Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    How to Advocate Scientific Evidence to Decision-makers?
    Bekker, Marleen ; Guzman, Viveka ; Mensah, Keitly - \ 2019
    Public health research aims to change the world, or at least contribute to the development of healthier and more equitable societies. However, the availability of health information does not inherently lead to its increased use in policy and decision-making. Significant gap remains between the knowledge of public health researchers and the actions taken by decision-makers. Various tools and mechanisms can help to increase the use of scientific evidence in policy development by making policymakers appreciate, understand and incorporate such scientific information into policy decisions. As part of this process, it is crucial that researchers and public health practitioners acquire the ability to translate their knowledge and become skilled on communicating the evidence effectively. To this aim, we will present firstly a WHO approach for that on the basis of EVIPNet Europe. Member countries have benefited of EVIPNet Europe’s capacity building efforts, its training workshops, coaching and mentoring schemes, leading to increased knowledge and skills in view of identifying, accessing, appraising, synthesizing and communicating the best available evidence. The presentation will focus on the ways to trigger tangible changes at policy and legislative levels. The second presentation will give more specific information about the process of real-life applications. Main question will be “How to advocate scientific evidence to decision-makers in the frame of evidence-informed policy-making?”. The presentation will help the participants to analyze to whom they are targeting, what their interests are and how to communicate scientific information to a decision-maker effectively. Last but not least, common challenges of evidence-informed policy-making process in health care and ways to tackle them will be presented. By doing so, special attention will be paid to the methodologies for joint fact-finding, responsive evaluation and citizen science. The workshop will engage participants interactively and leave time for answering their questions at the end.
    2.N. How to Advocate Scientific Evidence to Decision-makers?
    Bekker, Marleen ; Guzman, Viveka ; Mensah, Keitly - \ 2019
    Can yield variability be explained? Integrated assessment of maize yield gaps across smallholders in Ghana
    Loon, Marloes P. van; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel ; Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Akotsen-Mensah, Clement ; Dijk, Michiel van; Morley, Tom ; Ittersum, Martin K. van; Reidsma, Pytrik - \ 2019
    Field Crops Research 236 (2019). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 132 - 144.
    Crop experiments - Crop modelling - Farm household survey - Integrated assessment - Smallholder farms - Yield gaps - Yield potential

    Agricultural production in Ghana should more than double to fulfil the estimated food demand in 2050, but this is a challenge as the productivity of food crops has been low, extremely variable and prone to stagnation. Yield gap estimations and explanations can help to identify the potential for intensification on existing agricultural land. However, to date most yield gap analyses had a disciplinary focus. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of crop management, soil and household factors on maize (Zea mays) yields in two major maize growing regions in Ghana through an integrated approach. We applied a variety of complementary methods to study sites in the Brong Ahafo and Northern region. Farm household surveys, yield measurements and soil sampling were undertaken in 2015 and 2016. Water-limited potential yield (Y w ) was estimated with a crop growth simulation model, and two different on-farm demonstration experiments were carried out in 2016 and 2017. There is great potential to increase maize yields across the study sites. Estimated yield gaps ranged between 3.8 Mg ha −1 (67% of Y w ) and 13.6 Mg ha −1 (84% of Y w ). However, there was no consistency in factors affecting maize yield and yield gaps when using complementary methods. Demonstration experiments showed the potential of improved varieties, fertilizers and improved planting densities, with yields up to 9 Mg ha −1 . This was not confirmed in the analysis of the household surveys, as the large yield variation across years on the same farms impeded the disclosure of effects of management, soil and household factors. The low-input nature of the farming system and the incidence of fall armyworm led to relatively uniform and low yields across the entire population. So, farmers’ yields were determined by interacting, and strongly varying, household, soil and management factors. We found that for highly variable and complex smallholder farming systems there is a danger in drawing oversimplified conclusions based on results from a single methodological approach. Integrating household surveys, crop growth simulation modelling and demonstration experiments can add value to yield gap analysis. However, the challenge remains to improve upon this type of integrated assessment to be able to satisfactorily disentangle the interacting factors that can be managed by farmers in order to increase crop yields.

    The burden of cardiovascular diseases among us states, 1990-2016
    Roth, Gregory A. ; Johnson, Catherine O. ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Ahmed, Muktar ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Ansari, Hossein ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Awoke, Tadesse ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bärnighausen, Till ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Bennett, Derrick ; Bensenor, Isabela ; Biadgilign, Sibhatu ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Davletov, Kairat ; Dharmaratne, Samath ; Ding, Eric L. ; Dubey, Manisha ; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino ; Farid, Talha ; Farvid, Maryam S. ; Feigin, Valery ; Fernandes, João ; Frostad, Joseph ; Gebru, Alemseged ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gona, Philimon Nyakauru ; Griswold, Max ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hankey, Graeme J. ; Hassen, Hamid Yimam ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hay, Simon ; Heckbert, Susan R. ; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter ; James, Spencer Lewis ; Jara, Dube ; Kasaeian, Amir ; Khan, Abdur Rahman ; Khera, Sahil ; Khoja, Abdullah T. ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Daniel ; Kolte, Dhaval ; Lal, Dharmesh ; Larsson, Anders ; Linn, Shai ; Lotufo, Paulo A. ; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Mazidi, Mohsen ; Meier, Toni ; Mendoza, Walter ; Mensah, George A. ; Meretoja, Atte ; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Moran, Andrew Edward ; Nguyen, Grant ; Nguyen, Minh ; Ong, Kanyin Liane ; Owolabi, Mayowa ; Pletcher, Martin ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Purcell, Caroline A. ; Qorbani, Mostafa ; Rahman, Mahfuzar ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Ram, Usha ; Reitsma, Marissa Bettay ; Renzaho, Andre M.N. ; Rios-Blancas, Maria Jesus ; Safiri, Saeid ; Salomon, Joshua A. ; Sartorius, Benn ; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh ; Shaikh, Masood Ali ; Silva, Diego ; Stranges, Saverio ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael ; Atnafu, Niguse Tadele ; Thakur, J.S. ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Truelsen, Thomas ; Tuzcu, E.M. ; Tyrovolas, Stefanos ; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Vlassov, Vasiliy ; Vollset, Stein Emil ; Wakayo, Tolassa ; Weintraub, Robert ; Wolfe, Charles ; Workicho, Abdulhalik ; Xu, Gelin ; Yadgir, Simon ; Yano, Yuichiro ; Yip, Paul ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Zipkin, Ben ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Gakidou, Emmanuela ; Lim, Stephen S. ; Mokdad, Ali H. ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Vos, Theo ; Murray, Christopher J.L. - \ 2018
    JAMA Cardiology 3 (2018)5. - ISSN 2380-6583 - p. 375 - 389.
    Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, but regional variation within the United States is large. Comparable and consistent state-level measures of total CVD burden and risk factors have not been produced previously. Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of lost health due to CVD within the United States from 1990 to 2016 as well as risk factors driving these changes. Design, setting, and participants: Using the Global Burden of Disease methodology, cardiovascular disease mortality, nonfatal health outcomes, and associated risk factors were analyzed by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2016 for all residents in the United States using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling. Burden of disease was estimated for 10 groupings of CVD, and comparative risk analysis was performed. Data were analyzed from August 2016 to July 2017. Exposures: Residing in the United States. Main outcomes ans measures: Cardiovascular disease disability-Adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results: Between 1990 and 2016, age-standardized CVD DALYs for all states decreased. Several states had large rises in their relative rank ordering for total CVD DALYs among states, including Arkansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana, Kansas, Alaska, and Iowa. The rate of decline varied widely across states, and CVD burden increased for a small number of states in the most recent years. Cardiovascular disease DALYs remained twice as large among men compared with women. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD DALYs in all states, but the second most common varied by state. Trends were driven by 12 groups of risk factors, with the largest attributable CVD burden due to dietary risk exposures followed by high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, high total cholesterol level, high fasting plasma glucose level, tobacco smoking, and low levels of physical activity. Increases in risk-deleted CVD DALY rates between 2006 and 2016 in 16 states suggest additional unmeasured risks beyond these traditional factors. Conclusions and relevance: Large disparities in total burden of CVD persist between US states despite marked improvements in CVD burden. Differences in CVD burden are largely attributable to modifiable risk exposures.
    Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders during 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
    Feigin, V.L. ; Krishnamurthi, R.V. ; Theadom, A.M. ; Abajobir, A.A. ; Mishra, S.R. ; Ahmed, M.B. ; Abate, K.H. ; Mengistie, M.A. ; Wakayo, T. ; Abd-Allah, F. ; Abdulle, A.M. ; Abera, S.F. ; Mohammed, K.E. ; Abyu, G.Y. ; Asgedom, S.W. ; Atey, T.M. ; Betsu, B.D. ; Mezgebe, H.B. ; Tuem, K.B. ; Woldu, M.A. ; Aichour, A.N. ; Aichour, I. ; Aichour, M.T. ; Akinyemi, R.O. ; Alabed, S. ; Al-Raddadi, R. ; Alvis-Guzman, N. ; Amare, A.T. ; Ansari, H. ; Anwari, P. ; Ärnlöv, J. ; Fereshtehnejad, S. ; Weiderpass, E. ; Havmoeller, R. ; Asayesh, H. ; Avila-Burgos, L. ; Avokpaho, E.F.G.A. ; Afrique, L.E.R.A.S. ; Azarpazhooh, M.R. ; Barac, A. ; Barboza, M. ; Barker-Collo, S.L. ; Bärnighausen, T. ; Farvid, M.S. ; Mohammed, S. ; Bedi, N. ; Beghi, E. ; Giussani, G. ; Bennett, D.A. ; Hay, S.I. ; Goulart, A.C. ; Santos, I.S. ; Bensenor, I.M. ; Lotufo, P.A. ; Berhane, A. ; Jeemon, P. ; Bhaumik, S. ; Dandona, L. ; Dandona, R. ; Kumar, G.A. ; Birlik, S.M. ; Biryukov, S. ; Casey, D. ; Foreman, K.J. ; Goldberg, E.M. ; Khalil, I.A. ; Kyu, H.H. ; Manhertz, T. ; Mokdad, A.H. ; Naghavi, M. ; Nguyen, G. ; Nichols, E. ; Smith, M. ; Carabin, H. ; Roth, G.A. ; Stanaway, J.D. ; Vos, T. ; Ellenbogen, R.G. ; Jakovljevic, M.B. ; Tirschwell, D.L. ; Zunt, J.R. ; Boneya, D.J. ; Hambisa, M. ; Bulto, L.N.B. ; Carabin, H. ; Castañeda-Orjuela, C.A. ; Catalá-López, F. ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, R. ; Chen, H. ; Chitheer, A.A. ; Chowdhury, R. ; Christensen, H. ; Deveber, G.A. ; Dharmaratne, S.D. ; Do, H.P. ; Nguyen, C.T. ; Nguyen, Q.L. ; Nguyen, T.H. ; Nong, V.M. ; Sheth, K.N. ; Dorsey, E.R. ; Eskandarieh, S. ; Fischer, F. ; Majeed, A. ; Steiner, T.J. ; Rawaf, S. ; Shakir, R. ; Shoman, H. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Gillum, R.F. ; Gona, P.N. ; Gugnani, H.C. ; Gupta, R. ; Hachinski, V. ; Hamadeh, R.R. ; Hankey, G.J. ; Hareri, H.A. ; Heydarpour, P. ; Sahraian, M.A. ; Kasaeian, A. ; Malekzadeh, R. ; Roshandel, G. ; Sepanlou, S.G. ; Hotez, P.J. ; Javanbakht, M. ; Jonas, J.B. ; Kalkonde, Y. ; Kandel, A. ; Karch, A. ; Kastor, A. ; Rahman, M.H.U. ; Keiyoro, P.N. ; Khader, Y.S. ; Khan, E.A. ; Khang, Y. ; Khoja, A.T.A. ; Tran, B.X. ; Khubchandani, J. ; Kim, D. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Kivimaki, M. ; Kokubo, Y. ; Kosen, S. ; Kravchenko, M. ; Piradov, M.A. ; Varakin, Y.Y. ; Defo, B.K. ; Kulkarni, C. ; Kumar, R. ; Larsson, A. ; Lavados, P.M. ; Li, Y. ; Liang, X. ; Liben, M.L. ; Lo, W.D. ; Logroscino, G. ; Loy, C.T. ; Mackay, M.T. ; Meretoja, A. ; Szoeke, C.E.I. ; Abd El Razek, H.M. ; Mantovani, L.G. ; Massano, J. ; Mazidi, M. ; McAlinden, C. ; Mehata, S. ; Mehndiratta, M.M. ; Memish, Z.A. ; Mendoza, W. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Wijeratne, T. ; Miller, T.R. ; Mohamed Ibrahim, N. ; Mohammadi, A. ; Moradi-Lakeh, M. ; Velasquez, I.M. ; Musa, K.I. ; Ngunjiri, J.W. ; Ningrum, D.N.A. ; Norrving, B. ; Stein, D.J. ; Noubiap, J.J.N. ; Ogbo, F.A. ; Renzaho, A.M.N. ; Owolabi, M.O. ; Pandian, J.D. ; Parmar, P.G. ; Pereira, D.M. ; Petzold, M. ; Phillips, M.R. ; Poulton, R.G. ; Pourmalek, F. ; Qorbani, M. ; Rafay, A. ; Rai, R.K. ; Rajsic, S. ; Ranta, A. ; Rezai, M.S. ; Rubagotti, E. ; Sachdev, P. ; Safiri, S. ; Sahathevan, R. ; Samy, A.M. ; Santalucia, P. ; Sartorius, B. ; Satpathy, M. ; Sawhney, M. ; Saylan, M.I. ; Shaikh, M.A. ; Shamsizadeh, M. ; Sheth, K.N. ; Shigematsu, M. ; Silva, D.A.S. ; Sobngwi, E. ; Sposato, L.A. ; Stovner, L.J. ; Suliankatchi Abdulkader, R. ; Tanne, D. ; Thrift, A.G. ; Topor-Madry, R. ; Truelsen, T. ; Ukwaja, K.N. ; Uthman, O.A. ; Yonemoto, N. ; Venketasubramanian, N. ; Vlassov, V.V. ; Wadilo, F. ; Wallin, M.T. ; Westerman, R. ; Wiysonge, C.S. ; Wolfe, C.D. ; Xavier, D. ; Xu, G. ; Yano, Y. ; Yimam, H.H. ; Yonemoto, N. ; Yu, C. ; Zaidi, Z. ; Zaki, M.E. - \ 2017
    The Lancet Neurology 16 (2017)11. - ISSN 1474-4422 - p. 877 - 897.

    Background Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level. Methods We estimated global and country-specific prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) for various neurological disorders that in the GBD classification have been previously spread across multiple disease groupings. The more inclusive grouping of neurological disorders included stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, tetanus, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, migraine, tension-type headache, medication overuse headache, brain and nervous system cancers, and a residual category of other neurological disorders. We also analysed results based on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility, to identify patterns associated with development and how countries fare against expected outcomes relative to their level of development. Findings Neurological disorders ranked as the leading cause group of DALYs in 2015 (250·7 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 229·1 to 274·7] million, comprising 10·2% of global DALYs) and the second-leading cause group of deaths (9·4 [9·1 to 9·7] million], comprising 16·8% of global deaths). The most prevalent neurological disorders were tension-type headache (1505·9 [UI 1337·3 to 1681·6 million cases]), migraine (958·8 [872·1 to 1055·6] million), medication overuse headache (58·5 [50·8 to 67·4 million]), and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (46·0 [40·2 to 52·7 million]). Between 1990 and 2015, the number of deaths from neurological disorders increased by 36·7%, and the number of DALYs by 7·4%. These increases occurred despite decreases in age-standardised rates of death and DALYs of 26·1% and 29·7%, respectively; stroke and communicable neurological disorders were responsible for most of these decreases. Communicable neurological disorders were the largest cause of DALYs in countries with low SDI. Stroke rates were highest at middle levels of SDI and lowest at the highest SDI. Most of the changes in DALY rates of neurological disorders with development were driven by changes in YLLs. Interpretation Neurological disorders are an important cause of disability and death worldwide. Globally, the burden of neurological disorders has increased substantially over the past 25 years because of expanding population numbers and ageing, despite substantial decreases in mortality rates from stroke and communicable neurological disorders. The number of patients who will need care by clinicians with expertise in neurological conditions will continue to grow in coming decades. Policy makers and health-care providers should be aware of these trends to provide adequate services. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    Towards sustainable vegetable production around agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin : Current situation, challenges and research avenues for sustainable production and integrated dam management
    Kpéra, G.N. ; Segnon, Alcade C. ; Saïdou, Aliou ; Mensah, Guy A. ; Aarts, Noelle ; Zijpp, Akke J. van der - \ 2017
    Agriculture & Food Security 6 (2017). - ISSN 2048-7010
    African indigenous vegetables - Agro-pastoral dams - Benin - Gender - Urban and peri-urban agriculture - Urbanization - Vegetable production

    Background: Rehabilitation and optimized utilization of agro-pastoral dams (APDs), especially for vegetable production, has been recently promoted to boost agricultural production and ensure food security in Benin. However, little information was available on APDs' agricultural potentials and knowledge of how APDs' ecosystem services were exploited by the various stakeholders, and how each stakeholder group contributed to the degradation of the common good was scanty. This study explored three APDs in northern Benin to diagnose vegetable production systems and assess producer's perception of APD degradation. Results: The results indicated that vegetable production around the APDs was a part-time activity dominated by women, and characterized by low external input use and a diversity of African indigenous vegetables. There was a strong gender difference in cropping systems, farming practices and land access, and a significant agreement on key production bottlenecks among producers. The main constraints included conflicts with livestock herders generated by the recurrent destruction of crops and seedlings by livestock, lack of equipment, pest and disease management challenges, access to water and inputs. Water erosion and runoff, livestock, vegetable production and food crops and cotton farming around the dams were respectively perceived as factors that contribute to APDs' siltation and affect water quality. In comparison with water erosion and runoff, experienced producers and those with higher vegetable species richness were more likely to rank farming as first source of threat to APDs. Urbanization and market access were drivers of intensification of vegetable production around APDs. Conclusions: Our findings illustrate how information on cropping and farming practices, and producers' perception can provide insights and research and development avenues for integrated dam management and sustainable production for improved food security and livelihoods. We discussed the implications of our findings and suggested a number of strategic decisions and research avenues for integrated dam management and sustainable vegetable production around APDs. Avenues for future research and development actions include: (1) a tailored and gender-specific training programme on sustainable production practices targeted to women; (2) developing scenarios of the desired future state for APDs by all stakeholders to work towards through collaborative actions; and (3) assessing the perception of other users on APD siltation and water quality.

    Strategies to Improve Stroke Care Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries : A Systematic Review
    Pandian, J.D. ; William, Akanksha G. ; Kate, Mahesh P. ; Norrving, Bo ; Mensah, George A. ; Davis, Stephen ; Roth, Gregory A. ; Thrift, Amanda G. ; Kengne, Andre P. ; Kissela, Brett M. ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Kim, Daniel ; Rojas-Rueda, David ; Tirschwell, David L. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Gankpé, Fortuné ; Deveber, Gabrielle ; Hankey, Graeme J. ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Sheth, Kevin N. ; Dokova, Klara ; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Giroud, Maurice ; Bejot, Yannick ; Sacco, Ralph ; Sahathevan, Ramesh ; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi ; Gillum, Richard F. ; Westerman, Ronny ; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne ; Truelsen, Thomas ; Caso, Valeria ; Rajagopalan, Vasanthan ; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy ; Vlassovi, Vasiliy V. ; Feigin, Valery L. - \ 2017
    Neuroepidemiology 49 (2017)1-2. - ISSN 0251-5350 - p. 45 - 61.

    Background: The burden of stroke in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is large and increasing, challenging the already stretched health-care services. Aims and Objectives: To determine the quality of existing stroke-care services in LMICs and to highlight indigenous, inexpensive, evidence-based implementable strategies being used in stroke-care. Methods: A detailed literature search was undertaken using PubMed and Google scholar from January 1966 to October 2015 using a range of search terms. Of 921 publications, 373 papers were shortlisted and 31 articles on existing stroke-services were included. Results: We identified efficient models of ambulance transport and pre-notification. Stroke Units (SU) are available in some countries, but are relatively sparse and mostly provided by the private sector. Very few patients were thrombolysed; this could be increased with telemedicine and governmental subsidies. Adherence to secondary preventive drugs is affected by limited availability and affordability, emphasizing the importance of primary prevention. Training of paramedics, care-givers and nurses in post-stroke care is feasible. Conclusion: In this systematic review, we found several reports on evidence-based implementable stroke services in LMICs. Some strategies are economic, feasible and reproducible but remain untested. Data on their outcomes and sustainability is limited. Further research on implementation of locally and regionally adapted stroke-services and cost-effective secondary prevention programs should be a priority.

    Vegetable Business Opportunities in Ghana: 2016
    Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Dijkxhoorn, Youri ; Koomen, I. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der; Herms, Sjoerd ; Joosten, Frank ; Asante Mensah, Samuel - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR (GhanaVeg Sector Reports ) - 84
    Water quality as an indicator of the health status of agro-pastoral dams' ecosystems in Benin : An ecosystem services study
    Kpéra, G.N. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2016
    Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 19 (2016)4. - ISSN 1463-4988 - p. 441 - 451.
    Based on a study in three agro-pastoral dams in Nikki, Sakabansi and Fombawi in northern Benin, this article aims to characterize their physical, chemical and microbiological water quality. The ecosystem services framework underlies this article. Water of the three dams was sampled in the field and analysed at the laboratory. Means of variables were compared with standard values (norms) for
    drinking water set by both Benin and the World Health Organization. Agro-pastoral dams’ water quality is problematic because of the significantly high levels of nitrite, nitrate, iron, and chemical oxygen demand. Water in these dams is unsuitable for both human and livestock consumption because it
    is contaminated with harmful bacteria including total Coliform, Escherichia coli, spores of Clostridium, Enterococcus feacalis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni. This study concluded that one solution for maintaining agro-pastoral ecosystem health consisted of watershed management based on monitoring ecosystem services such as water quality.
    Update on the Global Burden of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke in 1990-2013: The GBD 2013 Study
    Feigin, V.L. ; Krishnamurthi, R.V. ; Parmar, P. ; Norrving, B. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Bennett, D. ; Barker-Collo, S. ; Moran, A.E. ; Sacco, R.L. ; Truelsen, T. ; Davis, S.C. ; Pandian, J.D. ; Naghavi, M.R. ; Forouzanfar, M.H. ; Nguyen, G. ; Johnson, C. ; Vos, T. ; Meretoja, A. ; Murray, C.J. ; Roth, G.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2015
    Neuroepidemiology 45 (2015)3. - ISSN 0251-5350 - p. 161 - 176.
    Background: Global stroke epidemiology is changing rapidly. Although age-standardized rates of stroke mortality have decreased worldwide in the past 2 decades, the absolute numbers of people who have a stroke every year, and live with the consequences of stroke or die from their stroke, are increasing. Regular updates on the current level of stroke burden are important for advancing our knowledge on stroke epidemiology and facilitate organization and planning of evidence-based stroke care. Objectives: This study aims to estimate incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) and their trends for ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) for 188 countries from 1990 to 2013. Methodology: Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, DALYs and YLDs were estimated using all available data on mortality and stroke incidence, prevalence and excess mortality. Statistical models and country-level covariate data were employed, and all rates were age-standardized to a global population. All estimates were produced with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Results: In 2013, there were globally almost 25.7 million stroke survivors (71% with IS), 6.5 million deaths from stroke (51% died from IS), 113 million DALYs due to stroke (58% due to IS) and 10.3 million new strokes (67% IS). Over the 1990-2013 period, there was a significant increase in the absolute number of DALYs due to IS, and of deaths from IS and HS, survivors and incident events for both IS and HS. The preponderance of the burden of stroke continued to reside in developing countries, comprising 75.2% of deaths from stroke and 81.0% of stroke-related DALYs. Globally, the proportional contribution of stroke-related DALYs and deaths due to stroke compared to all diseases increased from 1990 (3.54% (95% UI 3.11-4.00) and 9.66% (95% UI 8.47-10.70), respectively) to 2013 (4.62% (95% UI 4.01-5.30) and 11.75% (95% UI 10.45-13.31), respectively), but there was a diverging trend in developed and developing countries with a significant increase in DALYs and deaths in developing countries, and no measurable change in the proportional contribution of DALYs and deaths from stroke in developed countries. Conclusion: Global stroke burden continues to increase globally. More efficient stroke prevention and management strategies are urgently needed to halt and eventually reverse the stroke pandemic, while universal access to organized stroke services should be a priority.
    Stroke Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years in Children and Youth Aged 0-19 Years: Data from the Global and Regional Burden of Stroke 2013
    Krishnamurthi, R.V. ; deVeber, G. ; Feigin, V.L. ; Barker-Collo, S. ; Fullerton, H. ; Mackay, M.T. ; O'Callahan, F. ; Lindsay, M.P. ; Kolk, A. ; Lo, W. ; Shah, P. ; Linds, A. ; Jones, K. ; Parmar, P. ; Taylor, S. ; Norrving, B. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Moran, A.E. ; Naghavi, M.R. ; Forouzanfar, M.H. ; Nguyen, G. ; Johnson, C. ; Vos, T. ; Murray, C.J. ; Roth, G.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2015
    Neuroepidemiology 45 (2015)3. - ISSN 0251-5350 - p. 177 - 189.
    Background: There is increasing recognition of stroke as an important contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality. Current estimates of global childhood stroke burden and its temporal trends are sparse. Accurate and up-to-date estimates of childhood stroke burden are important for planning research and the resulting evidence-based strategies for stroke prevention and management. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for ischemic stroke (IS), hemorrhagic stroke (HS) and all stroke types combined globally from 1990 to 2013. Methodology: Stroke prevalence, mortality and DALYs were estimated using the Global Burden of Disease 2013 methods. All available data on stroke-related incidence, prevalence, excess mortality and deaths were collected. Statistical models and country-level covariates were employed to produce comprehensive and consistent estimates of prevalence and mortality. Stroke-specific disability weights were used to estimate years lived with disability and DALYs. Means and 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were calculated for prevalence, mortality and DALYs. The median of the percent change and 95% UI were determined for the period from 1990 to 2013. Results: In 2013, there were 97,792 (95% UI 90,564-106,016) prevalent cases of childhood IS and 67,621 (95% UI 62,899-72,214) prevalent cases of childhood HS, reflecting an increase of approximately 35% in the absolute numbers of prevalent childhood strokes since 1990. There were 33,069 (95% UI 28,627-38,998) deaths and 2,615,118 (95% UI 2,265,801-3,090,822) DALYs due to childhood stroke in 2013 globally, reflecting an approximately 200% decrease in the absolute numbers of death and DALYs in childhood stroke since 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, there were significant increases in the global prevalence rates of childhood IS, as well as significant decreases in the global death rate and DALYs rate of all strokes in those of age 0-19 years. While prevalence rates for childhood IS and HS decreased significantly in developed countries, a decline was seen only in HS, with no change in prevalence rates of IS, in developing countries. The childhood stroke DALY rates in 2013 were 13.3 (95% UI 10.6-17.1) for IS and 92.7 (95% UI 80.5-109.7) for HS per 100,000. While the prevalence of childhood IS compared to childhood HS was similar globally, the death rate and DALY rate of HS was 6- to 7-fold higher than that of IS. In 2013, the prevalence rate of both childhood IS and HS was significantly higher in developed countries than in developing countries. Conversely, both death and DALY rates for all stroke types were significantly lower in developed countries than in developing countries in 2013. Men showed a trend toward higher childhood stroke death rates (1.5 (1.3-1.8) per 100,000) than women (1.1 (0.9-1.5) per 100,000) and higher childhood stroke DALY rates (120.1 (100.8-143.4) per 100,000) than women (90.9 (74.6-122.4) per 100,000) globally in 2013. Conclusions: Globally, between 1990 and 2013, there was a significant increase in the absolute number of prevalent childhood strokes, while absolute numbers and rates of both deaths and DALYs declined significantly. The gap in childhood stroke burden between developed and developing countries is closing; however, in 2013, childhood stroke burden in terms of absolute numbers of prevalent strokes, deaths and DALYs remained much higher in developing countries. There is an urgent need to address these disparities with both global and country-level initiatives targeting prevention as well as improved access to acute and chronic stroke care.
    Stroke Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years in Adults Aged 20-64 Years in 1990-2013: Data from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study
    Krishnamurthi, R.V. ; Moran, A.E. ; Feigin, V.L. ; Barker-Collo, S. ; Norrving, B. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Taylor, S. ; Naghavi, M.R. ; Forouzanfar, M.H. ; Nguyen, G. ; Johnson, C. ; Vos, T. ; Murray, C.J. ; Roth, G.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2015
    Neuroepidemiology 45 (2015)3. - ISSN 0251-5350 - p. 190 - 202.
    Background: Recent evidence suggests that stroke is increasing as a cause of morbidity and mortality in younger adults, where it carries particular significance for working individuals. Accurate and up-to-date estimates of stroke burden are important for planning stroke prevention and management in younger adults. Objectives: This study aims to estimate prevalence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and their trends for total, ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in the world for 1990-2013 in adults aged 20-64 years. Methodology: Stroke prevalence, mortality and DALYs were estimated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 methods. All available data on rates of stroke incidence, excess mortality, prevalence and death were collected. Statistical models were used along with country-level covariates to estimate country-specific stroke burden. Stroke-specific disability weights were used to compute years lived with disability and DALYs. Means and 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were calculated for prevalence, mortality and DALYs. The median of the percent change and 95% UI were determined for the period from 1990 to 2013. Results: In 2013, in younger adults aged 20-64 years, the global prevalence of HS was 3,725,085 cases (95% UI 3,548,098-3,871,018) and IS was 7,258,216 cases (95% UI 6,996,272-7,569,403). Globally, between 1990 and 2013, there were significant increases in absolute numbers and prevalence rates of both HS and IS for younger adults. There were 1,483,707 (95% UI 1,340,579-1,658,929) stroke deaths globally among younger adults but the number of deaths from HS (1,047,735 (95% UI 945,087-1,184,192)) was significantly higher than the number of deaths from IS (435,972 (95% UI 354,018-504,656)). There was a 20.1% (95% UI -23.6 to -10.3) decline in the number of total stroke deaths among younger adults in developed countries but a 36.7% (95% UI 26.3-48.5) increase in developing countries. Death rates for all strokes among younger adults declined significantly in developing countries from 47 (95% UI 42.6-51.7) in 1990 to 39 (95% UI 35.0-43.8) in 2013. Death rates for all strokes among younger adults also declined significantly in developed countries from 33.3 (95% UI 29.8-37.0) in 1990 to 23.5 (95% UI 21.1-26.9) in 2013. A significant decrease in HS death rates for younger adults was seen only in developed countries between 1990 and 2013 (19.8 (95% UI 16.9-22.6) and 13.7 (95% UI 12.1-15.9)) per 100,000). No significant change was detected in IS death rates among younger adults. The total DALYs from all strokes in those aged 20-64 years was 51,429,440 (95% UI 46,561,382-57,320,085). Globally, there was a 24.4% (95% UI 16.6-33.8) increase in total DALY numbers for this age group, with a 20% (95% UI 11.7-31.1) and 37.3% (95% UI 23.4-52.2) increase in HS and IS numbers, respectively. Conclusions: Between 1990 and 2013, there were significant increases in prevalent cases, total deaths and DALYs due to HS and IS in younger adults aged 20-64 years. Death and DALY rates declined in both developed and developing countries but a significant increase in absolute numbers of stroke deaths among younger adults was detected in developing countries. Most of the burden of stroke was in developing countries. In 2013, the greatest burden of stroke among younger adults was due to HS. While the trends in declining death and DALY rates in developing countries are encouraging, these regions still fall far behind those of developed regions of the world. A more aggressive approach toward primary prevention and increased access to adequate healthcare services for stroke is required to substantially narrow these disparities.
    Sex Differences in Stroke Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
    Barker-Collo, S. ; Bennett, D. ; Krishnamurthi, R.V. ; Parmar, P. ; Feigin, V.L. ; Naghavi, M.R. ; Forouzanfar, M.H. ; Johnson, C. ; Nguyen, G. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Vos, T. ; Murray, C.J. ; Roth, G.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2015
    Neuroepidemiology 45 (2015)3. - ISSN 0251-5350 - p. 203 - 214.
    Background: Accurate information on stroke burden in men and women are important for evidence-based healthcare planning and resource allocation. Previously, limited research suggested that the absolute number of deaths from stroke in women was greater than in men, but the incidence and mortality rates were greater in men. However, sex differences in various metrics of stroke burden on a global scale have not been a subject of comprehensive and comparable assessment for most regions of the world, nor have sex differences in stroke burden been examined for trends over time. Methods: Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and healthy years lost due to disability were estimated as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 Study. Data inputs included all available information on stroke incidence, prevalence and death and case fatality rates. Analysis was performed separately by sex and 5-year age categories for 188 countries. Statistical models were employed to produce globally comprehensive results over time. All rates were age-standardized to a global population and 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were computed. Findings: In 2013, global ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) incidence (per 100,000) in men (IS 132.77 (95% UI 125.34-142.77); HS 64.89 (95% UI 59.82-68.85)) exceeded those of women (IS 98.85 (95% UI 92.11-106.62); HS 45.48 (95% UI 42.43-48.53)). IS incidence rates were lower in 2013 compared with 1990 rates for both sexes (1990 male IS incidence 147.40 (95% UI 137.87-157.66); 1990 female IS incidence 113.31 (95% UI 103.52-123.40)), but the only significant change in IS incidence was among women. Changes in global HS incidence were not statistically significant for males (1990 = 65.31 (95% UI 61.63-69.0), 2013 = 64.89 (95% UI 59.82-68.85)), but was significant for females (1990 = 64.892 (95% UI 59.82-68.85), 2013 = 45.48 (95% UI 42.427-48.53)). The number of DALYs related to IS rose from 1990 (male = 16.62 (95% UI 13.27-19.62), female = 17.53 (95% UI 14.08-20.33)) to 2013 (male = 25.22 (95% UI 20.57-29.13), female = 22.21 (95% UI 17.71-25.50)). The number of DALYs associated with HS also rose steadily and was higher than DALYs for IS at each time point (male 1990 = 29.91 (95% UI 25.66-34.54), male 2013 = 37.27 (95% UI 32.29-45.12); female 1990 = 26.05 (95% UI 21.70-30.90), female 2013 = 28.18 (95% UI 23.68-33.80)). Interpretation: Globally, men continue to have a higher incidence of IS than women while significant sex differences in the incidence of HS were not observed. The total health loss due to stroke as measured by DALYs was similar for men and women for both stroke subtypes in 2013, with HS higher than IS. Both IS and HS DALYs show an increasing trend for both men and women since 1990, which is statistically significant only for IS among men. Ongoing monitoring of sex differences in the burden of stroke will be needed to determine if disease rates among men and women continue to diverge. Sex disparities related to stroke will have important clinical and policy implications that can guide funding and resource allocation for national, regional and global health programs.
    Atlas of the Global Burden of Stroke (1990-2013): The GBD 2013 Study
    Feigin, V.L. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Norrving, B. ; Murray, C.J. ; Roth, G.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2015
    Neuroepidemiology 45 (2015)3. - ISSN 0251-5350 - p. 230 - 236.
    Background: World mapping is an important tool to visualize stroke burden and its trends in various regions and countries. Objectives: To show geographic patterns of incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) and their trends for ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in the world for 1990-2013. Methodology: Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, DALYs and YLDs were estimated following the general approach of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 with several important improvements in methods. Data were updated for mortality (through April 2014) and stroke incidence, prevalence, case fatality and severity through 2013. Death was estimated using an ensemble modeling approach. A new software package, DisMod-MR 2.0, was used as part of a custom modeling process to estimate YLDs. All rates were age-standardized to new GBD estimates of global population. All estimates have been computed with 95% uncertainty intervals. Results: Age-standardized incidence, mortality, prevalence and DALYs/YLDs declined over the period from 1990 to 2013. However, the absolute number of people affected by stroke has substantially increased across all countries in the world over the same time period, suggesting that the global stroke burden continues to increase. There were significant geographical (country and regional) differences in stroke burden in the world, with the majority of the burden borne by low- and middle-income countries. Conclusions: Global burden of stroke has continued to increase in spite of dramatic declines in age-standardized incidence, prevalence, mortality rates and disability. Population growth and aging have played an important role in the observed increase in stroke burden.
    Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin
    Kpera, G.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Noelle Aarts, co-promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp; G.A. Mensah; C.R. Tossou. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575059 - 201
    benin - ecosysteemdiensten - waterbeheer - landbouw en milieu - hulpbronnenbeheer - multi-stakeholder processen - benin - ecosystem services - water management - agriculture and environment - resource management - multi-stakeholder processes

    Key words: conflict, water quality, crocodile, fish diversity, vegetable, watershed management, institutional changes, innovation system.

    Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    Gnanki Nathalie KPERA

    Agro-pastoral dams (APDs) – water reservoirs constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development – have been constructed all over Benin. These APDs face several conflicts (farmers versus herders, council versus vegetable producers, fishermen versus council, and fishermen and APD users versus crocodiles) rooted in the multi-functionality of APDs and the involvement of diverse stakeholders. Using the integral ecology framework as the conceptual inspiration, the research gained insights on: (i) the complexity of APDs that impedes agreement on common rules for their management, (ii) the way stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, (iii) the health status of the APD ecosystem by using water quality, fish diversity, and fish biomass as indicators, (iv) the constraints that hinder vegetable production around the APDs. The study suggests that an innovation platform should be established in which all the stakeholders can discuss changes, resulting in optimal use of APD ecosystem services and their management.

    Promoting Legal Livelihoods in Ghana
    Mckeown, J.P. ; Kwesi Gyakye Amonoo, J. ; Sampene Mensah, E. ; Rozemeijer, N.G. ; Wit, M. de - \ 2015
    Tropenbos International - ISBN 9789051131253 - 76 p.
    Illegal logging in Ghana is partly a problem of poverty. Poor people, unemployed youth and opportunistic individuals seeking quick cash earn money from the illegal chainsaw milling value chain. Policy change and law enforcement are not sufficient answers. Alternative, and sustainable livelihood opportunities for the poor in forest dependent communities need to be secured in addition. Tropenbos is piloting forest-based legal livelihood opportunities in Ghana. This publication reviews three of the piloted models, and the effect on people's livelihoods.
    School feeding contributes to micronutrients adequacy of Ghanaian schoolchildren
    Abizari, A.R. ; Buxton, C. ; Kwara, L. ; Mensah-Homaih, J. ; Armar-Klemesu, M. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2014
    The British journal of nutrition 112 (2014)6. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1019 - 1033.
    improve dietary quality - iron-absorption - child undernutrition - nutrient adequacy - ascorbic-acid - food variety - rural kenya - programs - mali - diversity
    Without gains in nutritional outcomes, it is unlikely that school feeding programmes (SFP) could improve cognition and academic performance of schoolchildren despite the improvements in school enrolment. We compared the nutrient intake adequacy and Fe and nutritional status of SFP and non-SFP participants in a cross-sectional survey involving 383 schoolchildren (aged 5–13 years). Quantitative 24 h recalls and weighed food records, repeated in 20 % subsample, were used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes adjusted for day-to-day variations. The probability of adequacy (PA) was calculated for selected micronutrients and the mean of all PA (MPA) was calculated. The concentrations of Hb, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and anthropometric measurements were used to determine Fe and nutritional status. Energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies were significantly higher among SFP participants (P<0·001). The MPA of micronutrients was significantly higher among SFP participants (0·61 v. 0·18; P<0·001), and the multiple-micronutrient-fortified corn soya blend was a key contributor to micronutrient adequacy. In SFP participants, 6 g/l higher Hb concentrations (P<0·001) and about 10 % points lower anaemia prevalence (P= 0·06) were observed. The concentration of sTfR was significantly lower among SFP participants (11·2 v. 124 mg/l; P= 0·04); however, there was no difference in the prevalence of Fe deficiency and Fe-deficiency anaemia between SFP and non-SFP participants. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of thinness, underweight and stunting. In conclusion, the present results indicate that school feeding is associated with higher intakes and adequacies of energy and nutrients, but not with the prevalence of Fe and nutritional status indicators. The results also indicate an important role for micronutrient-dense foods in the achievement of micronutrient adequacy within SFP.
    'A pond with crocodiles never dries up'. A frame analysis of human –crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin
    Kpera, G.N. ; Aarts, N. ; Tossou, R.C. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Saïdou, A. ; Kossou, D.K. ; Sinsin, A.B. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 12 (2014)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 316 - 333.
    conservation - beliefs - conversations - restoration - indicators - management
    Crocodiles, a protected species, share ecosystem services with local communities in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. Using a comparative case study conducted in three villages and a framing perspective, this study aims to elucidate how stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, and how they use formal and informal institutions to deal with them. Respondents framed the presence of the crocodiles as problematic because of their negative effects on local livelihoods and people's tranquillity. Both causes and solutions are, however, framed differently in the three communities. Whereas in Nikki and Sakabansi, respondents seek solutions in changing the ecological environment, requiring others (the council, fishermen, and crocodiles) to change their behaviour, Fombawi respondents seek to adapt their own behaviour by respecting and applying traditional and practical rules for sharing their dam. Damage per crocodile is the highest in Nikki and the lowest in Fombawi, suggesting that the crocodiles in Nikki behave more aggressively than those in Fombawi. Further investigation is merited to determine whether or not crocodiles behave less aggressively when dealt with according to specific institutions. Intensive communication among stakeholders in the three villages is recommended to exchange experiences and ideas that may support a peaceful human–crocodile relationship inspired by existing institutional solutions.
    Management of agro-pastoral dams in Benin: Stakeholders, institutions and rehabilitation research
    Kpera, G.N. ; Aarts, N. ; Saidou, A. ; Tossou, R.C. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Sinsin, B. ; Kossou, D.K. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2012
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 60-63 (2012). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 79 - 90.
    framework - commons
    Agro-pastoral dams are waterholes constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development. In Benin, agro-pastoral dams are managed by dam management committees. This study seeks to (1) characterize the stakeholders involved in agro-pastoral dam use and management, (2) identify important institutional and technical impediments and opportunities related to dams as perceived by the stakeholders, and (3) identify a coherent set of domains for research in support of improved dam management and ecosystem rehabilitation. The study was carried out in the Nikki District in northern Benin. The data were collected through focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, participant observations and participatory exercises with diverse stakeholders. The results show that the dams are used for multiple purposes such as providing drinking water for livestock and people, fish production, vegetable production, swimming, bathing, washing, house construction, food crop production and cotton farming. All these practices involve diverse stakeholders with different interests, backgrounds, knowledge, and assumptions. In addition, the dams are the main habitat for crocodiles, which thus can also be seen as key stakeholders. The use and management of the dams create conflicts among the stakeholders who all tend to reproduce their own ‘truth’ and to shift the responsibility for solving conflicts to others. Moreover, the water is becoming seriously polluted, which impinges on every stakeholder's interests. The analysis indicates five domains for further research: (1) the way agro-pastoral dam water quality can be improved, (2) the mechanism through which to improve agro-pastoral dam fish production, (3) the way stakeholders in different contexts do frame crocodile behaviour and habitat use, (4) the characterization of crocodile behaviour and habitat use in agro-pastoral dams, and (5) the way to promote an inclusive agro-pastoral dam management.
    Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic
    Alkoiret, I.T. ; Akouedegni, G.C. ; Toukourou, Y. ; Bosma, R.H. ; Mensah, G.A. - \ 2011
    Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 10 (2011)21. - ISSN 1680-5593 - p. 2879 - 2884.
    barley straw - soybean-meal - passage - cattle - sheep - digestibility - nitrogen - growth - energy - steers
    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were complemented with a concentrate CC (50% dried brewer’s grains, 30% cassava chips, 15% dried cassava leaves, 2.5% dicalcium phosphate, 1.5% sodium chloride and 1% premix). Those of 2nd and 3rd groups received, respectively the concentrates CSC and SBM with the same composition as CC except that 20% of cassava chips were replaced by cottonseed cake in CSC and soybean meal in SBM. Protein supplementation had a significant effect (p0.05).
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