Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Expert-driven methodology to assess and predict the effects of drivers of change on vulnerabilities in a food supply chain: Aquaculture of Atlantic salmon in Norway as a showcase
    Marvin, Hans J.P. ; Asselt, Esther van; Kleter, Gijs ; Meijer, Nathan ; Lorentzen, Grete ; Johansen, Lill Heidi ; Hannisdal, Rita ; Sele, Veronika ; Bouzembrak, Yamine - \ 2020
    Trends in Food Science and Technology 103 (2020). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 49 - 56.
    Bayesian network - Delphi and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) - Delphi study - Expert elicitation - Food safety hazards - Machine learning

    Background: In the last decades, food produced by aquaculture has seen an impressive increase worldwide but maintaining high quality and safety is increasingly becoming a concern. It is apparent that changes in- and outside the aquaculture supply chain may act as driving forces for the introduction of food safety hazards. Knowledge on these drivers of change and their impact in the various steps in the food supply chain may help food producers to mitigate to potential risks and maintain high-quality food. Scope and approach: In this study, we analysed the use of expert driven methodologies to assess and predict the effect of drivers of change on selected food/feed safety vulnerabilities in the salmon aquaculture supply chain of Norway. The presented overview is based on the findings of the “Aquarius” project, which was funded by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Key findings and conclusions: In this study, over 100 experts were involved and various expert elicitation methods were applied such as on-line questionnaires, interviews, Delphi and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). This approach resulted in a comprehensive overview of the Norwegian salmon supply chain. For each step in the supply chain, vulnerabilities for human and animal health were identified, which were prioritised by FMEA. For the two highest-ranked vulnerabilities in each step of the supply chain, drivers were identified and prioritised by expert elicitation in a Delphi study. Also, indicators and linked data sources were obtained for the highest-ranked drivers. The comprehensive information collected was integrated in a Bayesian Network (BN) model that links data sources for indicators and drivers of change. The applicability of the BN model was demonstrated for salmon health for four vulnerabilities and three steps in Atlantic salmon aquaculture. The accuracy of developed model was 81%.

    Eindrapportage monitoring- en onderzoeksprogramma Natuurcompensatie Voordelta (PMR-NCV)
    Prins, Theo ; Meer, Jaap van der; Herman, Peter ; Spek, Ad van der; Chen, Chun ; Wymenga, Eddy ; Zee, Els van der; Stienen, Eric ; Aarts, Geert ; Meijer-Holzhauer, Harriëtte ; Adema, Jeroen ; Craeymeersch, Johan ; Wolfshaar, Karen van; Bolle, Loes ; Poot, Martin ; Hintzen, Niels ; Horssen, Peter van; Fijn, Ruben ; Glorius, Sander ; Beier, Ulrika ; Courtens, Wouter ; Neitzel, Sophie ; Hoof, Luc van - \ 2020
    Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C053/20) - 183
    Shrubs and Degraded Permafrost Pave the Way for Tree Establishment in Subarctic Peatlands
    Limpens, Juul ; Fijen, Thijs P.M. ; Keizer, Iris ; Meijer, Johan ; Olsthoorn, Fanny ; Pereira, Ana ; Postma, Roel ; Suyker, Mariette ; Vasander, Harri ; Holmgren, Milena - \ 2020
    Ecosystems (2020). - ISSN 1432-9840 - 14 p.
    alternative ecosystem states - boreal ecosystems - climate change - permafrost - plant facilitation - resilience - tree-line expansion - vegetation shifts - woody plant encroachment

    Arctic and subarctic ecosystems are changing rapidly in species composition and functioning as they warm twice as fast as the global average. It has been suggested that tree-less boreal landscapes may shift abruptly to tree-dominated states as climate warms. Yet, we insufficiently understand the conditions and mechanisms underlying tree establishment in the subarctic and arctic regions to anticipate how climate change may further affect ecosystem structure and functioning. We conducted a field experiment to assess the role of permafrost presence, micro-topography and shrub canopy on tree establishment in almost tree-less subarctic peatlands of northern Finland. We introduced seeds and seedlings of four tree-line species and monitored seedling survival and environmental conditions for six growing seasons. Our results show that once seedlings have emerged, the absence of permafrost can enhance early tree seedling survival, but shrub cover is the most important driver of subsequent tree seedling survival in subarctic peatlands. Tree seedling survival was twice as high under an intact shrub canopy than in open conditions after shrub canopy removal. Under unclipped control conditions, seedling survival was positively associated with dense shrub canopies for half of the tree species studied. These strong positive interactions between shrubs and trees may facilitate the transition from today’s treeless subarctic landscapes towards tree-dominated states. Our results suggest that climate warming may accelerate this vegetation shift as permafrost is lost, and shrubs further expand across the subarctic.

    The genetic and functional analysis of flavor in commercial tomato : the FLORAL4 gene underlies a QTL for floral aroma volatiles in tomato fruit
    Tikunov, Yury M. ; Roohanitaziani, Raana ; Meijer-Dekens, Fien ; Molthoff, Jos ; Paulo, Joao ; Finkers, Richard ; Capel, Iris ; Carvajal Moreno, Fatima ; Maliepaard, Chris ; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska ; Labrie, Caroline W. ; Verkerke, Wouter ; Heusden, Adriaan W. van; Eeuwijk, Fred van; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Bovy, Arnaud G. - \ 2020
    The Plant Journal (2020). - ISSN 0960-7412
    2-phenylethanol - aroma - flavor - quantitative trait loci - Solanum lycopersicum - tomato - volatiles

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has become a popular model for genetic studies of fruit flavor in the last two decades. In this article we present a study of tomato fruit flavor, including an analysis of the genetic, metabolic and sensorial variation of a collection of contemporary commercial glasshouse tomato cultivars, followed by a validation of the associations found by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of representative biparental segregating populations. This led to the identification of the major sensorial and chemical components determining fruit flavor variation and detection of the underlying QTLs. The high representation of QTL haplotypes in the breeders’ germplasm suggests that there is great potential for applying these QTLs in current breeding programs aimed at improving tomato flavor. A QTL on chromosome 4 was found to affect the levels of the phenylalanine-derived volatiles (PHEVs) 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane. Fruits of near-isogenic lines contrasting for this locus and in the composition of PHEVs significantly differed in the perception of fruity and rose-hip-like aroma. The PHEV locus was fine mapped, which allowed for the identification of FLORAL4 as a candidate gene for PHEV regulation. Using a gene-editing-based (CRISPR-CAS9) reverse-genetics approach, FLORAL4 was demonstrated to be the key factor in this QTL affecting PHEV accumulation in tomato fruit.

    Improve alignment of research policy and societal values
    Novitzky, Peter ; Bernstein, Michael J. ; Blok, Vincent ; Braun, Robert ; Chan, Tung Tung ; Lamers, Wout ; Loeber, Anne ; Meijer, Ingeborg ; Lindner, Ralf ; Griessler, Erich - \ 2020
    Science 369 (2020)6499. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 39 - 41.
    Historically, scientific and engineering expertise has been key in shaping research and innovation (R&I) policies, with benefits presumed to accrue to society more broadly over time (1). But there is persistent and growing concern about whether and how ethical and societal values are integrated into R&I policies and governance, as we confront public disbelief in science and political suspicion toward evidence-based policy-making (2). Erosion of such a social contract with science limits the ability of democratic societies to deal with challenges presented by new, disruptive technologies, such as synthetic biology, nanotechnology, genetic engineering, automation and robotics, and artificial intelligence. Many policy efforts have emerged in response to such concerns, one prominent example being Europe's Eighth Framework Programme, Horizon 2020 (H2020), whose focus on “Responsible Research and Innovation” (RRI) provides a case study for the translation of such normative perspectives into concrete policy action and implementation. Our analysis of this H2020 RRI approach suggests a lack of consistent integration of elements such as ethics, open access, open innovation, and public engagement. On the basis of our evaluation, we suggest possible pathways for strengthening efforts to deliver R&I policies that deepen mutually beneficial science and society relationships.
    Samenvattingen Fusarium
    Nijs, W.C.M. de; Torres Sanchez, David ; Ordonez Roman, N.I. ; Maryani Martawi, N. ; Meijer, H.J.G. ; Seidl, M.F. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2020
    Gewasbescherming 51 (2020)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 67 - 71.
    Pesticides in feed materials of plant origin : Application of processing factors
    Meijer, Nathan ; Velde-Koerts, Trijntje van der; Egmond, Harry van; Bikker, Paul - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food Safety Research (WFSR-report / Wageningen Food Safety Research 2019.016) - 41
    Planning strategies for dealing with population decline: Experiences from the Netherlands
    Beunen, Raoul ; Meijer, Marlies ; Vries, Jasper de - \ 2020
    Land Use Policy 93 (2020). - ISSN 0264-8377
    Land use policy - Population decline - Spatial planning - Strategy

    This paper explores the selection and implementation of planning strategies and land use instruments for dealing with population decline in three different regions in the Netherlands. The study shows that each region developed very specific responses that can be explained by the different discourses that dominated planning and policymaking in that region. Although the perceptions about population decline, its consequences and suitable responses are strongly context specific, in all three regions responsible governments deemed it necessary to adapt existing policies and plans and to tailor strategies to a situation with population decline. The study also shows that ideas about using planning as a tool to stimulate economic growth prevail in the studied regions, but that it are precisely these ideas that hamper the development and implementation of policies for dealing with population decline. The paper also illustrates how Evolutionary Governance Theory can be useful for explaining why regions take different routes in dealing with population decline and for analysing the different dependencies that influence the selection of strategies.

    Projecting terrestrial biodiversity intactness with GLOBIO 4
    Schipper, Aafke M. ; Hilbers, Jelle P. ; Meijer, Johan R. ; Antão, Laura H. ; Benítez-López, Ana ; Jonge, Melinda M.J. de; Leemans, Luuk H. ; Scheper, Eddy ; Alkemade, Rob ; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Mylius, Sido ; Stehfest, Elke ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Huijbregts, Mark A.J. - \ 2020
    Global Change Biology 26 (2020)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 760 - 771.
    anthropocene - biodiversity scenarios - global environmental change - land-use downscaling - mean species abundance

    Scenario-based biodiversity modelling is a powerful approach to evaluate how possible future socio-economic developments may affect biodiversity. Here, we evaluated the changes in terrestrial biodiversity intactness, expressed by the mean species abundance (MSA) metric, resulting from three of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) combined with different levels of climate change (according to representative concentration pathways [RCPs]): a future oriented towards sustainability (SSP1xRCP2.6), a future determined by a politically divided world (SSP3xRCP6.0) and a future with continued global dependency on fossil fuels (SSP5xRCP8.5). To this end, we first updated the GLOBIO model, which now runs at a spatial resolution of 10 arc-seconds (~300 m), contains new modules for downscaling land use and for quantifying impacts of hunting in the tropics, and updated modules to quantify impacts of climate change, land use, habitat fragmentation and nitrogen pollution. We then used the updated model to project terrestrial biodiversity intactness from 2015 to 2050 as a function of land use and climate changes corresponding with the selected scenarios. We estimated a global area-weighted mean MSA of 0.56 for 2015. Biodiversity intactness declined in all three scenarios, yet the decline was smaller in the sustainability scenario (−0.02) than the regional rivalry and fossil-fuelled development scenarios (−0.06 and −0.05 respectively). We further found considerable variation in projected biodiversity change among different world regions, with large future losses particularly for sub-Saharan Africa. In some scenario-region combinations, we projected future biodiversity recovery due to reduced demands for agricultural land, yet this recovery was counteracted by increased impacts of other pressures (notably climate change and road disturbance). Effective measures to halt or reverse the decline of terrestrial biodiversity should not only reduce land demand (e.g. by increasing agricultural productivity and dietary changes) but also focus on reducing or mitigating the impacts of other pressures.

    CRISPR/Cas inactivation of RECQ4 increases homeologous crossovers in an interspecific tomato hybrid
    Maagd, Ruud A. de; Loonen, Annelies ; Chouaref, Jihed ; Pelé, Alexandre ; Meijer-Dekens, Fien ; Fransz, Paul ; Bai, Yuling - \ 2020
    Plant Biotechnology Journal 18 (2020)3. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 805 - 813.
    class II crossover pathway - interspecific crosses - introgression breeding - meiosis - RECQ4

    Crossover formation during meiosis in plants is required for proper chromosome segregation and is essential for crop breeding as it allows an (optimal) combination of traits by mixing parental alleles on each chromosome. Crossover formation commences with the production of a large number of DNA double-strand breaks, of which only a few result in crossovers. A small number of genes, which drive the resolution of DNA crossover intermediate structures towards non-crossovers, have been identified in Arabidopisis thaliana. In order to explore the potential of modification of these genes in interspecific hybrids between crops and their wild relatives towards increased production of crossovers, we have used CRISPR/Cas9-mutagenesis in an interspecific tomato hybrid to knockout RecQ4. A biallelic recq4 mutant was obtained in the F1 hybrid of Solanum lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Compared with the wild-type F1 hybrid, the F1 recq4 mutant was shown to have a significant increase in crossovers: a 1.53-fold increase when directly observing ring bivalents in male meiocytes microscopically and a 1.8-fold extension of the genetic map when measured by analysing SNP markers in the progeny (F2) plants. This is one of the first demonstrations of increasing crossover frequency in interspecific hybrids by manipulating genes in crossover intermediate resolution pathways and the first to do so by directed mutagenesis. Significance statement: Increasing crossover frequency during meiosis can speed up or simplify crop breeding that relies on meiotic crossovers to introduce favourable alleles controlling important traits from wild relatives into crops. Here we show for the first time that knocking out an inhibitor of crossovers in an interspecific hybrid between tomato and its relative wild species using CRISPR/Cas9-mutagenesis results in increased recombination between the two genomes.

    Grond voor wonen – versnellen, verdichten, verduurzamen
    Nieland, Elin ; Meijer, R. ; Jonkman, Arend ; Hartmann, Thomas - \ 2019
    Rooilijn 49 (2019)1. - ISSN 1380-2860 - p. 58 - 63.
    Data from: Short-term, but not long-term, increased daytime workload leads to decreased night-time energetics in a free-living song bird
    Visser, Marcel E. ; Dooremalen, Coby van; Tomotani, Barbara ; Bushuev, Andrey ; Meijer, Harro A.J. ; Marvelde, Luc Te; Gienapp, Phillip - \ 2019
    compensation hypothesis - Anthropocene - Ficedula hypoleuca - increased-intake hypothesis - daily energy expenditure - pied flycatcher - feeding frequency - basal metabolic rate
    Reproduction is energetically expensive and to obtain sufficient energy, animals can either alter their metabolic system over time to increase energy intake (increased-intake hypothesis) or reallocate energy from maintenance processes (compensation hypothesis). The first hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and energy expenditure (DEE) because of the higher energy demands of the metabolic system at rest. The second hypothesis predicts a trade-off between different body functions, with a reduction of the BMR as a way to compensate for increased daytime energetic expenditure. We experimentally manipulated the workload of wild pied flycatchers by adding or removing chicks when chicks were 2 and 11 days old. We then measured the feeding frequency (FF), DEE and BMR at day 11, allowing us to assess both short- and long-term effects of increased workload. The manipulation at day 2 caused an increase in FF when broods were enlarged, but no response in DEE or BMR, while the manipulation at day 11 caused an increase in FF, no change in DEE and a decrease in BMR in birds with more chicks. Our results suggest that pied flycatchers adjust their workload but that this does not lead to a higher BMR at night (no support for the increased intake hypothesis). In the short term, we found that birds reallocate energy with a consequent reduction of BMR (evidence for the compensation hypothesis). Birds thus resort to short-term strategies to increase energy expenditure, which could explain why energy expenditure and hard work are not always correlated in birds.
    Wat is er gebeurd met Planners’ Paradise? Een analyse van Nederlands gemeentelijk grondbeleid
    Nieland, Elin ; Meijer, R. ; Jonkman, Arend ; Hartmann, Thomas - \ 2019
    In: Meer met meer. - Groningen : Stichting Planologische Discussiedagen - ISBN 9789081921763 - p. 30 - 37.
    citizen participation - urban planning - Social learning
    Labelling requirements in the EU and US for restructured and mechanically tenderized beef – a comparative legal analysis
    Meijer, N.P. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Jonge, R. de; Meulen, B.M.J. van der; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2019
    European Food and Feed Law Review 14 (2019). - ISSN 1862-2720 - p. 231 - 242.
    Taking animal perspectives into account in animal ethics’
    Bovenkerk, B. ; Meijer, Eva - \ 2019
    In: Sustainable Governance and Management of Food Systems / Vinnari, E., Vinnari, M., Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863419 - p. 73 - 78.
    Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in nonhuman animal agency in different fields. In biology and ethology new studies about animal languages, cultures, cognition and emotion are published weekly, affirming Darwin’s thesis that differences between humans and other animals are of degree and not kind. In the broad field of animal studies the symbolic and ontological human-animal distinction is challenged and other animals are presented as actors. These studies challenge existing approaches to animal ethics. Animals are no longer creatures to simply think about: they have their own perspectives on life, and humans can in some instances communicate with them about that. Animal ethics long determined individual moral rights and duties on the basis of nonhuman animal capacities, but this often measures them to human standards and does not take into account that nonhuman animals are a heterogeneous group in terms of capabilities as well as social relations to humans, which influences their scope for agency and possibilities for leading a good life. In our presentation we defend a relational approach to animal ethics, viewing other animals as subjects capable of co-shaping relations.
    Applicability of a food chain analysis on aquaculture of Atlantic salmon to identify and monitor vulnerabilities and drivers of change for the identification of emerging risks : AQUARIUS project (OC/EFSA/SCER/2015/02) Final Report
    Marvin, Hans ; Bouzembrak, Yamine ; Asselt, Esther Van; Meijer, Nathan ; Kleter, Gijs ; Lorentzen, Grete ; Johansen, Lill Heidi - \ 2019
    Tromso, Norway : EFSA (EFSA Supporting Publications ) - 366 p.
    The objective of Aquarius project was to test the applicability of a food chain analysis on Atlantic salmon farmed in Norway to identify and monitor vulnerabilities and drivers of change for the identification of emerging risks. To this end, a comprehensive literature review was conducted complemented with expert views collected by on-line questionnaires and in-depth interviews. This review provided an overview of the various stages in the supply chain from farm to consumer and the identification of i) existing and emerging human and animal health hazards, ii) vulnerabilities, iii) control measures, iv) drivers of change, and v) related indicators. Next step in the study was to i) complement the list of vulnerabilities followed by a prioritisation using focus group discussions and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method and ii) link drivers of change acting upon the (prioritised) vulnerabilities and identification of associated indicators and data sources by means of a Delphi method. Based on the experiences obtained with the different methodologies during this project, the Aquarius team considers literature review, and a direct face-to-face interaction with experts (in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and FMEA in a workshop setting) as being most effective regarding output and effort. The comprehensive information collected formed the basis for the methodology to baseline key indicators of the selected vulnerabilities. The methodology proposed comprised a Bayesian Network (BN) that links data sources for indicators and drivers of change to the prioritised vulnerabilities and was demonstrated for salmon health. A Decision Support System (DSS) with such BN integrated was designed. The current BN and DSS could flag an increased exposure of known hazards that may occur due to changes in indicators but new hazards are not identified. The proposed methodology could be used instead to show trends in vulnerabilities, indicators, increased exposure of known hazards and for scenario studies.
    Plasmacytoid dendritic cell and myeloid dendritic cell function in ageing: A comparison between elderly and young adult women
    Splunter, Marloes van; Perdijk, Olaf ; Fick-Brinkhof, Henriëtte ; Floris-Vollenbroek, Esther G. ; Meijer, Ben ; Brugman, Sylvia ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Hoffen, Els van; Neerven, Joost van - \ 2019
    PLoS ONE 14 (2019)12. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Ageing is associated with a changing immune system, leading to inflammageing (increased levels of inflammation markers in serum) and immunosenescence (reduced immune cells and reduced responses towards pathogens). This results in reduced vaccination responses and increased infections in elderly. Much is known about the adaptive immune system upon ageing, but less is known about the innate immune system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare innate immune function of Toll like receptor (TLR)-mediated responses between elderly and young adult women. To this end, elderly and young adult women were compared to study the effect of ageing on the relative prevalence and reactivity to TLR-mediated responses of myeloid- and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (mDC, pDC). In addition, TLR expression and inflammatory markers in serum were investigated. Elderly women had reduced numbers of circulating pDCs. In addition, pDCs and mDCs of elderly women responded differently towards TLR stimulation, especially TLR7/8 mediated stimulation was reduced, compared to young adults. In serum, markers involved in inflammation were generally increased in elderly. In conclusion, this study confirms and extends the knowledge about immunosenescence and inflammageing on innate immunity in elderly women.

    When animals speak : Toward an interspecies democracy
    Meijer, Eva - \ 2019
    New York : New York University Press - ISBN 9781479815661 - 228 p.
    A groundbreaking argument for the political rights of animals In When Animals Speak, Eva Meijer develops a new, ground-breaking theory of language and politics, arguing that non-human animals speak--and, most importantly, act--politically. From geese and squid to worms and dogs, she highlights the importance of listening to animal voices, introducing ways to help us bridge the divide between the human and non-human world. Drawing on insights from science, philosophy, and politics, Meijer provides fascinating, real-world examples of animal communities who use their voices to speak, and act, in political ways. When Animals Speak encourages us to rethink our relations with other animals, showing that their voices should be taken into account as the starting point for a new interspecies democracy.
    Wilde zwijnen op hol
    Jansman, Hugh - \ 2019
    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on unique markers derived from genotyping by sequencing data for rapid in planta diagnosis of Panama disease caused by Tropical Race 4 in banana
    Ordóñez, N. ; Salacinas, M. ; Mendes, O. ; Seidl, M.F. ; Meijer, H.J.G. ; Schoen, C.D. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2019
    Plant Pathology 68 (2019)9. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 1682 - 1693.
    DArTseq - field diagnostic - Fusarium odoratissimum - LAMP - Musa - Tropical Race 4

    The socio-economic impact of Fusarium odoratissimum, which is colloquially called tropical race 4 (TR4), is escalating as this fungal pathogen spreads to new banana-growing areas. Hence, the development of simple, reliable and rapid detection technologies is indispensable for implementing quarantine measures. Here, a versatile loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been developed that is applicable under field and laboratory conditions. DNA markers unique to TR4 isolates were obtained by diversity arrays technology sequencing (DArTseq), a genotyping by sequencing technology that was conducted on 27 genotypes, comprising 24 previously reported vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and three TR4 isolates. The developed LAMP TR4 assay was successfully tested using 22 TR4 isolates and 45 non-target fungal and bacterial isolates, as well as on infected plants under greenhouse and field conditions. The detection limit was 1 pg µL−1 pure TR4 DNA or 102 copies plasmid-localized TR4 unique sequence (SeqA) per reaction, which was not affected by background DNA in complex samples. The LAMP TR4 assay offers a powerful tool for the routine and unambiguous identification of banana plants infected with TR4, contributing to advanced diagnosis in field situations and monitoring of fusarium wilt.

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