Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Clinical and Pathological Findings in SARS-CoV-2 Disease Outbreaks in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)
    Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Vreman, Sandra ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W. ; Zwart, Rob ; Rond, Jan de; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Stegeman, Arjan ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der - \ 2020
    Veterinary Pathology 57 (2020)5. - ISSN 0300-9858 - p. 653 - 657.
    COVID-19 - mink - pneumonia - respiratory disease - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 - zoonoses

    SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, caused respiratory disease outbreaks with increased mortality in 4 mink farms in the Netherlands. The most striking postmortem finding was an acute interstitial pneumonia, which was found in nearly all examined mink that died at the peak of the outbreaks. Acute alveolar damage was a consistent histopathological finding in mink that died with pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by detection of viral RNA in throat swabs and by immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen in nasal conchae, trachea, and lung. Clinically, the outbreaks lasted for about 4 weeks but some animals were still polymerase chain reaction–positive for SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs after clinical signs had disappeared. This is the first report of the clinical and pathological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in mink farms.

    Informatieblad 12: Heet water
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 12) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Verzamel-Informatieblad 14: Nesten fixeren, isoleren en afvoeren
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 14) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 13: Beïnvloeding groepsgedrag met spoorferomoon
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 13) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 11: Stoom
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 11) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 10: Eitjes desinfecteren
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 10) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 9: Vallen met feromoonstoffen als bestrijding
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 9) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 8: Folie om de stam
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 8) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 7: nest- en verblijfkasten
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 7) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 6: Vegetatie
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 6) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 5: Lieveheersbeestjes
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 5) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 4: Gaasvlieglarven
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 4) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 3: Wegzuigen
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 3) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 2: Bacteriepreparaat
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 2) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatieblad 1: NEMATODEN
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups 1) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    Informatiebladen Beheersing Eikenprocessierups : Algemene informatie
    Klein, Chris de; Asbreuk, Tim ; Wolterink, Han ; Hellingman, S. ; Zeegers, T. ; Jans, Henk ; Deijk, Jurriën R. van; Spijker, J.H. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Mink, Peter de; Kuppen, Henry ; Sondeijker, J. ; Biemans, Bart ; Bullée, Martijn ; Brunsveld, M. ; Regelink, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups (Informatieblad beheersing eikenprocessierups Algemene informatie) - 7 p.
    De overlast van de eikenprocessierups (EPR) voor de gezondheid van mens en dier vraagt om aandacht en aanpakken. Op veel plekken gebeurt dat al. In de praktijk zijn verschillende middelen en maatregelen in zwang. Daarbij ontstaan vragen over de werkzaamheid, effectiviteit,(schadelijke) neveneffecten en gevaren van de verschillendeinstrumenten. De InformatiebladenBeheersing eikenprocessierups bevatten kernachtige informatie over gangbare, kansarme en kansrijke instrumenten om de overlast aan te pakken. Het Kennisplatform Processierups heeft de gepresenteerde informatie beoordeeld op relevantie en betrouwbaarheid
    SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020
    Oreshkova, Nadia ; Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Vreman, Sandra ; Harders, Frank ; Oude Munnink, Bas B. ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W. ; Gerhards, Nora ; Tolsma, Paulien ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Sikkema, Reina S. ; Tacken, Mirriam G.J. ; Rooij, Myrna M.T. de; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Engelsma, Marc Y. ; Bruschke, Christianne J.M. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Stegeman, Arjan - \ 2020
    Eurosurveillance 25 (2020)23. - ISSN 1025-496X
    interstitial pneumonia - mink - SARS-CoV-2 - transmission

    Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.

    On the merits and pitfalls of introducing a digital platform to aid conservation management : Volunteer data submission and the mediating role of volunteer coordinators
    Arts, Koen ; Melero, Yolanda ; Webster, Gemma ; Sharma, Nirwan ; Tintarev, Nava ; Tait, Elizabeth ; Mellish, Christopher ; Sripada, Somayajulu ; MacMaster, Ann Marie ; Sutherland, Hollie ; Horrill, Chris ; Lambin, Xavier ; Wal, René van der - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Management 265 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797
    Environmental citizen science - Human-computer interaction - Invasive species control - Technological innovation - Volunteer coordination - Volunteer-based management

    Against a backdrop of accelerating digital innovation in nature conservation and environmental management, a real-world experiment was conducted with the research aims of assessing: 1) the effects of introducing a digital data-entry platform on volunteer data submission; and 2) the extent to which coordinators influence digital platform use by their volunteers. We focussed on a large-scale volunteer-based initiative aimed at eradicating the non-native American mink (Neovison vison) from northern Scotland. This geographically dispersed conservation initiative adopted a digital platform that allowed volunteers to submit records to a central database. We found that the platform had a direct and positive effect on volunteer data submission behaviour, increasing both the number and frequency of submissions. However, our analysis revealed striking differences in coordinator engagement with the platform, which in turn influenced the engagement of volunteers with this centrally introduced digital innovation. As a consequence, the intended organisation-wide rolling out of a digital platform translated into a diversely-implemented innovation, limiting the efficacy of the tool and revealing key challenges for digital innovation in geographically-dispersed conservation initiatives.

    Risks to human and animal health related to the presence of moniliformin in food and feed
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Naegeli, Hanspeter ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Colombo, Paolo ; Eskola, Mari ; Manen, Mathijs van; Edler, Lutz - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)3. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Moniliformin (MON) is a mycotoxin with low molecular weight primarily produced by Fusarium fungi and occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Following a request of the European Commission, the CONTAM Panel assessed the risk of MON to human and animal health related to its presence in food and feed. The limited information available on toxicity and on toxicokinetics in experimental and farm animals indicated haematotoxicity and cardiotoxicity as major adverse health effects of MON. MON causes chromosome aberrations in vitro but no in vivo genotoxicity data and no carcinogenicity data were identified. Due to the limitations in the available toxicity data, human acute or chronic health‐based guidance values (HBGV) could not be established. The margin of exposure (MOE) between the no‐observed‐adverse‐effect level (NOAEL) of 6.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) for cardiotoxicity from a subacute study in rats and the acute upper bound (UB) dietary exposure estimates ranged between 4,000 and 73,000. The MOE between the lowest benchmark dose lower confidence limit (for a 5% response ‐ BMDL05) of 0.20 mg MON/kg bw per day for haematological hazards from a 28‐day study in pigs and the chronic dietary human exposure estimates ranged between 370 and 5,000,000 for chronic dietary exposures. These MOEs indicate a low risk for human health but were associated with high uncertainty. The toxicity data available for poultry, pigs, and mink indicated a low or even negligible risk for these animals from exposure to MON in feed at the estimated exposure levels under current feeding practices. Assuming similar or lower sensitivity as for pigs, the CONTAM Panel considered a low or even negligible risk for the other animal species for which no toxicity data suitable for hazard characterisation were identified. Additional toxicity studies are needed and depending on their outcome, the collection of more occurrence data on MON in food and feed is recommended to enable a comprehensive human risk assessment.
    Cereal yield gaps across Europe
    Schils, René ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian ; Rijk, Bert ; Oberforster, Michael ; Kalyada, Valery ; Khitrykau, Maksim ; Gobin, Anne ; Kirchev, Hristofor ; Manolova, Vanya ; Manolov, Ivan ; Trnka, Mirek ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Paluoso, Taru ; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo ; Jauhiainen, Lauri ; Lorgeou, Josiane ; Marrou, Hélène ; Danalatos, Nikos ; Archontoulis, Sotirios ; Fodor, Nándor ; Spink, John ; Roggero, Pier Paolo ; Bassu, Simona ; Pulina, Antonio ; Seehusen, Till ; Uhlen, Anne Kjersti ; Żyłowska, Katarzyna ; Nieróbca, Anna ; Kozyra, Jerzy ; Silva, João Vasco ; Maçãs, Benvindo Martins ; Coutinho, José ; Ion, Viorel ; Takáč, Jozef ; Mínguez, M.I. ; Eckersten, Henrik ; Levy, Lilia ; Herrera, Juan Manuel ; Hiltbrunner, Jürg ; Kryvobok, Oleksii ; Kryvoshein, Oleksandr ; Boogaard, Hendrik ; Groot, Hugo de; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Bussel, Lenny van; Wolf, Joost ; Zijlstra, Mink ; Loon, Marloes P. van; Ittersum, Martin K. van - \ 2018
    European Journal of Agronomy 101 (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 109 - 120.
    Barley - Crop modelling - Grain maize - Nitrogen - Wheat - Yield potential

    Europe accounts for around 20% of the global cereal production and is a net exporter of ca. 15% of that production. Increasing global demand for cereals justifies questions as to where and by how much Europe's production can be increased to meet future global market demands, and how much additional nitrogen (N) crops would require. The latter is important as environmental concern and legislation are equally important as production aims in Europe. Here, we used a country-by-country, bottom-up approach to establish statistical estimates of actual grain yield, and compare these to modelled estimates of potential yields for either irrigated or rainfed conditions. In this way, we identified the yield gaps and the opportunities for increased cereal production for wheat, barley and maize, which represent 90% of the cereals grown in Europe. The combined mean annual yield gap of wheat, barley, maize was 239 Mt, or 42% of the yield potential. The national yield gaps ranged between 10 and 70%, with small gaps in many north-western European countries, and large gaps in eastern and south-western Europe. Yield gaps for rainfed and irrigated maize were consistently lower than those of wheat and barley. If the yield gaps of maize, wheat and barley would be reduced from 42% to 20% of potential yields, this would increase annual cereal production by 128 Mt (39%). Potential for higher cereal production exists predominantly in Eastern Europe, and half of Europe's potential increase is located in Ukraine, Romania and Poland. Unlocking the identified potential for production growth requires a substantial increase of the crop N uptake of 4.8 Mt. Across Europe, the average N uptake gaps, to achieve 80% of the yield potential, were 87, 77 and 43 kg N ha−1 for wheat, barley and maize, respectively. Emphasis on increasing the N use efficiency is necessary to minimize the need for additional N inputs. Whether yield gap reduction is desirable and feasible is a matter of balancing Europe's role in global food security, farm economic objectives and environmental targets.

    Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems : A modelling study from semi-arid Zimbabwe
    Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Zijlstra, Mink ; Masikati, Patricia ; Crespo, Olivier ; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine - \ 2018
    Agricultural Systems 159 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 282 - 295.
    Crop-livestock interactions - Crude protein - Forage - Metabolizable energy - Resilience - Soil fertility - Vulnerability

    Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a dynamic modelling framework integrating climate, crop, pasture and livestock models. The framework was applied to a population of 91 farms located in semi-arid Zimbabwe to assess effects on livestock production resulting from climate change and management interventions. Climate scenarios representing relative "cool-wet", "hot-dry" and "middle" conditions by mid-century (2040-2070) for two representative concentration pathways were compared with the baseline climate. On-farm fodder resources and rangeland grass production were simulated with the crop model APSIM and the pasture model GRASP respectively. The simulated fodder availability was used in the livestock model LIVSIM to generate various production indicators including milk, offtake, mortality, manure, and net revenue. We investigated the effects of two adaptation packages targeting soil fertility management and crop diversification and quantified the sensitivity to climate change of both current and improved systems. Livestock productivity was constrained by dry-season feed gaps, which were particularly severe for crude protein and caused by the reliance on rangeland grazing and crop residues, both of low quality in the dry season. Effects on grass and stover production depended on the climate scenario and the crop, but year-to-year variation generally increased. Relative changes in livestock net revenue compared to the baseline climate varied from a 6% increase to a 43% decrease, and the proportion of farmers negatively affected varied from 20% to 100%, depending on the climate scenario. Adverse effects of climate change on average livestock production usually coincided with increased year-to-year variability and risk. Farms with larger stocking density faced more severe feed gaps and were more sensitive to climate change than less densely stocked farms. The first adaptation package resulted in increased stover production and a small increase in livestock productivity. The inclusion of grain and forage legumes with the second package increased milk productivity and net revenues more profoundly by 30%. This was attributed to the alleviation of dry-season feed gaps, which also reduced the sensitivity to climate change compared to the current system. Clearly, individual farms were affected differently by climate change and by improved farm management, illustrating that disaggregated impact assessments are needed to effectively inform decision making towards climate change adaptation.

    Scientific opinion: Risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed
    Knutsen, Helle-Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Caude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Dall'asta, Chiara ; Dänicke, Sven ; Eriksen, Gunnar-Sundstøl ; Altieri, Andrea ; Roldán-Torres, Ruth ; Oswald, Isabelle P. - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)7. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), β-zearalanol (β-ZAL), zearalanone (ZAN) and phase II conjugates. ZEN has oestrogenic activity and the oestrogenic activity of the modified forms of ZEN differs considerably. For ZEN, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for pig (piglets and gilts), poultry (chicken and fattening turkeys), sheep and fish (extrapolated from carp) and lowest observed effect level (LOAEL) for dogs. No reference points could be established for cattle, ducks, goats, horses, rabbits, mink and cats. For modified forms, no reference points could be established for any animal species and relative potency factors previously established from rodents by the CONTAM Panel in 2016 were used. The dietary exposure was estimated on 17,706 analytical results with high proportions of left-censored data (ZEN about 60%, ZAN about 70%, others close to 100%). Samples for ZEN were collected between 2001 and 2015 in 25 different European countries, whereas samples for the modified forms were collected mostly between 2013 and 2015 from three Member States. Based on exposure estimates, the risk of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms.
    High-resolution phylogeny providing insights towards the epidemiology, zoonotic aspects and taxonomy of sapoviruses
    Barry, A.F. ; Durães-Carvalho, R. ; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F. ; Alfieri, A. ; Poel, W.H.M. Van der - \ 2017
    Infection, Genetics and Evolution 56 (2017). - ISSN 1567-1348 - p. 8 - 13.
    Epidemiology - Phylogeny - Sapoviruses - Taxonomy - Zoonoses
    The evolution, epidemiology and zoonotic aspects of Sapoviruses (SaV) are still not well explored. In this study, we applied high-resolution phylogeny to investigate the epidemiological and zoonotic origins as well as taxonomic classification of animal and human SaV. Bayesian framework analyses showed an increase in porcine SaV (PoSaV) population dynamics and genetic diversity between 1975 and 1982, resulting in a SaV gene flow and generation of new strains among porcine and human populations. Our results also show the contribution of different animal populations involved in SaV epidemiology and highlight zoonotic aspects, as exemplified by the crucial role that swine, dogs, mink and humans play in SaV spread. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis suggests that bats may play key role in SaV epidemiology. According to our hypothesis, these animals may act as reservoirs or intermediate host species, contributing to viral spread in zoonotic and other epidemiological scenarios and facilitating the generation of new SaV genogroups and genotypes through recombination events. Data from large-scale phylogeny partition based on patristic distance, did not show a correlation between transmission clusters on generation of SaV genogroups, nevertheless we present both important findings about SaV taxonomy and important considerations useful for further taxonomical studies.
    AgMIP 6, Seeking Sustainable Solutions
    Zijlstra, Mink - \ 2016
    Impact of climate change on the livestock component of mixed farming systems: modeling evidence from regional integrated assessments across sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia
    Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex
    Alemu, S.W. ; Berg, P. ; Janss, L. ; Bijma, P. - \ 2016
    Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 133 (2016)1. - ISSN 0931-2668 - p. 43 - 50.
    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. Most IGE models assume that individuals interact equally to all group mates irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory, however, predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members versus non-family members. Here, we investigate kin- and sex-specific non-genetic social interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family-based IGE model proposed in a previous study. Our results indicate that male siblings in mink show different non-genetic interactions than female siblings in mink and that this may impact the estimation of genetic parameters. Moreover, we have shown how estimates from a family-based IGE model can be translated to the ordinary direct–indirect model and vice versa. We find no evidence for genetic differences in interactions among related versus unrelated mink.
    Informatiedocument leefoppervlakte : relatie tussen welzijns- en milieuregelgeving
    Ellen, H.H. ; Buisonje, F.E. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 849) - 27
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - schapen - geiten - varkens - pluimvee - nerts - konijnen - huisvesting, dieren - milieu - wetgeving - biologische landbouw - milieuwetgeving - emissie - bodemoppervlak - animal welfare - animal production - cattle - sheep - goats - pigs - poultry - mink - rabbits - animal housing - environment - legislation - organic farming - environmental legislation - emission - floor area
    Er is een nauwe relatie tussen het leefoppervlak per dier en de emissie van ammoniak. Over het algemeen geeft meer oppervlak een hogere emissie. Vanuit welzijnsregelgeving zijn veelal minimale oppervlaktes voorgeschreven. In de stalbeschrijvingen van de Rav worden ook eisen gesteld aan de oppervlakte per dier. In dit rapport worden voor de diverse diercategorieën de eisen voor leefoppervlakte vanuit de welzijnsregelgeving vergeleken met die in de stalbeschrijvingen. Een belangrijk aspect is daarbij de definitie van het begrip leefoppervlakte.
    Indirect genetic effects for group-housed animals
    Alemu, S.W. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): L.G. Janss; Piter Bijma; P. Berg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9788793176713 - 228
    nerts - pluimvee - groepshuisvesting - genetische effecten - sociaal gedrag - agressief gedrag - interacties - heritability - veredelingsprogramma's - statistische analyse - genetische parameters - selectief fokken - mink - poultry - group housing - genetic effects - social behaviour - aggressive behaviour - interactions - heritability - breeding programmes - statistical analysis - genetic parameters - selective breeding

    ABSTRACT

    Alemu, SW(2015) Indirect Genetic effects for Group-housed Animals. Joint PhD thesis between Aarhus University, Denmark and Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

    Social interactions among individuals are common both in plants and animals. With social interactions, the trait value of an individual may be influenced by the genes of its interacting partners, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGE). An IGE is heritable effect of an individual on trait values of another individual. A large body of literature has shown that social interactions can create addition heritable variation in both plants and animals, for both behavioural and production traits.

    When IGE are estimated it is usually assumed that an individual interacts equally with all its group mates, irrespective of genetic relatedness. This assumption may not be true in mixed groups of kin and non-kin, where an individual may interact systematically different with kin and non-kin. Current IGE models ignore such systematically different interactions between kin and non-kin. Thus, the main aim of this thesis was to develop and apply statistical methods to estimate IGE when interactions differ between kin and non-kin.

    Social interactions are important in mink that are kept in groups for the production of fur. Group housing of mink increases aggression behaviours, which is reflected by an increase in the number of bite marks on the pelts, and reduces the welfare of the animals. We estimated the genetic parameter for bite mark traits in group-housed mink, to investigate the prospects for genetic improvement of bite mark traits. We found that there are good prospects to produce mink that have a low level of biting. Finally, we further concluded that genetic parameter estimation for bite mark score should take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin.

    In this thesis we also investigated genomic selection for socially affected traits, considering survival time in two lines of brown egg layers showing cannibalistic behaviour. Despite the limited reference population of ~234 progeny tested sires, the accuracy of estimated breeding values (EBV) was ~35% higher for genomic selection compared with the parent average-EBV. We found that the response to genomic selection per year for line B1 was substantially higher than for the traditional breeding scheme, whereas for line BD response was slightly higher than for the traditional breeding scheme. In conclusion, genetic selection with IGE combined with marker information can substantially reduce detrimental social behaviours such as cannibalism in layers and biting in group-housed mink.

    The status of the American mink (Neovison vison) in the Netherlands
    Dekker, J.J.A. ; Hofmeester, T.R. - \ 2014
    Lutra 57 (2014)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 5 - 15.
    fauna - martes - nerts - wilde dieren - populatie-ecologie - nederland - fauna - martes - mink - wild animals - population ecology - netherlands
    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a north American mustelid that has been farmed for its fur in Europe since the 1920s. It has been feral in the Netherlands since 1958. This paper discusses its distribution, diet, the indications for reproduction, and whether feral animals are born in the wild or are escapees. The American mink mostly occurs in areas where many mink are kept in farms. The largest distance between an observation and the nearest farm was 45 km. Sixteen animals caught by muskrat control officers were dissected. The stomach content of the 16 animals revealed a diet of amphibians, birds and small mammals. The dissections gave no clues about reproduction: one of three males was sexually active, but none of the 13 females showed placental scars, a thickened uterus or signs of lactation. Only one observation of reproduction in the wild was received. Isotope analyses of teeth and nails indicate that the animals generally only stay feral for a short period of time before being caught. The ratios of carbon and nitrogen isotopes of the wild caught animals were very close to the isotope ratios of ten reference animals from a fur farm, except for one adult female, whose teeth isotope values were different from the farm animals and as such she seems to have remained in the wild for longer and was possibly born in the wild. In general however most animals are caught shortly after escaping and only remain in the wild for a short period of time. It seems that feral mink stem from constant escapes and that muskrat control removes these feral animals. Thus, the existence or development of a feral population in the Netherlands is unlikely, especially since it is planned to phase out mink farming by 2024.
    Size distribution of airborne particles in animal houses
    Lai, T.L.H. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Cambra-López, M. ; Huynh, T.T.T. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2014
    Agricultural Engineering International 16 (2014)3. - ISSN 1682-1130 - p. 28 - 42.
    The concentration and size distribution of airborne particles were measured inside and outside typical animal houses such as broilers, broiler breeders (both floor housing with litter); layers (floor housing system and aviary housing system); turkeys (floor housing with litter), pigs: fattening pigs (traditional houses, low emission houses with dry feed, and low emission houses with wet feed), piglets, sows (individual and group housing); cattle (cubicle house), and mink (cages). Using an aerosol spectrometer, particles were counted and classified into 30 size classes (total range: 0.25 – 32 µm). Particles were measured on for two days, one in spring and the other in summer, in two of each species/housing combination during 30 min inside and outside the animal house. Outside temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Particle counts in the different size classes were generally higher in poultry houses than in pig houses, and counts in pig houses were generally higher than those in cattle and mink houses. The particle counts in animal houses were highest (on average 87%) in the size classes 2.5 µm (on average 97%). Most particles outside were in the size class
    Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison)
    Alemu, S.W. ; Bijma, P. ; Moller, S. ; Janss, L. ; Berg, P. - \ 2014
    Genetics, Selection, Evolution 46 (2014). - ISSN 0999-193X - 11 p.
    group selection - variance-components - biological groups - mustela-vison - multilevel selection - social interactions - competition - parameters - model - populations
    Background Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises a welfare issue. Bite marks on the animals are an indicator of this aggressive behaviour and thus selection against frequency of bite marks should reduce aggression and improve animal welfare. Bite marks on one individual reflect the aggression of its group members, which means that the number of bite marks carried by one individual depends on the behaviour of other individuals and that it may have a genetic basis. Thus, for a successful breeding strategy it could be crucial to consider both direct (DGE) and indirect (IGE) genetic effects on this trait. However, to date no study has investigated the genetic basis of bite marks in mink. Result and discussion A model that included DGE and IGE fitted the data significantly better than a model with DGE only, and IGE contributed a substantial proportion of the heritable variation available for response to selection. In the model with IGE, the total heritable variation expressed as the proportion of phenotypic variance (T2) was six times greater than classical heritability (h2). For instance, for total bite marks, T2 was equal to 0.61, while h2 was equal to 0.10. The genetic correlation between direct and indirect effects ranged from 0.55 for neck bite marks to 0.99 for tail bite marks. This positive correlation suggests that mink have a tendency to fight in a reciprocal way (giving and receiving bites) and thus, a genotype that confers a tendency to bite other individuals can also cause its bearer to receive more bites. Conclusion Both direct and indirect genetic effects contribute to variation in number of bite marks in group-housed mink. Thus, a genetic selection design that includes both direct genetic and indirect genetic effects could reduce the frequency of bite marks and probably aggression behaviour in group-housed mink.
    Co-existence of Distinct Prion Types Enables Conformational Evolution of Human PrPSc by Competitive Selection
    Haldiman, T. ; Kim, C. ; Cohen, Y. ; Chen, W. ; Blevins, J. ; Qing, L. ; Cohen, M.L. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Telling, G.C. ; Kong, Q. ; Safar, J.G. - \ 2013
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 288 (2013). - ISSN 0021-9258 - p. 29846 - 29861.
    creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - transmissible mink encephalopathy - chronic wasting disease - dependent immunoassay - strain variation - transgenic mice - molecular-basis - protein - scrapie - classification
    The unique phenotypic characteristics of mammalian prions are thought to be encoded in the conformation of pathogenic prion proteins (PrPSc). The molecular mechanism responsible for the adaptation, mutation, and evolution of prions observed in cloned cells and upon crossing the species barrier remains unsolved. Using biophysical techniques and conformation-dependent immunoassays in tandem, we isolated two distinct populations of PrPSc particles with different conformational stabilities and aggregate sizes, which frequently co-exist in the most common human prion disease, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). The protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) replicates each of the PrPSc particle types independently, and leads to the competitive selection of those with lower initial conformational stability. In serial propagation with a nonglycosylated mutant PrPC substrate, the dominant PrPSc conformers are subject to further evolution by natural selection of the subpopulation with the highest replication rate due to its lowest stability. Cumulatively, the data show that sCJD PrPSc is not a single conformational entity, but a dynamic collection of two distinct populations of particles. This implies the co-existence of different prions, whose adaptation and evolution are governed by the selection of progressively less stable, faster replicating PrPSc conformers.
    Methoden voor euthanasie op het primaire bedrijf en standaardwerkwijzen voor het doden van nertsen = Methods for on-farm euthanasia and standard operation procedures for killing of mink
    Lambooij, E. ; Hindle, V.A. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 683) - 20
    pelsdierhouderij - nerts - euthanasie - doden van dieren - dierenwelzijn - efficiëntie - fur farming - mink - euthanasia - killing of animals - animal welfare - efficiency
    A literature survey reveals several authorized methods of euthanasia. These methods were evaluated on criteria as animal welfare, effectiveness, efficiency and aesthetics of operation. Standard operation procedures for mink were drawn up.
    Effects of air quality on chicken health
    Lai, T.L.H. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Henk Parmentier; Andre Aarnink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732453 - 177
    pluimvee - huisvesting van kippen - diergezondheid - luchtkwaliteit - vleeskuikens - infectie door luchtdeeltjes - poultry - chicken housing - animal health - air quality - broilers - airborne infection

    Houses for intensive poultry production likely contain very high concentrations of airborne contaminants that may negatively affect human and animal health. However, very little is known of the relations between concentrations, size, nature and composition of airborne particles on animal health in intensive livestock housing. Also, mechanisms of responses of animals to unhygienic conditions such as airborne particles, and adaptation responses are unknown. It is likely that animals under high pressure for production such as broiler chickens may be affected severely by continuous antigenic stimulation. Accordingly, the aim of this thesis was to determine effects of airborne dust and its components, and particle size, respectively on the immune system of broilers, and consequently disease resistance and performance (in this case growth). The objectives were to address 1) dust concentrations and particle size distribution present in counts and in mass inside (and around) animal houses; 2) whether dust or its components (with emphasis on pathogen associated molecular patterns or PAMP) affect the immune competence and specific immune response of broilers after challenge via the respiratory tract at different ages; 3) whether broilers may adapt to respiratory challenge with dust and its different components, and particle size; 4) whether dust and its components including particle size affect growth (and heart parameters) of broilers; and finally 5) localization of 1 µm and 10 µm (fluorescent-labelled polystyrene) particles as a model for localization and transport of dust particles in the body of broilers after challenge via the respiratory route

    In terms of mass, the dust concentration in poultry houses was generally higher than in pig houses, cattle houses, and mink houses. Mass concentrations of PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 µm) was 0.83 to 4.60 mg m-3 in poultry houses, 0.13 to 1.62 mg m-3 in pigs farms, and 0.02 to 0.12 mg m-3 in cattle and mink farms. In counts, most particles (92%) inside were found smaller than 2.5 µm, whereas these particles only contributed for 2.6% to mass.

    Fine dust and coarse dust collected from broiler houses also affected specific antibody responses to a model antigen (HuSA), either declining or enhancing, depending on age of challenge and isotype measured. Components known to be part of dust and with known or expected immunologically mediating features like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), β-glucan, lipoteichoic acid, chitin, NH3, heat-dust, respectively, were used to intratracheally challenge broilers at 3 and 7 weeks of age. Especially LPS and β-glucan enhanced immune responses, but depressed body weight gain of the broilers after primary and secondary challenge. LPS also enhanced antigen-specific responses at various ages, even when administered 4 weeks prior to the antigen. After intratracheal (and also cloacal) challenge, fluorescent-labelled polystyrene beads from two sizes (1 µm and 10 µm) were present in all tissues from the broiler studied during at least one week. Such beads might have been taken up by phagocytic cells or were transferred via the blood stream.

    It was concluded that airborne particles in different sizes and with different components could alert the immune system of broilers as exemplified by enhanced primary responses in an antigen- nonspecific fashion. The absence of major effects of dust components on secondary immune responses on the other hand may indicate a regulating role of dust components on the immune system. Dust (components), however, had an important negative impact on body weight gain and heart parameters. It is concluded that there are relationships between hygienic conditions in broiler houses and immune mediated health, and as a consequence likely disease resistance and/or sensitivity to vaccination and other health management procedures. The current study urges further studies on the presence (and identification) and consequences of airborne constituents to protect health of poultry.

    Ongerief bij rundvee, varkens, pluimvee, nertsen en paarden: eerste herhaling = Discomfort among cattle, pigs, poultry, mink and horses: first repetition
    Leenstra, F.R. ; Neijenhuis, F. ; Bosma, A.J.J. ; Ruis, M.A.W. ; Smolders, E.A.A. ; Visser, E.K. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 456) - 83
    rundveehouderij - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - paarden - nerts - dierenwelzijn - inventarisaties - intensieve dierhouderij - dierlijke productie - melkvee - varkens - pluimvee - cattle husbandry - pig farming - poultry farming - horses - mink - animal welfare - inventories - intensive husbandry - animal production - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry
    An inventory of discomfort experienced by cattle, pigs, poultry, mink and horses in The Netherlands is carried out and compared with a similar inventory in 2007. In general, discomfort is reduced, but compared to the overall level of discomfort not to a large extent.
    Evaluation of alternative management strategies of muskrat Ondatra zibethicus population control using a population model
    Bos, D. ; Ydenberg, R.C. - \ 2011
    Wildlife Biology 17 (2011)2. - ISSN 0909-6396 - p. 143 - 155.
    experimental marshes - dynamics - habitat - harvest - mink
    Muskrats Ondatra zibethicus are considered a pest species in the Netherlands, and a year-round control programme is in effect. Currently, the agency responsible for the management of muskrat populations in the Netherlands (the LCCM) is preparing for field studies to compare alternative strategies of control. In order to decide on the specific design of such field studies, a population dynamic model was built. The model compares the current management strategy with alternatives in which the effort is focused in space or in time. The model allows us to prioritise future research questions. The major gaps in knowledge at this moment are: 1) insight into the costs of harvesting at different harvest rates, and 2) the relationship between population density on the one hand and (financial damage or) safety risk on the other hand. We suggest continuing the current management, and to test our hypothesis that intensifying harvest will lead to lower numbers of animals killed in the medium term than more extensive harvest rates. The muskrat control programme offers excellent opportunities for applied biological studies of which the benefits are likely to outweigh the costs
    Size distribution of airborne particles in animal houses
    Lai, T.L.H. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Cambra-Lopez, M. ; Huynh, T.T.T. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the XVth International Congress on Animal Hygiene, 03-07 July 2011, Vienna, Austria. - Vienna : International Society for Animal Hygiene - p. 805 - 808.
    The objective of this study was to determine concentration and size distribution of airborne particles inside and outside animal houses for broilers, broiler breeder (with bedding); layers (floor or aviary housing system); turkeys (with bedding), pigs: fatteners (traditional house, low emission houses (dry feed, or wet feed), piglets, sows (individual or group housing); cattle (cubicle house), and mink (cages). Dust concentrations, both in counts and mass, in the different particle size ranges were highest in poultry houses. The concentrations in pig houses were higher than those in cattle and mink houses. The count particle size ranges <1.0 µm was highest with average of 95%, while mass particle was highest in size ranges > 2.5 µm (on average 95%). Most count particles outside were in the size range <1.0 µm (99%). Keywords: Particle size distribution, animal houses, dust concentration
    Fijnstofemissie uit stallen: nertsen = Dust emission from animal houses: minks
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Winkel, A. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Dousma, F. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Groenestein, C.M. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 340) - 25
    pelsdierhouderij - nerts - fijn stof - emissie - meting - ammoniakemissie - stofbestrijding - stalklimaat - fur farming - mink - particulate matter - emission - measurement - ammonia emission - dust control - stall climate
    In this study emissions of fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5) from houses for minks were determined. In addition, emissions of ammonia, greenhouse gases and odour were determined.
    The Working Group „Integrated Protection of Fruit Crops“ is celebrating its 50th Anniversary
    Boller, E.F. ; Minks, A.K. ; Cross, J.V. ; Lenteren, J.C. van; Wildbolz, T. - \ 2010
    IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 54 (2010). - p. 193 - 217.
    The Working Group looks back at 50 years of successful work. The fruit entomologists are the pioneers within WPRS with respect to the development of integrated plant protection (IPP) and integrated production (IP) and their introduction into practice. Developments occurring during the early 1970s brought a change in the general approach reflected in the change of name in 1974 from “Integrated control in orchards” to the broader term “Integrated plant protection in orchards”. A further milestone was the establishment of the holistic concept of Integrated Production as has been described in the “Message of Ovronnaz” which should be considered as a historic landmark for IOBC as a whole. The publications of the WG reflect the broad range of its activities and its important function as scientific platform for information exchange and joint programs: 13 proceedings of International Symposia on Integrated Plant Protection and Production in orchards, 14 technical handbooks (brochures) and 41 WPRS Bulletins covering specific topics of the various subgroups. The first international symposium organised by the working group took place in Wageningen in 1961 with 36 participants from 9 countries, the most recent symposium was held in Avignon in 2008 with 250 participants and celebrating the 50th anniversary. Hundreds of experts have participated in the WG’s activities over the past 50 years. The impact of these activities on the development and application of IPP and IP in practise was and still is significant. Concepts and tools developed by the WG became not only general WPRS standards but have influenced significantly the international standards for Integrated Plant Protection. The WG has generated the approach and practical implementation of Integrated Production in the major crops of the WPRS region
    No H- and L-type cases in Belgium in cattle diagnosed with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (1999-2008) aging seven years and older
    Dobly, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Rodeghiero, C. ; Durand, S.V.M. ; Geeroms, R. ; Muylem, P. van; Sloovere, J. de; Vanopdenbosch, E. ; Roels, S. - \ 2010
    BMC Veterinary Research 6 (2010). - ISSN 1746-6148
    transmissible mink encephalopathy - prion protein - great-britain - atypical bse - strain variation - variant cjd - diseases - scrapie - mice - identification
    Background The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic presented homogeneity of the phenotype. This classical BSE (called C-type) was probably due to the contamination of the food chain by a single prion strain. However, due to the active surveillance and better techniques, two rare variants of BSE have been recently reported in different continents without a clear correlation to the BSE epidemic. These emerging types behave as different strains of BSE and were named H-type and L-type according to the high and low molecular mass of the unglycosylated fragment of their proteinase K resistant prion protein (PrPres). In these types, the proportion of the un-, mono- and di-glycosylated fragments of PrP (glycoprofile) is also atypical and represents an effective diagnostic parameter. This study evaluated the presence of such types in bovine of 7 years and older in Belgium. Results The Belgian BSE archive contained 41 bovines of at least 7 years of age. The biochemical features of their PrPres were analyzed by Western blot with five antibodies recognising different regions of PrPres, from N- to C-terminus: 12B2, 9A2, Sha31, SAF84 and 94B4. All antibodies clearly detected PrPres except 12B2 antibody, which is specific for N-terminal region 101-105, a PrP region that is only retained in H-types. The glycoprofiles did correspond to that of C-type (with more than 55% of diglycosylated PrPres using antibody 94B4). Therefore, all cases have the features of C-type BSE. Conclusions This study supports that, among the BSE cases of 7 years and older identified in Belgium, none was apparently of the H- or L- type. This is consistent with the very rare occurrence of atypical BSE and the restricted dimension of Belgium. These results shed some light on the worldwide prevalence of atypical BSE.
    Moeizame afhandeling nertsenverbod
    Baltussen, W.H.M. - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)nov. - p. 20 - 20.
    nerts - nederland - pelsdierhouderij - nadelige gevolgen - bedrijfsbeëindiging in de landbouw - mink - netherlands - fur farming - adverse effects - farm closures
    Over de sanering van de nertsenhouderij wordt al veertien jaar gesproken. Ondertussen investeren enkele pelsdierhouders al in bedrijven elders in Europa.
    Ecological optimisation of dynamic coastal defence
    Zijlstra, Mink - \ 2009
    De rol van vegetatie in lange termijn duinontwikkeling
    Zijlstra, Mink - \ 2009
    duneland - sand dune stabilization - duneland plants - vegetation - erosion control
    In search of virus carriers of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus outbreaks in European harbour seals
    Kreutzer, M. ; Kreutzer, R. ; Siebert, U. ; Muller, G. ; Reijnders, P.J.H. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Harkonen, T. ; Dietz, R. ; Sonne, C. ; Born, E.W. ; Baumgartner, W. - \ 2008
    Archives of Virology 153 (2008)1. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 187 - 192.
    canine-distemper - morbillivirus infection - whole-blood - polar bears - gray seals - antibodies - identification - epizootiology - vitulina - waters
    European harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations decreased substantially during the phocine distemper virus (PDV) outbreaks of 1988 and 2002. Different hypotheses have stated that various seals and terrestrial carnivore species might be the source of infection. To further analyse these hypotheses, grey (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed (Phoca hispida) seals, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and minks (Mustela lutreola) were sampled from the North Sea and East Greenland coasts between 1988 and 2004 and investigated by RT-PCR using a panmorbillivirus primer pair. However, all samples were negative for morbillivirus nucleic acid.
    Beyond PrPres type 1/Type 2 dichotomy in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    Uro-Coste, E. ; Cassard, H. ; Simon, S. ; Lugan, S. ; Bilheude, J.M. ; Perret-Liaudet, A. ; Ironside, J.E. ; Haik, S. ; Basset-Leobon, C. ; Lacroux, C. ; Peoch, K. ; Streichenberger, N. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Head, M.W. ; Grassi, J. ; Hauw, J.J. ; Schelcher, F. ; Delisle, M.B. ; Andreoletti, O. - \ 2008
    PLoS Pathogens 4 (2008)3. - ISSN 1553-7366 - 9 p.
    transmissible mink encephalopathy - prion-protein conformation - blood-transfusion - monoclonal-antibodies - strain variation - molecular-basis - scrapie prion - prpsc - cjd - classification
    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) cases are currently subclassified according to the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the proteinase K (PK) digested abnormal prion protein (PrPres) identified on Western blotting (type 1 or type 2). These biochemically distinct PrPres types have been considered to represent potential distinct prion strains. However, since cases of CJD show co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 PrPres in the brain, the basis of this classification system and its relationship to agent strain are under discussion. Different brain areas from 41 sCJD and 12 iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) cases were investigated, using Western blotting for PrPres and two other biochemical assays reflecting the behaviour of the disease-associated form of the prion protein (PrPSc) under variable PK digestion conditions. In 30% of cases, both type 1 and type 2 PrPres were identified. Despite this, the other two biochemical assays found that PrPSc from an individual patient demonstrated uniform biochemical properties. Moreover, in sCJD, four distinct biochemical PrPSc subgroups were identified that correlated with the current sCJD clinico-pathological classification. In iCJD, four similar biochemical clusters were observed, but these did not correlate to any particular PRNP 129 polymorphism or western blot PrPres pattern. The identification of four different PrPSc biochemical subgroups in sCJD and iCJD, irrespective of the PRNP polymorphism at codon 129 and the PrPres isoform provides an alternative biochemical definition of PrPSc diversity and new insight in the perception of Human TSE agents variability
    Molecular discrimination of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy strains from a geographical region spanning a wide area in Europe
    Jacobs, J.G. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Biacabe, A.G. ; Acutis, P.L. ; Polak, M.P. ; Gavier-Widen, D. ; Buschmann, A. ; Caramelli, M. ; Casalone, C. ; Mazza, M. ; Groschup, M. ; Erkens, J.H.F. ; Davidse, A. ; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Baron, T. - \ 2007
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 45 (2007)6. - ISSN 0095-1137 - p. 1821 - 1829.
    transmissible mink encephalopathy - creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - abnormal prion protein - transgenic mice - monoclonal-antibodies - messenger-rna - scrapie agent - n-glycosidase - brain-stem - prp gene
    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy strains can be differentiated by their behavior in bioassays and by molecular analyses of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP) in a posttranslationally transformed conformation (PrPSc). Until recently, isolates from cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) appeared to be very homogeneous. However, a limited number of atypical BSE isolates have recently been identified upon analyses of the disease-associated proteinase K (PK) resistance-associated moiety of PrPSc (Prp(res)), suggesting the existence of at least two additional BSE PrPres variants. These are defined here as the H type and the L type, according to the higher and lower positions of the nonglycosylated PrPres band in Western blots, respectively, compared to the position of the band in classical BSE (C-type) isolates. These molecular Prpres variants, which originated from six different European countries, were investigated together. In addition to the migration properties and glycosylation profiles (glycoprofiles), the H- and L-type isolates exhibited enhanced PK sensitivities at pH 8 compared to those of the C-type isolates. Moreover, H-type BSE isolates exhibited differences in the binding of antibodies specific for N- and more C-terminal PrP regions and principally contained two aglycosylated PrPres moieties which can both be glycosylated and which is thus indicative of the existence of two PrPres, populations or intermediate cleavage sites. These properties appear to be consistent within each BSE type and independent of the geographical origin, suggesting the existence of different BSE strains in cattle. The choice of three antibodies and the application of two pHs during the digestion of brain homogenates provide practical and diverse tools for the discriminative detection of these three molecular BSE types and might assist with the recognition of other variants.
    Exploration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function as a tool to evaluate animal welfare.
    Mormede, P. ; Andanson, S. ; Auperin, B. ; Beerda, B. ; Guemene, D. ; Malmkvist, J. ; Manteca, X. ; Manteuffel, G. ; Prunet, P. ; Reenen, C.G. van; Richard, S. ; Veissier, I. - \ 2007
    Physiology and Behavior 92 (2007)3. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 317 - 339.
    corticotropin-releasing-factor - mink mustela-vison - salmo-trutta-l - plasma-cortisol concentrations - urinary solute excretion - tilapia oreochromis-mossambicus - divergent stress responsiveness - corticosteroid-binding globulin - sympathetic-nervous-system - tr
    Measuring HPA axis activity is the standard approach to the study of stress and welfare in farm animals. Although the reference technique is the use of blood plasma to measure glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol or corticosterone), several alternative methods such as the measurement of corticosteroids in saliva, urine or faeces have been developed to overcome the stress induced by blood sampling itself. In chronic stress situations, as is frequently the case in studies about farm animal welfare, hormonal secretions are usually unchanged but dynamic testing allows the demonstration of functional changes at several levels of the system, including the sensitization of the adrenal cortex to ACTH and the resistance of the axis to feedback inhibition by corticosteroids (dexamethasone suppression test). Beyond these procedural aspects, the main pitfall in the use of HPA axis activity is in the interpretation of experimental data. The large variability of the system has to be taken into consideration, since corticosteroid hormone secretion is usually pulsatile, follows diurnal and seasonal rhythms, is influenced by feed intake and environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, age and physiological state, just to cite the main sources of variation. The corresponding changes reflect the important role of glucocorticoid hormones in a number of basic physiological processes such as energy metabolism and central nervous system functioning. Furthermore, large differences have been found across species, breeds and individuals, which reflect the contribution of genetic factors and environmental influences, especially during development, in HPA axis functioning. Usually, these results will be integrated with data from behavioral observation, production and pathology records in a comprehensive approach of farm animal welfare.
    Discomfort among cattle, pigs, poultry, mink and horses : inventory and prioritisation and possible solution strategies
    Leenstra, F.R. ; Visser, E.K. ; Ruis, M.A.W. ; Greef, K.H. de; Bos, A.P. ; Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Hopster, H. - \ 2007
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Report / Wageningen UR, Animal Sciences Group 72) - 18
    dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - dierhouderij - diergedrag - stallen - stress - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - stalinrichting - stalklimaat - animal welfare - animal housing - animal husbandry - animal behaviour - stalls - stress - farm management - animal housing design - stall climate
    Late 2007 the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality presented a Policy Document on Animal Welfare to the Parliament. In this report a number of building blocks on how to deal with farm animals are described. A discussion of similarities and differences in the perception of animal welfare from social and animal science perspective. An inventory of discomfort items, and their prioritizing for cattle, pigs, poultry, mink and horses and some steps to solve animal welfare problems. An integral design plan for several sectors, where integral design is most necessary to diminish discomfort to animals
    Ongerief bij rundvee, varkens, pluimvee, nertsen en paarden : inventarisatie en prioritering en mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen
    Leenstra, F.R. ; Visser, E.K. ; Ruis, M.A.W. ; Greef, K.H. de; Bos, A.P. ; Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Hopster, H. - \ 2007
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 71) - 80
    dierenwelzijn - dierhouderij - probleemanalyse - rundvee - paarden - varkens - nerts - pluimvee - inventarisaties - probleemoplossing - intensieve veehouderij - diergezondheid - animal welfare - animal husbandry - problem analysis - cattle - horses - pigs - mink - poultry - inventories - problem solving - intensive livestock farming - animal health
    Najaar 2007 biedt LNV een Nota Dierenwelzijn aan aan de Tweede Kamer. In dit rapport worden daarvoor een aantal bouwstenen op het terrein van landbouwhuisdieren en paarden aangereikt, te weten: 1) Beschouwing over overeenkomsten en verschillen in perceptie van dierenwelzijn vanuit een maatschappelijke en een dierwetenschappelijke invalshoek. 2) Inventarisatie van de grootste welzijnsknelpunten, nadere prioritering van ongerief bij runderen, varkens, pluimvee, nertsen en paarden en mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen. 3) Een analyse hoe bij runderen, varkens en pluimvee ingrepen als onthoornen, castreren, staarten couperen en snavelkappen overbodig of minder 'ingrijpend' gemaakt kunnen worden. 4) Een plan voor integraal ontwerpen voor die sectoren waar dat het meest noodzakelijk is.
    Economische verkenning van sanering van de nertsenhouderij in Nederland
    Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Vermeij, I. - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI - 27
    pelsdierhouderij - pelsdieren - nerts - bedrijfsbeëindiging in de landbouw - afvloeiingsuitkeringen - nadelige gevolgen - economie - wetgeving - schrijven van een voorstel - Nederland - fur farming - furbearing animals - mink - farm closures - severance allowances - adverse effects - economics - legislation - proposal writing - Netherlands
    De Socialistische Partij (SP) heeft een initiatiefwetsvoorstel opgesteld om het houden van nertsen in Nederland te verbieden. In dit licht zal ook een eventuele schadeloosstelling voor individuele ondernemers in de sector aan de orde komen. De inhoud van dit initiatiefwetsvoorstel is niet openbaar. De gehanteerde veronderstellingen in deze studie wijken daardoor waarschijnlijk af van het initiatiefwetsvoorstel. Anticiperend op de behandeling van het wetsvoorstel in de Tweede Kamer heeft het Ministerie van LNV aan het LEI een onderzoeksopdracht verstrekt inzake de economische consequenties van een eventueel verbod op het houden van nertsen in Nederland
    Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds
    Havé, H. D'; Scheirs, J. ; Covaci, A. ; Brink, N.W. van den; Verhagen, R. ; Coen, W. De - \ 2007
    Environmental Pollution 145 (2007)3. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 861 - 868.
    persistent organic pollutants - mammals - pcbs - mink - bioavailability - indicator - fate
    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), by investigating concentrations of these compounds in soils and hedgehog hair from seven study sites around the urban area of Antwerp, Belgium. No relationships were observed between organochlorine compound concentrations in soils and hair from the different study areas. Furthermore, the individual variation of contamination levels in hair within study sites was high, especially for HCHs and HCB, and hair and soil had different relative profiles for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs. Our results show that concentrations of organochlorine compounds in soils alone are not predictive of the risk of these pollutants to hedgehogs and that tissue analyses are preferred to soil analyses in exposure and risk assessment studies.
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