Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Biologische oorlogsvoering: roofinsecten voor voldoende voedsel en grotere biodiversiteit
    Lenteren, J.C. van; Messelink, G.J. ; Poelman, E.H. - \ 2020
    In: Tien Miljard monden / de Zwarte, Ingrid, Candel, Jeroen, Prometheus - ISBN 9789044646009
    Bladluis en haar eigenaardigheden
    Messelink, G. - \ 2020
    Trips grote bedreiging in glastuinbouw en aantal soorten groeit nog steeds. Nieuwe exotische tripssoorten vragen om nieuwe oplossingen.
    Mouratidis, Angel ; Leman, Ada ; Messelink, G. - \ 2020
    Development and thermal activity thresholds of European mirid predatory bugs
    Ingegno, Barbara L. ; Messelink, Gerben J. ; Leman, Ada ; Sacco, Dario ; Tavella, Luciana - \ 2020
    Biological Control 152 (2020). - ISSN 1049-9644
    Biological control agents - D. eckerleini - D. errans - D. flavoviridis - Dicyphus bolivari - Macrolophus pygmaeus - Nesidiocoris tenuis - Temperature regimes

    Generalist predators belonging to Dicyphini (Hemiptera: Miridae) play an important role in pest control in vegetable crops. Temperature is one the most important factors affecting their efficacy as biological control agents (BCAs) and a better understanding of temperature effects can help to select the best performing species for certain climatic conditions. In this study we assessed the thermal requirements of six dicyphine species: Dicyphus bolivari (2 different strains), Dicyphus eckerleini, Dicyphus errans, Dicyphus flavoviridis, Nesidiocoris tenuis and Macrolophus pygmaeus. Two experimental methods were used: one static, by recording the developmental times at six temperatures (15–40 °C) and one dynamic, by determining low and high temperature thresholds for movement. Based on the results of both methods we identified two groups: N. tenuis, M. pygmaeus and D. bolivari showed the best performance at high temperatures and the species D. errans, D. eckerleini and D. flavoviridis were most active at low temperatures. Dicyphus bolivari and N. tenuis were the only species able to reach adulthood at the constant temperature of 35 °C. At low temperatures, D. eckerleini and D. errans were the only species still able to walk below 0 °C. The species less vulnerable for lower temperatures were more vulnerable for higher temperatures and vice-versa. Among the tested species, the larger sized species seem to be better adapted to lower temperature and the and smaller sized species better to higher temperatures. Females and males in all species differed in their cold and heat tolerance. Males were in general beter adapted to higher temperatures and females beter adapted to lower temperatures.

    Wat als de ziekte toeslaat? : Biologische bestrijding: benut wat de natuur biedt
    Messelink, G.J. ; Köhl, J. - \ 2020
    In: Plantgezondheid / Govers, F., Pieterse, C., Termorshuizen, A., Smit, A., Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (BWM) (Cahier Biowetenschappen & Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196988 - p. 52 - 55.
    Als alles gericht is op preventie, waarom zijn er dan nog steeds plantenziekten? Helaas is resistentie tegen lang niet alle plantenbelagers beschikbaar. En soms kan een plantenbelager dankzij genetische mutatie de resistentie omzeilen. Wat dan resteert is een directe vorm van bestrijding, biologisch dan wel chemisch. De discussie of we zonder chemische bestrijding kunnen, wordt momenteel volop gevoerd; de overheid wil er in ieder geval binnen tien jaar afscheid van nemen. De suikerbiet kunnen we dan kwijtraken, gezien de grote druk van allerlei ziekten en plagen. Aardappelteelt blijft wel mogelijk, maar de opbrengsten zullen sterk achteruitgaan. Biologische bestrijding zou een alternatief kunnen zijn, maar zijn er wel voldoende goedwerkende ‘groene middelen’ beschikbaar?
    Nieuwe mogelijkheden voor effectief inzetten van Orius in chrysant: Bijvoeren lokt roofwantsen naar juiste plek in kas
    Messelink, G. ; Kruidhof, Marjolein - \ 2020
    Nieuw onderzoek naar biologische bestrijding bladluis
    Messelink, G.J. - \ 2020
    Onder Glas 2020/17 (2020)6/7. - p. 47 - 47.
    Green Challenges : De ziekte- en plaagdichte kas
    Beerling, Ellen ; Baeza, Esteban ; Bloemhard, Chantal ; Holstein-Saj, Renata van; Messelink, Gerben ; Leiss, Kirsten ; Pham, Khanh ; Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouwe (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouw WPR-940) - 58
    Prevention is an important pillar in the control of diseases and pests in the greenhouse. This report gives an overview of the different routes of entry for pests and diseases, the importance of these routes, and methods and possibilities for prevention. The (semi-)closed greenhouse and a clean corridor for material and people could offer options to reduce risks of entry. Surveys and workshops with growers indicated that they questioned the importance of diseases and pests entering the greenhouse through ventilation windows, but that they saw perspective in a clean corridor. Therefore, the study paid specific attention to these topics. The importance of entry of winged insects by the ventilation openings was monitored but this limited trial did not reveal a strong relationship between the amount of insects outside and inside the greenhouse. A design has been made for a clean corridor, with detection and treatment options. In addition, the possibility of removing insects with an air shower and a detection method for mildew spores were specifically examined. The air shower does not seem to offer an effective and safe solution for horticulture at this time. The mildew spore pressure could be quantified with the selected approach. These are just two examples of an elimination and a detection tool that can be part of a clean corridor; it is recommended to investigate various other techniques as well.
    Green Challenges: systeemaanpak biologische plaagbestrijding met gebruik van functionele biodiversiteit : Deel 2: Eenjarige zomerbloeiers
    Kruidhof, Marjolein ; Bloemhard, Chantal ; Heide, Hessel van der; Catalá-Senent, Laura ; Shrestha, Kriti ; Messelink, Gerben ; Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2020
    Bleiswijk : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouw (Rapport WPR 942) - 85
    The low pest tolerance, the harvest of the complete plants, the short cropping cycle and the low cultivation temperature in annual flowers form a challenge for biological pest control. The goal of the here described research was to design and test a systems approach of pest control in annual flowers on the basis of functional biodiversity. As a first step, an overview has been made of the most important pest and natural enemy species, and the potential chances and challenges for a systems approach of pest control in annual flowers. The first experiments showed that alternating rows of aphid-sensitive and aphid-resistant annual flower species could slow down the spread of aphids. In a second experiment, the strategy around the population build-up of the predatory bug Macrolophus pygmaeus in successive cropping cycles was central. To build up a population of M. pygmaeus, it is important to already start during wintertime. Pelargonium sp. form, with the right choice of species and cultivar, a good host crop for the early establishment of a M. pygmaeus population. To be able to use this population effectively in spots where these predatory bugs are needed, as ‘transport’ system is required to move the predatory bugs around. This ‘transport’ system still needs to be further developed.
    Cucurbits
    Messelink, Gerben J. ; Calvo, F.J. ; Marín, Francisco ; Janssen, Dirk - \ 2020
    In: Integrated Pest and Disease Management in Greenhouse Crops / Gullino, Maria Lodovica, Albajes, Ramon, Nicot, Philippe C., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030223038 - p. 537 - 566.
    Several cucurbits species are cultivated in greenhouses worldwide. The most important genera are (1) Cucurbita, which includes squash, pumpkin, zucchini and gourds, (2) Citrullus, which includes watermelon and (3) Cucumis, which includes cucumber and various melons. Pests and diseases affecting cucurbit crops can vary considerably in relation to geographic area and cropping system. Growing in soil or on hydroponics strongly determines the presence of certain soil pathogens or nematodes. Also the way the crop is cultivated, the number of cropping cycles and the transition between cycles strongly affects the performance of pests, diseases and biological control agents. The main pests and diseases detrimental to cucurbits in various parts of the globe are reported here, along with the most effective or sustainable control strategies currently applied to manage them. Many pests can be controlled very successfully with natural enemies, but despite the recent developments on microbiological control agents, integrated pest management (IPM) with a low input of pesticides and, particularly fungicides, remains challenging in cucurbits, mainly because of viruses and diseases that are difficult to manage biologically or with selective control methods. Plant breeding programmes that develop disease tolerant cultivars that can be combined with arthropod natural enemies for pest control are promising to further develop robust IPM systems for cucurbits.
    Sweet Peppers
    Messelink, Gerben J. ; Labbé, Roselyne ; Marchand, Geneviève ; Tavella, Luciana - \ 2020
    In: Integrated Pest and Disease Management in Greenhouse Crops / Gullino, Maria Lodovica, Albajes, Ramon, Nicot, Philippe C., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030223038 - p. 513 - 535.
    Sweet pepper is an important greenhouse vegetable crop and highly attractive to multiple pest and pathogen species. The main pests and diseases detrimental to pepper crops in various parts of the globe are reported here, along with the most effective or sustainable control strategies currently applied to manage them. Biological control of the main pest species, such as thrips, whiteflies and spider mites, is in general very successful with generalist predators, because of their ability to establish populations prior to pest invasions by using the plant-provided pollen as an alternative food source. However, other pest species, such as aphids, stink bugs and the pepper weevil, are still hard to control without pesticides and require new tools for management that do not disrupt the robust system of biological control. Most diseases can be controlled well by managing the climate, soil solarization, growing out of soil or by applying bacterial or fungal antagonists. All these tools together offer the opportunity to manage most pest and diseases with a minimal use of pesticides.
    Are low humidity levels a limiting factor for spider mite control by phytoseiid predators under fluctuating climatic conditions?
    Messelink, G.J. ; Leman, A. - \ 2020
    In: Integrated Control of Plant-Feeding Mites In: WG "Integrated Control of Plant-Feeding Mites". - IOBC-WPRS (IOBC-WPRS Bulletin ) - p. 101 - 102.
    Low humidity levels are assumed to be an important limiting factor for biological control of spider mites by phytoseiid predatory mites, mainly because of the vulnerability of the egg stage for drought. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of several species of phythoseiid predatory mites for control of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch at low(55%) and high (80%) humidity levels on greenhouse cucumber in two greenhouse trials where predators were released either before or after spider mite introductions. In the preventive trial,the best control was achieved by Neoseiulus californicus McGregor at both humidity levels.Spider mites were completely eradicated. None of the other species of predatory mites was able to reduce spider mite densities, except Transeius montdorensis (Schicha) at the low humidity level. In the curative trial, N. californicus was again the best performing predatory mite,together with Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Spider mites were completely controlled at both humidity levels by these species. This suggests that low humidity levels during daytime do not necessarily disrupt the control of spider mites by these predators, possibly because of the humidity fluctuations between day and night. Humidity did also directly affect spider mites;densities were up to 3 times higher on plants in the greenhouse with low humidity levels than on plants with a high humidity level. This increased growth rate of spider mites at low humidity levels may be another explanation for the failure of spider mite control in practice. Yet, in order to enhance the biological control of spider mites at low humidity levels, it might be better to focus on methods that support the establishment of effective spider mite predators, rather than selecting drought adapted strains of predatory mites.
    The potential of highly nutritious frozen stages of Tyrophagus putrescentiae as a supplemental food source for the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii
    Pirayeshfar, Fatemeh ; Safavi, Seyed Ali ; Sarraf Moayeri, Hamid Reza ; Messelink, Gerben J. - \ 2020
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 30 (2020)5. - ISSN 0958-3157 - p. 403 - 417.
    astigmatid mites - biological control - frozen hosts - phytoseiidae - western flower thrips

    Astigmatid mites have potential as supplementary prey items to support generalist predator populations in crops. However, applying living prey mites has some disadvantages; if not predated they have the potential to cause crop damage and allergies. In this study, we evaluated various diets based on the astigmatid mite Tyrophagous putrescentiae (Schrank) as a supplemental food source for the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Ahias-Henriot. Eggs and larvae of T. putrescentiae were reared on a diet of dog food (rich in proteins and fat) or bran (rich in carbohydrate); they were offered either frozen or alive, and either with or without cattail pollen (Typha angustifolia L.). Oviposition rate of A. swirskii fed with frozen mite larvae reared on dog food was similar to the rate observed when they were fed with cattail pollen or living prey mites, but developmental time of A. swirskii was longer on this frozen diet than on a diet of living prey mites or pollen. Both living and frozen prey mites were, in contrast with cattail pollen, not suitable for oviposition by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. In a greenhouse study, the use of frozen prey mite stages as supplemental food on chrysanthemum plants allowed populations of A. swirskii to establish, but not increase; in contrast, provision of living prey mites and pollen increased A. swirskii populations on plants. Hence, our study shows that living prey mites, but not frozen prey mites, had the greatest potential as a supplemental food source for A. swirskii.

    Tests in tomato reveal: Predatory bug Dicyphus errans an option for controlling Nesi
    Messelink, G. - \ 2020
    The omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus, a good candidate for the control of both greenhouse whitefly and poinsettia thrips on gerbera plants
    Leman, Ada ; Ingegno, Barbara L. ; Tavella, Luciana ; Janssen, Arne ; Messelink, Gerben J. - \ 2020
    Insect Science 27 (2020)3. - ISSN 1672-9609 - p. 510 - 518.
    apparent competition - biological control - Echinothrips americanus - pest interactions - prey preference - Trialeurodes vaporariorum

    The poinsettia thrips Echinothrips americanus Morgan is a relatively new pest that has spread rapidly worldwide and causes serious damage in both vegetable and ornamental plants. In this study, we investigated if and how effective this pest can be controlled in gerbera by the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur). Because herbivores on plants can interact through a shared predator, we also investigated how poinsettia thrips control is affected by the presence of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), a pest that commonly coexists with E. americanus in gerbera. In laboratory studies, we found that the predator M. pygmaeus fed on both pests when offered together. Olfactometer tests showed a clear preference of the predators for plants infested by whiteflies but not by thrips. In a greenhouse experiment, densities of both pests on single gerbera plants were reduced to very low levels by the predator, either with both pests present together or alone. Hence, predator-mediated effects between whiteflies and thrips played only a minor role. The plant feeding of the shared predator probably reduced the dependence of predator survival and reproduction on the densities of the two pests, thereby weakening potential predator-mediated effects. Thus, M. pygmaeus is a good candidate for biological control of both pests in gerbera. However, further research is needed to investigate pest control at larger scales, when the pests can occur on different plants.

    Green Challenges: Systeemaanpak biologische plaagbestrijding met gebruik van functionele biodiversiteit : Deel 1: Chrysant
    Kruidhof, Marjolein ; Bloemhard, Chantal ; Catalá-Senent, Laura ; Shah, Parth ; Shinde, Anup ; Messelink, Gerben ; Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouwe (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouw WPR-941) - 94
    The goal of the research described in the report was designing and testing a systems approach for pest control in chrysanthemum on the basis of functional biodiversity. The low pest tolerance, harvest of the complete plants and the short cropping cycle of chrysanthemum form a challenge for biological pest control. They imply respectively that there are naturally no or only little food sources in the crop for natural enemies, that natural enemies are eliminated with the crop at harvest, and that there is only a short time period for the establishment of a so-called ‘standing army’ of natural enemies. As a first step, an overview was made of the most important pests and natural enemies, and the potential chances and bottlenecks for a systems approach of pest control in chrysanthemum. Subsequent research was focused around a strategy based on a biological start with generalist predatory bugs (Orius sp.) and predatory mites (Transeius montdorensis) combined with several additional food sources and the elicitation of induced crop defenses through enrichment of the microbiome of the soil. In a series of greenhouse experiments the effect of this strategy on the control of Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and the cotton aphid (Aphis gossyppi) was investigated. The inoculation of rooted chrysanthemum cuttings with a relatively high density Orius laevigatus predatory bugs, and full-field application of high-quality Artemia (Biobee Biological Systems) as an additional food source, resulted in a good establishment of Orius in the crop and a good control of Western flower thrips and cotton aphids. No effects of the tested soil microbiome enrichment treatments on thrips and aphids were observe
    Nieuwe mogelijkheden voor de bestrijding van trips in de sierteelt onder glas
    Messelink, Gerben J. ; Leman, Ada ; Holstein-Saj, Renata van; Tol, Rob van; Vijverberg, Roland ; Elfferich, Caroline ; Catalá Senent, Laura ; Huang, Tze-Yi ; Shresta, Kriti ; Kruidhof, Marjolein - \ 2019
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouw GTB-895) - 90
    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is a major pest species in greenhouse ornamental crops. They cause damage to leaves and flowers and can transmit viruses. Effective control requires a systems approach where measures that increase plant resilience are combined with biological control, mass trapping and (bio) pesticides. Het aim of this project with the title “Master plan thrips management in greenhouse ornamental crops” was to develop enhanced thrips control measures through 1) increased plant resilience with fungal endophytes, 2) preventive releases of natural enemies (standing army) and 3) manipulation of thrips behaviour. This report presents the results of this project that was done in the period 2015-2019.
    Advances in pest and disease management in greenhouse cultivation
    Messelink, G.J. ; Kruidhof, H.M. - \ 2019
    In: Achieving sustainable greenhouse cultivation / Marcelis, L., Heuvelink, E., London : Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited - ISBN 9781786762801 - p. 311 - 356.
    Greenhouse crops are continuously under pressure of infestations by a wide range of pests and diseases. This chapter describes the myriad practices that can contribute to managing pests and diseases, and how to integrate these practices in an ecologically based integrated pest management (IPM) approach. The chapter offers a historical perspective on the development of IPM, together with an explanation of its underlying rationale and main challenges. The chapter discusses the different components of IPM, including sanitation, cultural control, preventative and curative biological control. The chapter examines food web complexities, which inevitably result from integrating multiple biological control agents in a single crop, and offers a detailed case study on IPM implementation in tomato. Finally, the chapter looks ahead to future research trends in this area and suggests further reading on the subject.
    Beheersen van vogelmijt; pleksgewijze bestrijding
    Mul, M.F. ; Messelink, G.J. - \ 2019
    De Pluimveehouderij (2019)14. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 22 - 23.
    Meeste trips in bermen niet schadelijk
    Messelink, G.J. - \ 2019
    Onder Glas 16 (2019)8. - p. 43 - 43.
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