Consideration of life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in road infrastructure planning processes: Examples of Sweden, Norway, Denmark and The Netherlands
Miliutenko, Sofiia ; Kluts, Ingeborg ; Lundberg, Kristina ; Toller, Susanna ; BrattebØ, Helge ; Birgisdóttir, Harpa ; Potting, José - \ 2014
Journal of environmental assessment policy and management 16 (2014)4. - ISSN 1464-3332
energy use - environmental assessment - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions - life cycle assessment - road infrastructure planning
Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with life cycle stages of road infrastructure are currently rarely assessed during road infrastructure planning. This study examines the road infrastructure planning process, with emphasis on its use of Environmental Assessments (EA), and identifies when and how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be integrated in the early planning stages for supporting decisions such as choice of road corridor. Road infrastructure planning processes are compared for four European countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands). The results show that only Norway has a formalised way of using LCA during choice of road corridor. Only the Netherlands has a requirement for using LCA in the later procurement stage. It is concluded that during the early stages of planning, LCA could be integrated as part of an EA, as a separate process or as part of a Cost-Benefit Analysis.