Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Ouden, Jan den; Jansen, Patrick - \ 2019
Determinants of plant community diversity and structure - Forest - Smithsonian ForestGEO - legume - symbiosis - nutrient limitation - nitrogen fixation
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N‐fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N‐fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N‐fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N‐fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N‐fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N‐fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N‐fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N‐fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N‐fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.
Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Cao, Min ; Chanthorn, Wirong ; Chao, Wei Chun ; Clay, Keith ; Condit, Richard ; Cordell, Susan ; Silva, João Batista da; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Andrade, Ana Cristina Segalin de; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de; Ouden, Jan den; Drescher, Michael ; Fletcher, Christine ; Giardina, Christian P. ; Savitri Gunatilleke, C.V. ; Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. ; Hau, Billy C.H. ; He, Fangliang ; Howe, Robert ; Hsieh, Chang Fu ; Hubbell, Stephen P. ; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Johnson, Daniel J. ; Kong, Lee Sing ; Král, Kamil ; Ku, Chen Chia ; Lai, Jiangshan ; Larson, Andrew J. ; Li, Xiankun ; Li, Yide ; Lin, Luxiang ; Lin, Yi Ching ; Liu, Shirong ; Lum, Shawn K.Y. ; Lutz, James A. ; Ma, Keping ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; McMahon, Sean ; McShea, William ; Mi, Xiangcheng ; Morecroft, Michael ; Myers, Jonathan A. ; Nathalang, Anuttara ; Novotny, Vojtech ; Ong, Perry ; Orwig, David A. ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Parker, Geoffrey ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Abd. Rahman, Kassim ; Sack, Lawren ; Sang, Weiguo ; Shen, Guochun ; Shringi, Ankur ; Shue, Jessica ; Su, Sheng Hsin ; Sukumar, Raman ; Fang Sun, I. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Tan, Sylvester ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Toko, Pagi S. ; Valencia, Renato ; Vallejo, Martha I. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vrška, Tomáš ; Wang, Bin ; Wang, Xihua ; Weiblen, George D. ; Wolf, Amy ; Xu, Han ; Yap, Sandra ; Zhu, Li ; Fung, Tak - \ 2019
Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)6. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 2598 - 2610.
forest - legume - nitrogen fixation - nutrient limitation - Smithsonian ForestGEO - symbiosis
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N-fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N-fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N-fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N-fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N-fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N-fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N-fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N-fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N-fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.
Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in Neotropical forests
Gei, Maga ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Bongers, Frans ; Sprent, Janet I. ; Garner, Mira D. ; Aide, T.M. ; Andrade, José Luis ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Cole, Rebecca J. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Jong, Ben De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos Do; Fernandes, G.W. ; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Mora, Francisco ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Reich, Peter B. ; Reyes-García, Casandra ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Pérez, I.E. ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. ; Silver, Whendee ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa De; Sullivan, Benjamin W. ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Uriarte, Maria ; Breugel, Michiel Van; Wal, Hans Van Der; Veloso, Maria Das Dores Magalhães ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Powers, Jennifer S. - \ 2018
Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018)7. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1104 - 1111.
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area is twice as high in dry compared with wet secondary forests. The tremendous ecological success of legumes in recently disturbed, water-limited forests is likely to be related to both their reduced leaflet size and ability to fix N2, which together enhance legume drought tolerance and water-use efficiency. Earth system models should incorporate these large-scale successional and climatic patterns of legume dominance to provide more accurate estimates of the maximum potential for natural nitrogen fixation across tropical forests.
Preclinical Profile of the HER2-Targeting ADC SYD983/SYD985: Introduction of a New Duocarmycin-Based Linker-Drug Platform
Dokter, W. ; Ubink, R. ; Lee, M. van der; Vleuten, M. van der; Achterberg, T. van; Jacobs, D. ; Loosveld, E. ; Dobbelsteen, D. van den; Egging, D. ; Mattaar, E. ; Groothuis, P. ; Beusker, P. ; Coumans, R. ; Elgersma, R. ; Menge, W. ; Joosten, J. ; Spijker, H. ; Huijbregts, T. ; Groot, V. de; Eppink, M.H.M. ; Roo, G. de; Verheijden, G. ; Timmers, M. - \ 2014
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 13 (2014). - ISSN 1535-7163 - p. 2618 - 2629.
metastatic breast-cancer - growth-factor receptor - phase-ii - trastuzumab emtansine - brentuximab vedotin - cathepsin-b - human pharmacokinetics - monoclonal-antibody - malignant-melanoma - antitumor-activity
A linker-drug platform was built on the basis of a cleavable linker-duocarmycin payload for the development of new-generation antibody–drug conjugates (ADC). A leading ADC originating from that platform is SYD983, a HER2-targeting ADC based on trastuzumab. HER2-binding, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and HER2-mediated internalization are similar for SYD983 as compared with trastuzumab. HER2- expressing cells in vitro are very potently killed by SYD983, but SYD983 is inactive in cells that do not express HER2. SYD983 dose dependently reduces tumor growth in a BT-474 mouse xenograft in vivo. TheADCis stable in human and cynomolgus monkey plasma in vitro but shows relatively poor stability in mouse plasma due to mouse-specific carboxylesterase. SYD983 could be dosed up to 30 mg/kg in cynomolgus monkeys with high exposure, excellent stability in blood, and without severe toxic effects. The monkey safety study showed no SYD983-induced thrombocytopenia and no induction of peripheral sensory neuropathy, both commonly observed in trials and studies with ADCs based on tubulin inhibitors. Finally, to improve homogeneity, SYD983 was further purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography resulting in an ADC (designated SYD985) predominantly containing DAR2 and DAR4 species. SYD985 showed high antitumor activity in two patient-derived xenograft models of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancers. In conclusion, the data obtained indicate great potential for this new HER2-targeting ADC to become an effective drug for patients with HER2- positive cancers with a favorable safety profile. More generally, this new-generation duocarmycin-based linker-drug technology could be used with other mAbs to serve more indications in oncology.
Fermentation of liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets: Part 1. Effects on chemical composition during 6-day storage period
Scholten, R.H.J. ; Rijnen, M.M.J.A. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Boer, H. ; Vesseur, P.C. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 85 (2001)5-6. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 111 - 123.
The effects of a 6-day storage period on changes in dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, true protein, crude fat, starch, soluble starch, sugar and lactose of three liquid coproducts and two liquid compound diets were studied. The three liquid coproducts studied were: liquid wheat starch (LWS), mashed potato steam peel (PSP) and cheese whey (CW), and the two liquid compound diets were: liquid grower diet (LGD) and liquid finisher diet (LFD). The loss of corrected dry matter after a 6-day storage, expressed in relation to the initial content, was 1.9, 6.2, 9.6, 4.6 and 4.2 or LWS, PSP, CW, LGD and LFD, respectively. During storage, the total amount of starch decreased 2.7, 24.0, 28.1 and 33.3 or LWS, PSP, LGD and LFD, respectively. The total amount of lactose decreased 23.5 or CW. The gross energy value of the products did not change remarkably during the 6-day storage period; gross energy losses being less than 3 f the initial gross energy content. In einem Versuch sind die Effekte einer Lagerung von sechs Tagen auf die Änderungen von Trockensubstanz, Rohasche, Rohprotein, Wirkliches-Protein, Rohfett, Stärke, Auflösbare Stärke, Zucker und Lactose von drei flüssigen Nebenprodukten und zwei flüssigen Mischfutterrationen untersucht worden. Die drei flüssige Nebenprodukte waren: flüssige Weizenstärke (LWS), Kartoffeldampfschalen (PSP) und Molke (CW), und die zwei flüssige Mischfutter waren: flüssiges Vormastfutter (LGD) and flüssiges Endmastfutter (LFD). Die Abnahme von korrigierter Trockensubstanz nach einer Lagerung von sechs Tagen, ausgedrückt im Vergleich zum Anfang der Lagerung (Zeit 0), war 1.9, 6.2, 9.6, 4.6 und 4.2 ür LWS, PSP, CW, LGD und LFD. Nach der Lagerung, war die gesamte Menge Stärke 2.7, 24.0, 28.1 and 33.3 iedriger für LWS, PSP, LGD und LFD. Die gesamte Menge von Lactose war 23.5 iedriger für CW am Ende der Lagerung. Die gesamte Bruttoenergiewerte von allen Produkte war nicht viel verändert nach den sechs Tagen Lagerung; Brüttoenergie verluste waren weniger als 3 ls bei Beginn der Lagerung.