Estimation of instantaneous moment arms of lower-leg muscles
Spoor, C.W. ; Leeuwen, J.L. van; Meskers, C.G.M. ; Titulaer, A.F. ; Huson, A. - \ 1990
Journal of Biomechanics 23 (1990)12. - ISSN 0021-9290 - p. 1247 - 1259.
Muscle moment arms at the human knee and ankle were estimated from muscle length changes measured as a function of joint flexion angle in cadaver specimens. Nearly all lower-leg muscles were studied: extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, peroneus brevis, peroneus longus, peroneus tertius, plantaris, soleus, tibialis anterior, and tibialis posterior. Noise in measured muscle length was filtered by means of quintic splines. Moment arms of the mm. gastrocnemii appear to be much more dependent on joint flexion angles than was generally assumed by other investigators. Some consequences for earlier analyses are mentioned.