Intercropping Promotes both Agronomic and Ecological Aims: The Case of Organic Strip Cropped Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)
Juventia, Stella Dimitri ; Ditzler, L.L.E. ; Rossing, W.A.H. ; Apeldoorn, D.F. van - \ 2019
In: First European Conference on Crop Diversification. - INRA - p. 163 - 164.
|To mix or not to mix? Working on crop diversification in the silage maize dominated landscape in the Netherlands
Cuperus, Fogelina ; Sukkel, W. ; Huiting, H.F. ; Raaphorst-Travaille, G. ; Run, L. van; Wesselink, M. - \ 2019
In: First European Conference on Crop Diversification. - INRA
|Objective depended successes for pea-wheat strip intercropping
Dümmer, Ruben ; Smit, Elsbeth ; Apeldoorn, D.F. van; Cuperus, Fogelina ; Sukkel, W. - \ 2019
In: First European Conference on Crop Diversification. - INRA - p. 176 - 177.
|Analysis and design of strip cropping systems
Apeldoorn, D.F. van; Ditzler, L.L.E. ; Stout, Bo ; Selin Norén, Isabella ; Cuperus, Fogelina ; Sukkel, W. ; Rossing, W.A.H. - \ 2019
In: First European Conference on Crop Diversification. - INRA - p. 264 - 265.
Implementation of PROMETHEUS 4‐step approach for evidence use in EFSA scientific assessments: benefits, issues, needs and solutions
Aiassa, Elisa ; Martino, Laura ; Barizzone, Fulvio ; Ciccolallo, Laura ; Garcia, Ana ; Georgiadis, Marios ; Guajardo, Irene Muñoz ; Tomcikova, Daniela ; Alexander, Jan ; Calistri, Paolo ; Gundert‐remy, Ursula ; Hart, Andrew David ; Hoogenboom, Ron Laurentius ; Messean, Antoine ; Naska, Androniki ; Navarro, Maria Navajas ; Noerrung, Birgit ; Ockleford, Colin ; Wallace, Robert John ; Younes, Maged ; Abuntori, Blaize ; Alvarez, Fernando ; Aryeetey, Monica ; Baldinelli, Francesca ; Barrucci, Federica ; Bau, Andrea ; Binaglia, Marco ; Broglia, Alessandro ; Castoldi, Anna Federica ; Christoph, Eugen ; Sesmaisons‐Lecarré, Agnes De; Georgiadis, Nikolaos ; Gervelmeyer, Andrea ; Istace, Frederique ; López‐Gálvez, Gloria ; Manini, Paola ; Maurici, Daniela ; Merten, Caroline ; Messens, Winy ; Mosbach‐Schulz, Olaf ; Putzu, Claudio ; Bordajandi, Luisa Ramos ; Smeraldi, Camilla ; Tiramani, Manuela ; Martínez, Silvia Valtueña ; Sybren, Vos ; Hardy, Anthony Richard ; Hugas, Marta ; Kleiner, Juliane ; Seze, Guilhem De - \ 2018
EFSA Supporting Publications 15 (2018)4. - ISSN 2397-8325
In 2014, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) started the PROMETHEUS (PROmoting METHods for Evidence Use in Scientific assessments) project to improve further and increase the consistency of the methods it uses in its scientific assessments. The project defined a set of principles for the scientific assessment process and a 4‐step approach (plan/carry out/verify/report) for their fulfilment, which was tested in ten case studies, one from each EFSA panel. The present report describes the benefits, issues, needs and solutions related to the implementation of the 4‐step approach in EFSA, identified in a dedicated workshop in October 2017. The key benefits of the approach, which was deemed applicable to all types of EFSA scientific assessment including assessments of regulated products, are: 1) increased ‘scientific value’ of EFSA outputs, i.e. the extent of impartiality, methodological rigour, transparency and engagement; 2) guarantee of fitness‐for‐purpose, as it implies tailoring the methods to the specificities of each assessment; 3) efficiency gain, since preparing a protocol for the assessment upfront helps more streamlined processes throughout the implementation phase; 4) innovation, as the approach promotes the pioneering practice of ‘planning before doing’ (well established in primary research) for broad scientific assessments in regulatory science; and 5) increased harmonisation and consistency of EFSA assessments. The 4‐step approach was also considered an effective system for detecting additional methodological and/or expertise needs and a useful basis for further defining a quality management system for EFSA's scientific processes. The identified issues and solutions related to the implementation of the approach are: a) lack of engagement and need for effective communication on benefits and added value; b) need for further advances especially in the field of problem formulation/protocol development, evidence appraisal and evidence integration; c) need for specialised expertise in the previous aspects; and specific needs for d) assessments of regulated products and e) outsourced projects.
Advocating a need for suitable breeding approaches to boost integrated pest management : A European perspective
Lamichhane, Jay Ram ; Arseniuk, Edward ; Boonekamp, Piet ; Czembor, Jerzy ; Decroocq, Veronique ; Enjalbert, Jérome ; Finckh, Maria R. ; Korbin, Małgorzata ; Koppel, Mati ; Kudsk, Per ; Mesterhazy, Akos ; Sosnowska, Danuta ; Zimnoch-Guzowska, Ewa ; Messéan, Antoine - \ 2018
Pest Management Science 74 (2018)6. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 1219 - 1227.
Crop diversification - Decentralization - DUS - Food security - Minor crops - Participatory plant breeding - Seed legislation - Sustainable agriculture
Currently, European farmers do not have access to sufficient numbers and diversity of crop species/varieties. This prevents them from designing cropping systems more resilient to abiotic and biotic stresses. Crop diversification is a key lever to reduce pest (pathogens, animal pests and weeds) pressures at all spatial levels from fields to landscapes. In this context, plant breeding should consist of: (1) increased efforts in the development of new or minor crop varieties to foster diversity in cropping systems, and (2) focus on more resilient varieties showing local adaptation. This new breeding paradigm, called here 'breeding for integrated pest management (IPM)', may boost IPM through the development of cultivars with tolerance or resistance to key pests, with the goal of reducing reliance on conventional pesticides. At the same time, this paradigm has legal and practical implications for future breeding programs, including those targeting sustainable agricultural systems. By putting these issues into the context, this article presents the key outcomes of a questionnaire survey and experts' views expressed during an EU workshop entitled 'Breeding for IPM in sustainable agricultural systems'.
Assessing environmental impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms : The relevance of in planta studies
Arpaia, Salvatore ; Birch, A.N.E. ; Kiss, Jozsef ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Messéan, Antoine ; Nuti, Marco ; Perry, Joe N. ; Sweet, Jeremy B. ; Tebbe, Christoph C. - \ 2017
Science of the Total Environment 583 (2017). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 123 - 132.
Bacillus thuringiensis - Ecosystem services - Environmental risk assessment - Insect resistance - Insect-plant interactions - Non-target organisms - Risk management
In legal frameworks worldwide, genetically modified plants (GMPs) are subjected to pre-market environmental risk assessment (ERA) with the aim of identifying potential effects on the environment. In the European Union, the EFSA Guidance Document introduces the rationale that GMPs, as well as their newly produced metabolites, represent the potential stressor to be evaluated during ERA. As a consequence, during several phases of ERA for cultivation purposes, it is considered necessary to use whole plants or plant parts in experimental protocols. The importance of in planta studies as a strategy to address impacts of GMPs on non-target organisms is demonstrated, to evaluate both effects due to the intended modification in plant phenotype (e.g. expression of Cry proteins) and effects due to unintended modifications in plant phenotype resulting from the transformation process (e.g. due to somaclonal variations or pleiotropic effects). In planta tests are also necessary for GMPs in which newly expressed metabolites cannot easily be studied in vitro. This paper reviews the scientific literature supporting the choice of in planta studies as a fundamental tool in ERA of GMPs in cultivation dossiers; the evidence indicates they can realistically mimic the ecological relationships occurring in their receiving environments and provide important insights into the biology and sustainable management of GMPs.
Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops
Lamichhane, Jay Ram ; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika ; Bluemel, Sylvia ; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke ; Dreux, Laure ; Jansen, Jean Pierre ; Kiss, Jozsef ; Kohl, Jurgen ; Kudsk, Per ; Malausa, Thibaut ; Messéan, Antoine ; Nicot, Philippe C. ; Ricci, Pierre ; Thibierge, Jérôme ; Villeneuve, François - \ 2017
Pest Management Science 73 (2017)1. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 14 - 21.
beneficials - biomolecules - biopesticides - European research networking - innovation - integrated pest management - semiochemicals - sustainable agriculture
EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initiatives are often fragmented. The operational outputs of national efforts would benefit from closer collaboration among stakeholders via transnationally coordinated approaches, as most economically important pests are similar across Europe. This paper proposes a common European framework on biocontrol R&I. It identifies generic R&I bottlenecks and needs as well as priorities for three crop types (arable, vegetable and perennial crops). The existing gap between the market offers of biocontrol solutions and the demand of growers, the lengthy and expensive registration process for biocontrol solutions and their varying effectiveness due to variable climatic conditions and site-specific factors across Europe are key obstacles hindering the development and adoption of biocontrol solutions in Europe. Considering arable, vegetable and perennial crops, a dozen common target pests are identified for each type of crop and ranked by order of importance at European level. Such a ranked list indicates numerous topics on which future joint transnational efforts would be justified.
Networking of integrated pest management : A powerful approach to address common challenges in agriculture
Lamichhane, Jay Ram ; Aubertot, Jean Noël ; Begg, Graham ; Birch, Andrew Nicholas E. ; Boonekamp, Piet ; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke ; Hansen, Jens Grønbech ; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring ; Jensen, Jens Erik ; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup ; Kiss, Jozsef ; Kudsk, Per ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Rasplus, Jean Yves ; Sattin, Maurizio ; Streito, Jean Claude ; Messéan, Antoine - \ 2016
Crop Protection 89 (2016). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 139 - 151.
Common challenges - European networking - Knowledge transfer - Long-term experiments - Research priorities
Integrated pest management (IPM) is facing both external and internal challenges. External challenges include increasing needs to manage pests (pathogens, animal pests and weeds) due to climate change, evolution of pesticide resistance as well as virulence matching host resistance. The complexity of designing effective pest management strategies, which rely less heavily on the use of conventional pesticides, is another external challenge. Internal challenges include organizational aspects such as decreasing trend in budget allocated to IPM research, increasing scarcity of human expertise, lack of knowledge transfer into practice and the communication gap both at country level and between countries, and lack of multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary IPM research. There is an increasing awareness that trans-national networking is one means to overcome such challenges and to address common priorities in agriculture. A large number of stakeholders (researchers, policy makers, growers and industries) are involved in the sector of crop protection, which needs to be coordinated through effective communications and dynamic collaboration to make any IPM strategy successful. Here we discuss a decade-long IPM networking experiences in Europe emphasizing how IPM research, implementation and adoption in Europe may benefit from a broader level networking.
Robust cropping systems to tackle pests under climate change. A review
Lamichhane, J.R. ; Barzman, M. ; Booij, C.J.H. ; Boonekamp, P.M. ; Desneux, N. ; Huber, L. ; Kudsk, P. ; Langrell, S.R.H. ; Ratnadass, A. ; Ricci, P. ; Sarah, J.L. ; Messéan, A. - \ 2015
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35 (2015)2. - ISSN 1774-0746 - p. 443 - 459.
phoma stem canker - plant-disease - change impacts - oilseed rape - pseudomonas-aeruginosa - puccinia-striiformis - range expansion - food security - tuta-absoluta - elevated co2
Agriculture in the twenty-first century faces the challenge of meeting food demands while satisfying sustainability goals. The challenge is further complicated by climate change which affects the distribution of crop pests (intended as insects, plants, and pathogenic agents injurious to crops) and the severity of their outbreaks. Increasing concerns over health and the environment as well as new legislation on pesticide use, particularly in the European Union, urge us to find sustainable alternatives to pesticide-based pest management. Here, we review the effect of climate change on crop protection and propose strategies to reduce the impact of future invasive as well as rapidly evolving resident populations. The major points are the following: (1) the main consequence of climate change and globalization is a heightened level of unpredictability of spatial and temporal interactions between weather, cropping systems, and pests; (2) the unpredictable adaptation of pests to a changing environment primarily creates uncertainty and projected changes do not automatically translate into doom and gloom scenarios; (3) faced with uncertainty, policy, research, and extension should prepare for worst-case scenarios following a “no regrets” approach that promotes resilience vis-à-vis pests which, at the biophysical level, entails uncovering what currently makes cropping systems resilient, while at the organizational level, the capacity to adapt needs to be recognized and strengthened; (4) more collective approaches involving extension and other stakeholders will help meet the challenge of developing more robust cropping systems; (5) farmers can take advantage of Web 2.0 and other new technologies to make the exchange of updated information quicker and easier; (6) cooperation between historically compartmentalized experts in plant health and crop protection could help develop anticipation strategies; and (7) the current decline in skilled crop protection specialists in Europe should be reversed, and shortcomings in local human and financial resources can be overcome by pooling resources across borders
Eight principles of integrated pest management
Barzman, M. ; Bàrberi, P. ; Birch, A.N.E. ; Boonekamp, P.M. ; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, S. ; Graf, B. ; Hommel, B. ; Jensen, J.E. ; Kiss, J. ; Kudsk, P. ; Lamichhane, J.R. ; Messéan, A. ; Moonen, A.C. ; Ratnadass, A. ; Ricci, P. ; Sarah, J.L. ; Sattin, M. - \ 2015
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35 (2015)4. - ISSN 1774-0746 - p. 1199 - 1215.
The use of pesticides made it possible to increase yields, simplify cropping systems, and forego more complicated crop protection strategies. Over-reliance on chemical control, however, is associated with contamination of ecosystems and undesirable health effects. The future of crop production is now also threatened by emergence of pest resistance and declining availability of active substances. There is therefore a need to design cropping systems less dependent on synthetic pesticides. Consequently, the European Union requires the application of eight principles (P) of Integrated Pest Management that fit within sustainable farm management. Here, we propose to farmers, advisors, and researchers a dynamic and flexible approach that accounts for the diversity of farming situations and the complexities of agroecosystems and that can improve the resilience of cropping systems and our capacity to adapt crop protection to local realities. For each principle (P), we suggest that (P1) the design of inherently robust cropping systems using a combination of agronomic levers is key to prevention. (P2) Local availability of monitoring, warning, and forecasting systems is a reality to contend with. (P3) The decision-making process can integrate cropping system factors to develop longer-term strategies. (P4) The combination of non-chemical methods that may be individually less efficient than pesticides can generate valuable synergies. (P5) Development of new biological agents and products and the use of existing databases offer options for the selection of products minimizing impact on health, the environment, and biological regulation of pests. (P6) Reduced pesticide use can be effectively combined with other tactics. (P7) Addressing the root causes of pesticide resistance is the best way to find sustainable crop
Assessing and monitoring impacts of genetically modefied plants on agro-ecosystems: the approach of AMIGA project.
Arpaia, S. ; Messéan, A. ; Birch, N.A. ; Hokkanen, H. ; Härtel, S. ; Loon, J. van; Lovei, G. ; Park, J. ; Spreafico, H. ; Squire, G.R. ; Steffan-Dewenter, I. ; Tebbe, C. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2014
Atti dell'Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia Rendiconti 2 (2014)1. - ISSN 0065-0757 - 8 p.
The environmental impacts of genetically modified crops is still a controversial issue in Europe. The overall risk assessment framework has recently been reinforced by the European Food Safety Authority(EFSA) and its implementation requires harmonized and efficient methodologies. The EU-funded research project AMIGA - Assessing and monitoring Impacts of Genetically modified plants on Agro-ecosystems - aims to address this issue, by providing a framework that establishes protection goals and baselines for European agro-ecosystems, improves knowledge on the potential long term environmental effects of genetically modified (GM) plants, tests the efficacy of the EFSA Guidance Document for the Environmental Risk Assessment, explores new strategies for post market monitoring, and provides a systematic analysis of economic aspects of Genetically Modified crops cultivation in the EU. Research focuses on ecological studies in different EU regions, the sustainability of GM crops is estimated by analysing the functional components of the agro-ecosystems and specific experimental protocols are being developed for this scope.
|The Co-Extra Decision Support System: A Model-Based Integration of Project Results
Bohanec, M. ; Bertheau, Y. ; Brera, C. ; Gruden, K. ; Holst-Jensen, A. ; Kok, E.J. ; Lecroart, B. ; Messean, A. ; Miraglia, M. ; Onori, R. ; Prins, T.W. ; Soler, L.G. ; Znidarsic, M. - \ 2012
In: Genetically modified and Non-Genetically Modified Food Supply Chains / Bertheau, Y., Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781444337785 - p. 461 - 489.
Interfacing with European farm advisers and IPM trainer
Boonekamp, P.M. - \ 2010
In: ENDURE diversifying crop protection. Integrated Pest Management in Europe. Project achievements 2007 - 2010 / Ricci, P., Barzman, M., Bigler, F., Boonekamp, P.M., Denholm, I., Hommel, B., Kiss, J., Kudsk, P., Messéan, A., Sarah, J.L., Sattin, M., EU FP6 ENDURE Network of Excellence (ENDURE Publications ) - p. 40 - 41.
Highlight: To meet the EU-policy on crop protection, new scientific operational IPM-tools have to be developed, integrated, validated and disseminated to farmers and, most importantly, used by them in their daily practice of farming
A model for an innovative crop protection system in the future illustrated for maize
Zijlstra, C. - \ 2010
In: ENDURE diversifying crop protection. Integrated Pest Management in Europe. Project achievements 2007 - 2010 / Ricci, P., Barzman, M., Bigler, F., Boonekamp, P.M., Denholm, I., Hommel, B., Kiss, J., Kudsk, P., Messéan, A., Sarah, J.L., Sattin, M., EU FP6 ENDURE Network of Excellence (ENDURE Publications ) - p. 68 - 69.
To show how innovative techniques for monitoring and precision spraying can be used we have developed a generic model for crop protection system for future high tech cropping systems. We have illustrated how to work with it taking maize as a model crop
Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Cropping Systems
Bohanec, M. ; Dzeroski, S. ; Znidarsic, M. ; Messéan, A. ; Scatasta, S. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2004
Informatica: journal of computing and informatics 28 (2004)4. - ISSN 0350-5596 - p. 387 - 392.
Modelling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some preliminary attempts made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision support system will be based on a rule-based model incorporating both economic and ecological criteria. In this paper we present some preliminary results of developing the integral model and describe four specific sub-models. The first two sub-models are concerned with ecology and assess the ecological impacts of various types of weed and pest control, respectively. The other two sub-models assess the economic impacts of cropping systems at the farm and regional level, respectively. All the models were developed using a qualitative multi-attribute modelling methodology, supported by the software tool DEXi.