the coastal areas of West Africa and in particular in the case study regions. It explores the provisioning strategies of 187 British, French, Dutch and Danish slave voyages conducted between 1681 and 1807, and calls for a major downward adjustment of available estimates of the slave trade induced demand impulse. It shows that during the 18th century, an increasing share of the foodstuffs required to feed African slaves were taken on board in Europe instead of West Africa. However, there was considerable variation in provisioning strategies among slave trading nations and across main regions of slave embarkation. The Bight of Benin never significantly engaged in provisioning trade. Traders along the Gold Coast provided relatively large quantities of food to slaving vessels, but in the Bight of Biafra, British demand stimulated a considerable trade in foodstuffs. The chapter explains these trends and variation in terms of the relative (seasonal) security of European versus African food supplies, the falling relative costs of European provisions and the increasing risks in the late 18th century trade, putting a premium on faster embarkation times.

Chapter 4 uses a newly constructed dataset on the quantities and prices of African commodities on the coast and in British markets over the long eighteenth century and provides new insights into the changing nature of Britain’s non-slave trade. It improves on previous work by Johnson et al. (1990) and finds that earlier estimates of the volume and value of commodity trade have been underestimates and fail to account for regional changes in output. The data suggests that from the 1770s the focus of Britain’s commodity trade shifted from Senegambia to the Bight of Biafra and that in the later eighteenth century non-slave goods were primarily purchased by slave ships, not specialist bi-lateral traders. The chapter argues that these changes were motivated by a number of factors; conflicts between Atlantic powers, the prices of British trade goods and African imports, increasing levels of risk faced by British slave merchants and the fact that traders in the Bight of Biafra were both willing and able to supply desirable commodities.

Part 1 establishes that the Gold Coast had a far long history of commodity trading and seemed to have been moving away from the slave trade at the end of the eighteenth century. The region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey always focused exclusively on slaves. The Bight of Biafra had a considerable non-slave export economy that was growing at the end of the eighteenth century. Part 2 of the thesis applies the model of analysis to the case study regions.

Chapter 5 argues that that for the Gold Coast and more particularly the Asante empire British abolition policies and the slave forts can explain the timing of the end of transatlantic slavery but not why it ended. Following the model of analysis, the chapter shows that the presence of gold determined both long term political development and the nature of the region’s trade relationship with the Atlantic. In addition, gold became essential as a means of marking status and wealth at all levels of society and for domestic exchange. This meant that slaves were always essential for the production of gold, meaning that there was an important competing domestic market for coerced labour. Over the eighteenth-century gold became scarcer leading to slaves being pulled out of the Atlantic market to focus on production. In addition, well-developed trade relations with the interior and a rise in demand from the Islamic states in the Sokoto caliphate led to an expansion of kola exports which demanded yet more labour. Most importantly, the chapter argues that both households and elite groups could profit more from commodity than slave exports which explains the rapid move away from the transatlantic slavery and towards the production of commodities.

In Chapter 6 it is argued that in the Bight of Biafra, the slave and commodity trades were not only compatible but complementary. The region’s riverine transport networks, long established coastal-interior trade relations and suitability for the growing of yams, palm oil and tropical hardwoods meant that the provisioning and commodity trades could function alongside slave exports. The relatively late opening of central Igboland to the Atlantic slave markets meant that the region did not see the influx of wealth in the seventeenth century that spurred the development of states in the other case study areas. Instead the region followed a different institutional path which saw the development small political entities linked together through the Aro trade network. Elites in the interior and at the coast were reliant on trade for both power and status, but not specifically the slave trade. As a result, abolition was not a serious economic shock as commodities and slaves had always been traded side by side. As in Gold Coast both commoners and elites benefited from commodity trading. Atlantic goods allowed many more people to purchase goods to improve their standards of living, while elites benefitted from the less volatile commodity trade. Furthermore, the British state also perhaps unintentionally supported the development of the palm oil trade through its customs policies. Eventually, this led to palm oil crowding out slave exports through greater demands for domestic labour.

Chapter 7 investigates why the region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey only ever exported slaves. It shows that this region possessed no gold and had less favourable geography for commodity exports than the Bight of Biafra. The early expansion of export slavery in the seventeenth century spurred the development of states and elites who were entirely dependent on slave exports to maintain their wealth and power. It led to the development of a militaristic culture and institutions based on large scale slave raiding that were highly effective as a means of controlling and harnessing elite violence, generating wealth and defending the state from powerful external threats and economic competition. The demands of the army and elites took much of the kingdom’s potential labour away from households. In addition, constant warfare led to a serious demographic decline across the region further reducing the amount of available labour. The chapter argues that it was never in the interests of elites to switch to an alternative economic system and there was, until the 1850s, always sufficient external demand. In the end abolition efforts were a necessary condition to ending the slave trade.

Chapter 8 concludes with a summary of the main contributions of thesis; the importance of long term patterns of trade in determining nineteenth century commercial transition and a modified model of analysis to explain the diverging trajectories of the different case study regions. It also argues that the impact of Britain’s abolition campaign should be reassessed. In the Gold Coast and the Bight of Biafra it was not an important factor in ending transatlantic slavery, while in the Bight of Benin it was. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research.

Dutch Divergence? : Women’s work, structural change, and household living standards in the Netherlands, 1830-1914
Boter, Corinne - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema, co-promotor(en): E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431835 - 254
women - work - household budgets - living standards - gender - cultural history - case studies - netherlands - labour market - macroeconomics - microeconomics - western europe - work sharing - participation - vrouwen - werk - huishoudbudgetten - levensstandaarden - geslacht (gender) - cultuurgeschiedenis - gevalsanalyse - nederland - arbeidsmarkt - macro-economie - micro-economie - west-europa - verdeling van werk - participatie

Women’s work has never been a linear process of extending participation. Instead, female labour force participation (FLFP) has extended and curtailed throughout time. This dissertation studies a period of contraction: the nineteenth-century Netherlands. This country makes an important case study to explore the factors influencing the trajectory of women’s work. First, FLFP rates as recorded in occupational censuses were low compared with surrounding countries. Second, Dutch industrialization took off relatively late and until well into the twentieth century a significant part of the labour force worked in agriculture, in contrast to neighbouring countries such as Britain and Belgium.

This dissertation contributes to answering the following question: Why were Dutch female labour force participation rates lower than in surrounding countries during the period 1830-1914? I consider the following explanatory factors: social norms, the opportunity costs of women’s labour, and structural change. My conclusions about the relative weight of each factor are as follows. First, social norms regarding women’s role within the household following from the growing desire for domesticity have affected the trajectory of women’s labour. I show that married women withdrew from the registered labour force and instead, performed work that could be combined with domestic chores and that remained invisible in most statistical sources. However, these social norms were likewise strong in other western European countries, such as Britain, where FLFP was higher. Furthermore, Dutch FLFP was already low around 1850 when the transition to the male breadwinner society in western Europe started. Thus, it is no conclusive explanation for the aberrant Dutch trend in FLFP.

Second, men’s real industrial wages started to rise after 1880 and became increasingly able to take care of a family of four. However, this was not true for men’s agricultural wages. Women’s wages in both sectors hardly increased at all during the nineteenth century in both sectors. I therefore conclude that industrial households were already able to realize a breadwinner-homemaker type of labour division from the 1880s, whereas agricultural households still relied for an important part on other sources of income besides the husband’s wage labour by 1910. Thus, men’s wages profoundly influenced household labour division. However, in Britain, men’s real wages were even higher, but so were FLFP rates in the censuses. Thus, if the extent of men’s real wages was indeed the most important explanatory factor, we would have expected even lower participation rates in Britain than in the Netherlands.

Third, the impact of economic structure and the changing demand for labour on FLFP has been a pivotal factor of influence. I show that the structure of the local economy had a statistically significant effect on the chance that a bride stated an occupation in her marriage record. Furthermore, in agriculture women increasingly performed work in a private business which was usually not registered in the censuses. Moreover, technological change in the textile industry and the transition to the factory system negatively impacted women’s position in the labour market because married women could no longer combine domestic chores with wage labour. Finally, many parts of the production process that had traditionally been women’s work were taken over by men when mechanization progressed.

Considering all my research results, I conclude that the structure of the Dutch economy is the most important explanation for the exceptionally low Dutch FLFP rates during the long nineteenth century.

Big Questions and Big Data : The Role of Labour and Labour Relations in Recent Global Economic History
Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise van - \ 2017
International Review of Social History 62 (2017)1. - ISSN 0020-8590 - p. 95 - 121.

This article argues that global labour history (GLH) and global economic history have much to offer each other. GLH would do well to raise sweeping questions - for instance about the origins of global inequality - engage more with theory, and increasingly use quantitative methods. Instead of seeing labour and labour relations as historical phenomena to be explained, they can serve as important explanatory variables in historical analyses of economic development and divergence. In turn, economic historians have much to gain from the recent insights of global labour historians. GLH offers a more inclusive and variable usage of the concept of labour, abandoning, as it does, the often narrow focus on male wage labour in the analyses of many economic historians. Moreover, GLH helps to overcome thinking in binary categories, such as free and unfree labour. Ultimately, both fields will benefit from engaging in joint debates and theories, and from collaboration in collecting and analysing big data.

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