Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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QTL and candidate genes associated with leaf anion concentrations in response to phosphate supply in Arabidopsis thaliana
El-Soda, Mohamed ; Neris Moreira, Charles ; Goredema-Matongera, Nakai ; Jamar, Diaan ; Koornneef, Maarten ; Aarts, Mark G.M. - \ 2019
BMC Plant Biology 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2229
Anion concentration - Phosphate deficiency - QTL and association mapping - QTL x E

Background: Phosphorus is often present naturally in the soil as inorganic phosphate, Pi, which bio-availability is limited in many ecosystems due to low soil solubility and mobility. Plants respond to low Pi with a Pi Starvation Response, involving Pi sensing and long-distance signalling. There is extensive cross-talk between Pi homeostasis mechanisms and the homeostasis mechanism for other anions in response to Pi availability. Results: Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) and Genome Wide Association (GWA) mapping populations, derived from or composed of natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, were grown under sufficient and deficient Pi supply. Significant treatment effects were found for all traits and significant genotype x treatment interactions for the leaf Pi and sulphate concentrations. Using the RIL/QTL population, we identified 24 QTLs for leaf concentrations of Pi and other anions, including a major QTL for leaf sulphate concentration (SUL2) mapped to the bottom of chromosome (Chr) 1. GWA mapping found 188 SNPs to be associated with the measured traits, corresponding to 152 genes. One of these SNPs, associated with leaf Pi concentration, mapped to PP2A-1, a gene encoding an isoform of the catalytic subunit of a protein phosphatase 2A. Of two additional SNPs, associated with phosphate use efficiency (PUE), one mapped to AT5G49780, encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein kinase involved in signal transduction, and the other to SIZ1, a gene encoding a SUMO E3 ligase, and a known regulator of P starvation-dependent responses. One SNP associated with leaf sulphate concentration was found in SULTR2;1, encoding a sulphate transporter, known to enhance sulphate translocation from root to shoot under P deficiency. Finally, one SNP was mapped to FMO GS-OX4, a gene encoding glucosinolate S-oxygenase involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis, which located within the confidence interval of the SUL2 locus. Conclusion: We identified several candidate genes with known functions related to anion homeostasis in response to Pi availability. Further molecular studies are needed to confirm and validate these candidate genes and understand their roles in examined traits. Such knowledge will contribute to future breeding for improved crop PUE.

Enhanced tomato plant growth in soil under reduced P supply through microbial inoculants and microbiome shifts
Eltlbany, Namis ; Baklawa, Mohamed ; Ding, Guo Chun ; Nassal, Dinah ; Weber, Nino ; Kandeler, Ellen ; Neumann, Günter ; Ludewig, Uwe ; Overbeek, Leo van; Smalla, Kornelia - \ 2019
FEMS microbiology ecology 95 (2019)9. - ISSN 0168-6496 - 14 p.
Bacillus - Pseudomonas - Trichoderma - microbiome shifts - nutrient accumulation - rhizocompetence - soil enzymes

Soil microbial communities interact with roots, affecting plant growth and nutrient acquisition. In the present study, we aimed to decipher the effects of the inoculants Trichoderma harzianum T-22, Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ 13134, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 or Pseudomonas sp. RU47 on the rhizosphere microbial community and their beneficial effects on tomato plants grown in moderately low phosphorous soil under greenhouse conditions. We analyzed the plant mass, inoculant colony forming units and rhizosphere communities on 15, 22, 29 and 43 days after sowing. Selective plating showed that the bacterial inoculants had a good rhizocompetence and accelerated shoot and root growth and nutrient accumulation. 16S rRNA gene fingerprints indicated changes in the rhizosphere bacterial community composition. Amplicon sequencing revealed that rhizosphere bacterial communities from plants treated with bacterial inoculants were more similar to each other and distinct from those of the control and the Trichoderma inoculated plants at harvest time, and numerous dynamic taxa were identified. In conclusion, likely both, inoculants and the rhizosphere microbiome shifts, stimulated early plant growth mainly by improved spatial acquisition of available nutrients via root growth promotion. At harvest, all tomato plants were P-deficient, suggesting a limited contribution of inoculants and the microbiome shifts to the solubilization of sparingly soluble soil P.

Frankincense in peril
Bongers, Frans ; Groenendijk, Peter ; Bekele, Tesfaye ; Birhane, Emiru ; Damtew, Abebe ; Decuyper, Mathieu ; Eshete, Abeje ; Gezahgne, Alemu ; Girma, Atkilt ; Khamis, Mohamed A. ; Lemenih, Mulugeta ; Mengistu, Tefera ; Ogbazghi, Woldeselassie ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute ; Tadesse, Wubalem ; Teshome, Mindaye ; Tolera, Motuma ; Sterck, Frank J. ; Zuidema, Pieter A. - \ 2019
Nature Sustainability 2 (2019). - ISSN 2398-9629 - p. 602 - 610.
The harvest of plant parts and exudates from wild populations contributes to the income, food security and livelihoods of many millions of people worldwide. Frankincense, an aromatic resin sourced from natural populations of Boswellia trees and shrubs, has been cherished by world societies for centuries. Boswellia populations are threatened by over-exploitation and ecosystem degradation, jeopardizing future resin production. Here, we reveal evidence of population collapse of B. papyrifera—now the main source of frankincense—throughout its geographic range. Using inventories of 23 populations consisting of 21,786 trees, growth-ring data from 202 trees and demographic models on the basis of 7,246 trees, we find that over 75% of studied populations lack small trees, natural regeneration has been absent for decades, and projected frankincense production will be halved in 20 yr. These changes are caused by increased human population pressure on Boswellia woodlands through cattle grazing, frequent burns and reckless tapping. A literature review showed that other Boswellia species experience similar threats. Populations can be restored by establishing cattle exclosures and fire-breaks, and by planting trees and tapping trees more carefully. Concerted conservation and restoration efforts are urgently needed to secure the long-term availability of this iconic product.
CENTRORADIALIS Interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Genes to Control Floret Development and Grain Number
Bi, Xiaojing ; Esse, Wilma van; Mulki, Mohamed Aman ; Kirschner, Gwendolyn ; Zhong, Jinshun ; Simon, Rüdiger ; Korff, Maria von - \ 2019
Plant Physiology 180 (2019)2. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1013 - 1030.

CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) is a key regulator of flowering time and inflorescence architecture in plants. Natural variation in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) homolog HvCEN is important for agricultural range expansion of barley cultivation, but its effects on shoot and spike architecture and consequently yield have not yet been characterized. Here, we evaluated 23 independent hvcen, also termed mat-c, mutants to determine the pleiotropic effects of HvCEN on developmental timing and shoot and spike morphologies of barley under outdoor and controlled conditions. All hvcen mutants flowered early and showed a reduction in spikelet number per spike, tiller number, and yield in the outdoor experiments. Mutations in hvcen accelerated spikelet initiation and reduced axillary bud number in a photoperiod-independent manner but promoted floret development only under long days (LDs). The analysis of a flowering locus t3 (hvft3) hvcen double mutant showed that HvCEN interacts with HvFT3 to control spikelet initiation. Furthermore, early flowering3 (hvelf3) hvcen double mutants with high HvFT1 expression levels under short days suggested that HvCEN interacts with HvFT1 to repress floral development. Global transcriptome profiling in developing shoot apices and inflorescences of mutant and wild-type plants revealed that HvCEN controlled transcripts involved in chromatin remodeling activities, cytokinin and cell cycle regulation and cellular respiration under LDs and short days, whereas HvCEN affected floral homeotic genes only under LDs. Understanding the stage and organ-specific functions of HvCEN and downstream molecular networks will allow the manipulation of different shoot and spike traits and thereby yield.

Assessing the impact of climate change on rainwater harvesting in the Oum Zessar watershed in Southeastern Tunisia
Adham, Ammar ; Wesseling, Jan G. ; Abed, Rasha ; Riksen, Michel ; Ouessar, Mohamed ; Ritsema, Coen J. - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 221 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 131 - 140.
Climate change - GCMs - SDSM - Tunisia - Water harvesting model

Climate change is believed to have a large impact on water resources system both globally and regionally. It has become a major global issue, especially in developing countries because these are most affected by its impacts. Rainwater harvesting techniques offer an alternative source of water and represent specific adaptive strategies to cope with water scarcity within future climate change. Studying the impact of climate change on rainwater harvesting techniques, however, is difficult, because the general circulation models (GCMs) which are widely used to simulate scenarios of future climate change operate on a coarse scale. We estimated the impact of climate change on water availability at the watershed level by downscaling precipitation and temperature from the GCMs using a statistical downscaling model. A water harvesting model then assessed the performance of the rainwater harvesting techniques for the Oum Zessar watershed in southeastern Tunisia under current climatic conditions and scenarios of future climate change. Annual temperature tended to increase and precipitation tended to decrease. These changes of climatic variables were used in the water harvesting model to simulate future water availability. Changing the directions of water flow between sub-catchments in combination with changing the spillway heights strongly affected the performance of rainwater harvesting under the scenarios of future climate, resulting in a sufficient water supply for 92% of all sub-catchments, compared to 72% without these changes.

sPlot – A new tool for global vegetation analyses
Bruelheide, Helge ; Dengler, Jürgen ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Purschke, Oliver ; Hennekens, Stephan M. ; Chytrý, Milan ; Pillar, Valério D. ; Jansen, Florian ; Kattge, Jens ; Sandel, Brody ; Aubin, Isabelle ; Biurrun, Idoia ; Field, Richard ; Haider, Sylvia ; Jandt, Ute ; Lenoir, Jonathan ; Peet, Robert K. ; Peyre, Gwendolyn ; Sabatini, Francesco Maria ; Schmidt, Marco ; Schrodt, Franziska ; Winter, Marten ; Aćić, Svetlana ; Agrillo, Emiliano ; Alvarez, Miguel ; Ambarlı, Didem ; Angelini, Pierangela ; Apostolova, Iva ; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A.S. ; Arnst, Elise ; Attorre, Fabio ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Beckmann, Michael ; Berg, Christian ; Bergeron, Yves ; Bergmeier, Erwin ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Bondareva, Viktoria ; Borchardt, Peter ; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán ; Boyle, Brad ; Breen, Amy ; Brisse, Henry ; Byun, Chaeho ; Cabido, Marcelo R. ; Casella, Laura ; Cayuela, Luis ; Černý, Tomáš ; Chepinoga, Victor ; Csiky, János ; Curran, Michael ; Ćušterevska, Renata ; Dajić Stevanović, Zora ; Bie, Els De; Ruffray, Patrice de; Sanctis, Michele De; Dimopoulos, Panayotis ; Dressler, Stefan ; Ejrnæs, Rasmus ; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.E.R.M. ; Enquist, Brian ; Ewald, Jörg ; Fagúndez, Jaime ; Finckh, Manfred ; Font, Xavier ; Forey, Estelle ; Fotiadis, Georgios ; García-Mijangos, Itziar ; Gasper, André Luis de; Golub, Valentin ; Gutierrez, Alvaro G. ; Hatim, Mohamed Z. ; He, Tianhua ; Higuchi, Pedro ; Holubová, Dana ; Hölzel, Norbert ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Indreica, Adrian ; Işık Gürsoy, Deniz ; Jansen, Steven ; Janssen, John ; Jedrzejek, Birgit ; Jiroušek, Martin ; Jürgens, Norbert ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Kavgacı, Ali ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kessler, Michael ; Knollová, Ilona ; Kolomiychuk, Vitaliy ; Korolyuk, Andrey ; Kozhevnikova, Maria ; Kozub, Łukasz ; Krstonošić, Daniel ; Kühl, Hjalmar ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Kuzemko, Anna ; Küzmič, Filip ; Landucci, Flavia ; Lee, Michael T. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Li, Ching Feng ; Liu, Hongyan ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lysenko, Tatiana ; Macanović, Armin ; Mahdavi, Parastoo ; Manning, Peter ; Marcenò, Corrado ; Martynenko, Vassiliy ; Mencuccini, Maurizio ; Minden, Vanessa ; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold ; Moretti, Marco ; Müller, Jonas V. ; Munzinger, Jérôme ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Nobis, Marcin ; Noroozi, Jalil ; Nowak, Arkadiusz ; Onyshchenko, Viktor ; Overbeck, Gerhard E. ; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Pauchard, Anibal ; Pedashenko, Hristo ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Pérez-Haase, Aaron ; Peterka, Tomáš ; Petřík, Petr ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Prokhorov, Vadim ; Rašomavičius, Valerijus ; Revermann, Rasmus ; Rodwell, John ; Ruprecht, Eszter ; Rūsiņa, Solvita ; Samimi, Cyrus ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Schmiedel, Ute ; Šibík, Jozef ; Šilc, Urban ; Škvorc, Željko ; Smyth, Anita ; Sop, Tenekwetche ; Sopotlieva, Desislava ; Sparrow, Ben ; Stančić, Zvjezdana ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Swacha, Grzegorz ; Tang, Zhiyao ; Tsiripidis, Ioannis ; Turtureanu, Pavel Dan ; Uğurlu, Emin ; Uogintas, Domas ; Valachovič, Milan ; Vanselow, Kim André ; Vashenyak, Yulia ; Vassilev, Kiril ; Vélez-Martin, Eduardo ; Venanzoni, Roberto ; Vibrans, Alexander Christian ; Violle, Cyrille ; Virtanen, Risto ; Wehrden, Henrik von; Wagner, Viktoria ; Walker, Donald A. ; Wana, Desalegn ; Weiher, Evan ; Wesche, Karsten ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Willner, Wolfgang ; Wiser, Susan ; Wohlgemuth, Thomas ; Yamalov, Sergey ; Zizka, Georg ; Zverev, Andrei - \ 2019
Journal of Vegetation Science 30 (2019)2. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 161 - 186.
biodiversity - community ecology - ecoinformatics - functional diversity - global scale - macroecology - phylogenetic diversity - plot database - sPlot - taxonomic diversity - vascular plant - vegetation relevé

Aims: Vegetation-plot records provide information on the presence and cover or abundance of plants co-occurring in the same community. Vegetation-plot data are spread across research groups, environmental agencies and biodiversity research centers and, thus, are rarely accessible at continental or global scales. Here we present the sPlot database, which collates vegetation plots worldwide to allow for the exploration of global patterns in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity at the plant community level. Results: sPlot version 2.1 contains records from 1,121,244 vegetation plots, which comprise 23,586,216 records of plant species and their relative cover or abundance in plots collected worldwide between 1885 and 2015. We complemented the information for each plot by retrieving climate and soil conditions and the biogeographic context (e.g., biomes) from external sources, and by calculating community-weighted means and variances of traits using gap-filled data from the global plant trait database TRY. Moreover, we created a phylogenetic tree for 50,167 out of the 54,519 species identified in the plots. We present the first maps of global patterns of community richness and community-weighted means of key traits. Conclusions: The availability of vegetation plot data in sPlot offers new avenues for vegetation analysis at the global scale.

Nurturing Children's Healthy Eating : Position statement
Haines, Jess ; Haycraft, Emma ; Lytle, Leslie ; Nicklaus, Sophie ; Kok, Frans J. ; Merdji, Mohamed ; Fisberg, Mauro ; Moreno, Luis A. ; Goulet, Olivier ; Hughes, Sheryl O. - \ 2019
Appetite 137 (2019). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 124 - 133.
Adolescents - Children - Eating habits - Feeding practices - Feeding style - Pleasure of eating

The relationship between eating a healthy diet and positive health outcomes is well known; nurturing healthy eating among children therefore has the potential to improve public health. A healthy diet occurs when one's usual eating patterns include adequate nutrient intake and sufficient, but not excessive, energy intake to meet the energy needs of the individual. However, many parents struggle to establish healthy eating patterns in their children due to the pressures of modern life. Moreover, healthcare providers often do not have the time or the guidance they need to empower parents to establish healthy eating practices in their children. Based on existing evidence from epidemiologic and intervention research, the Nurturing Children's Healthy Eating collaboration, established by Danone Institute International, has identified four key themes that encourage and support healthy eating practices among children in the modern Western world. The first — positive parental feeding — explores how parenting practices and styles, such as avoiding food restriction, allowing children to make their own food choices, and encouraging children to self-limit their portion sizes, can influence children's dietary intake. The second — eating together — highlights the link between eating socialization through regular family meals and healthful diet among children. The third — a healthy home food environment — explores the impact on eating practices of family resources, food availability/accessibility, parental modeling, and cues for eating. The fourth — the pleasure of eating — associates children's healthy eating with pleasure through repeated exposure to healthful foods, enjoyable social meals, and enhancement of the cognitive qualities (e.g. thoughts or ideas) of healthful foods. This paper reviews the evidence leading to the characterization of these nurturing themes, and ways in which recommendations might be implemented in the home.

Microplastics in freshwaters and drinking water: Critical review and assessment of data quality
Koelmans, Albert A. ; Mohamed Nor, Nur Hazimah ; Hermsen, Enya ; Kooi, Merel ; Mintenig, Svenja M. ; France, Jennifer De - \ 2019
Water Research 155 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 410 - 422.
Drinking water - Human health - Microplastics - Surface water - Waste water
Microplastics have recently been detected in drinking water as well as in drinking water sources. This presence has triggered discussions on possible implications for human health. However, there have been questions regarding the quality of these occurrence studies since there are no standard sampling, extraction and identification methods for microplastics. Accordingly, we assessed the quality of fifty studies researching microplastics in drinking water and in its major freshwater sources. This includes an assessment of microplastic occurrence data from river and lake water, groundwater, tap water and bottled drinking water. Studies of occurrence in wastewater were also reviewed. We review and propose best practices to sample, extract and detect microplastics and provide a quantitative quality assessment of studies reporting microplastic concentrations. Further, we summarize the findings related to microplastic concentrations, polymer types and particle shapes. Microplastics are frequently present in freshwaters and drinking water, and number concentrations spanned ten orders of magnitude (1 × 10−2to 108#/m3) across individual samples and water types. However, only four out of 50 studies received positive scores for all proposed quality criteria, implying there is a significant need to improve quality assurance of microplastic sampling and analysis in water samples. The order in globally detected polymers in these studies is PE ≈ PP > PS > PVC > PET, which probably reflects the global plastic demand and a higher tendency for PVC and PET to settle as a result of their higher densities. Fragments, fibres, film, foam and pellets were the most frequently reported shapes. We conclude that more high quality data is needed on the occurrence of microplastics in drinking water, to better understand potential exposure and to inform human health risk assessments.
Straightforward Regeneration of Reduced Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Required for Enzymatic Tryptophan Halogenation
Ismail, Mohamed ; Schroeder, Lea ; Frese, Marcel ; Kottke, Tilman ; Hollmann, Frank ; Paul, Caroline E. ; Sewald, Norbert - \ 2019
ACS Catalysis 9 (2019)2. - ISSN 2155-5435 - p. 1389 - 1395.
enzymatic cofactor regeneration - FADH - flavin-dependent halogenases - hydride transfer - NADH mimics - regioselective chlorination

Flavin-dependent halogenases are known to regioselectively introduce halide substituents into aromatic moieties, for example, the indole ring of tryptophan. The process requires halide salts and oxygen instead of molecular halogen in the chemical halogenation. However, the reduced cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) has to be regenerated using a flavin reductase. Consequently, coupled biocatalytic steps are usually applied for cofactor regeneration. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) mimics can be employed stoichiometrically to replace enzymatic cofactor regeneration in biocatalytic halogenation. Chlorination of l-tryptophan is successfully performed using such NADH mimics. The efficiency of this approach has been compared to the previously established enzymatic regeneration system using the two auxiliary enzymes flavin reductase (PrnF) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The reaction rates of some of the tested mimics were found to exceed that of the enzymatic system. Continuous enzymatic halogenation reaction for reaction scale-up is also possible.

Climate change impact and adaptation for wheat protein
Asseng, Senthold ; Martre, Pierre ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Rötter, Reimund P. ; O’Leary, Garry J. ; Fitzgerald, Glenn J. ; Girousse, Christine ; Motzo, Rosella ; Giunta, Francesco ; Babar, M.A. ; Reynolds, Matthew P. ; Kheir, Ahmed M.S. ; Thorburn, Peter J. ; Waha, Katharina ; Ruane, Alex C. ; Aggarwal, Pramod K. ; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Balkovič, Juraj ; Basso, Bruno ; Biernath, Christian ; Bindi, Marco ; Cammarano, Davide ; Challinor, Andrew J. ; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Dumont, Benjamin ; Eyshi Rezaei, Ehsan ; Fereres, Elias ; Ferrise, Roberto ; Garcia-Vila, Margarita ; Gayler, Sebastian ; Gao, Yujing ; Horan, Heidi ; Hoogenboom, Gerrit ; Izaurralde, R.C. ; Jabloun, Mohamed ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Kassie, Belay T. ; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian ; Klein, Christian ; Koehler, Ann Kristin ; Liu, Bing ; Minoli, Sara ; Montesino San Martin, Manuel ; Müller, Christoph ; Naresh Kumar, Soora ; Supit, Iwan ; Tao, Fulu ; Wolf, Joost ; Zhang, Zhao ; Ewert, Frank - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 155 - 173.
climate change adaptation - climate change impact - food security - grain protein - wheat

Wheat grain protein concentration is an important determinant of wheat quality for human nutrition that is often overlooked in efforts to improve crop production. We tested and applied a 32-multi-model ensemble to simulate global wheat yield and quality in a changing climate. Potential benefits of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration by 2050 on global wheat grain and protein yield are likely to be negated by impacts from rising temperature and changes in rainfall, but with considerable disparities between regions. Grain and protein yields are expected to be lower and more variable in most low-rainfall regions, with nitrogen availability limiting growth stimulus from elevated CO2. Introducing genotypes adapted to warmer temperatures (and also considering changes in CO2 and rainfall) could boost global wheat yield by 7% and protein yield by 2%, but grain protein concentration would be reduced by −1.1 percentage points, representing a relative change of −8.6%. Climate change adaptations that benefit grain yield are not always positive for grain quality, putting additional pressure on global wheat production.

Transfer of PCBs from microplastics under simulated gut fluid conditions is biphasic and reversible
Mohamed Nor, Hazimah ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)4. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 1874 - 1883.
The role of plastic as a vector for bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals is central to the risk assessment of microplastic for human health and the environment. However, transfer kinetics of sorbed contaminants from ingested microplastics are poorly understood. We develop and parameterise a chemical exchange model on microplastics in a gut fluid mimic of aquatic biota, and also included food to provide a better representation of contaminant dynamics when plastic and food are ingested, as would occur in nature. The transfer kinetics of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in gut fluid mimic systems under three environmentally relevant exposure scenarios of plastic ingestion by organisms, for low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and were evaluated with the model. Chemical transfer was demonstrated to be biphasic and fully reversible, with fast exchange within hours followed by a slow transfer lasting for weeks to months. In clean gut systems, the bioavailability of plastic-associated PCBs for lugworms and cod ranged from 14-42% and 45-83% respectively. However, in contaminated gut systems, clean microplastic was capable of rapidly extracting (‘cleaning’) PCBs from food inside the gut, thus demonstrating that the effect of microplastic is context dependent. Therefore, chemical contamination and cleaning are likely to occur simultaneously due to the ingestion of microplastic.
Satellite and in situ observations for advancing global earth surface modelling : A review
Balsamo, Gianpaolo ; Agusti-Panareda, Anna ; Albergel, Clement ; Arduini, Gabriele ; Beljaars, Anton ; Bidlot, Jean ; Bousserez, Nicolas ; Boussetta, Souhail ; Brown, Andy ; Buizza, Roberto ; Buontempo, Carlo ; Chevallier, Frederic ; Choulga, Margarita ; Cloke, Hannah ; Cronin, Meghan F. ; Dahoui, Mohamed ; Rosnay, Patricia De ; Dirmeyer, Paul A. ; Drusch, Matthias ; Dutra, Emanuel ; Ek, Michael B. ; Gentine, Pierre ; Hewitt, Helene ; Keeley, Sarah P.E. ; Kerr, Yann ; Kumar, Sujay ; Lupu, Cristina ; Mahfouf, Jean Francois ; McNorton, Joe ; Mecklenburg, Susanne ; Mogensen, Kristian ; Muñoz-Sabater, Joaquín ; Orth, Rene ; Rabier, Florence ; Reichle, Rolf ; Ruston, Ben ; Pappenberger, Florian ; Sandu, Irina ; Seneviratne, Sonia I. ; Tietsche, Steffen ; Trigo, Isabel F. ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Wedi, Nils ; Woolway, R.I. ; Zeng, Xubin - \ 2018
Remote Sensing 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2072-4292
Direct and inverse methods - Earth system modelling - Earth-observations

In this paper, we review the use of satellite-based remote sensing in combination with in situ data to inform Earth surface modelling. This involves verification and optimization methods that can handle both random and systematic errors and result in effective model improvement for both surface monitoring and prediction applications. The reasons for diverse remote sensing data and products include (i) their complementary areal and temporal coverage, (ii) their diverse and covariant information content, and (iii) their ability to complement in situ observations, which are often sparse and only locally representative. To improve our understanding of the complex behavior of the Earth system at the surface and sub-surface, we need large volumes of data from high-resolution modelling and remote sensing, since the Earth surface exhibits a high degree of heterogeneity and discontinuities in space and time. The spatial and temporal variability of the biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and anthroposphere calls for an increased use of Earth observation (EO) data attaining volumes previously considered prohibitive. We review data availability and discuss recent examples where satellite remote sensing is used to infer observable surface quantities directly or indirectly, with particular emphasis on key parameters necessary for weather and climate prediction. Coordinated high-resolution remote-sensing and modelling/assimilation capabilities for the Earth surface are required to support an international application-focused effort.

Effects of waste stream combinations from brewing industry on performance of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
Chia, Shaphan Y. ; Tanga, Chrysantus M. ; Osuga, Isaac M. ; Mohamed, Samira A. ; Khamis, Fathiya M. ; Salifu, Daisy ; Sevgan, Subramanian ; Fiaboe, Komi K.M. ; Niassy, Saliou ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel ; Ekesi, Sunday - \ 2018
PeerJ 2018 (2018)11. - ISSN 2167-8359
Agro-industrial by-products - Hermetia illucens - Mass rearing - Net energy - Protein quality - Quality control parameters

Background: In recent years, there has been a rapidly growing demand for readily accessible substrates for mass production of Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens Linnaeus. Beer production results in various by-products that typically end up in uncontrolled dumpsites constituting pollution problems, which merits urgent attention. The present study investigated whether the 12 formulated diets composed of brewers’ spent grains (BSGs), brewers’ yeast and cane molasses can serve as substrate for H. illucens production. Methods: Four different BSGs were selected and formulated into 12 diets, aiming at varying protein and net energy levels. The diets were offered to newly hatched (∼1 h old) H. illucens larvae and the influence on developmental duration, survival, wet weight, pre-oviposition time, fecundity, and longevity were compared. Results: Developmental duration of the larvae (16–21 days) and pre-pupae (8–11 days) differed significantly across the different diets. The developmental duration of the pupae (8.7–9.1 days) was not affected by diet. The larval (86–99.2%), pre-pupal (71–95%), and pupal (65–91%) survival rates varied significantly between flies reared on the different diets. The pre-oviposition time was similar for flies provided with water (7–11 days) and 10% sugar solution (8–14 days) or across the different diets. The mean fecundity per female ranged from 324–787 eggs and did not differ between females provided with water or sugar solution. However, the number of eggs laid per female varied significantly across the different diets when provided with water. The longevity of starved H. illucens adults was significantly lower (5 days) compared to those provided with water (11–14 days) or sugar solution (14–15 days). Discussion: The implications of these findings as part of a quality control procedure for commercial production of high-quality H. illucens larvae as an alternative protein ingredient in livestock and aquaculture feed are discussed.

Microalgae-bacteria interactions: a key for improving water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems?
Ramli, Norulhuda Mohamed - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.A.J. Verreth, co-promotor(en): M.C.J. Verdegem; F.M. Yusoff. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463433754 - 145
Threshold temperatures and thermal requirements of black soldier fly Hermetia illucens : Implications for mass production
Chia, Shaphan Yong ; Tanga, Chrysantus Mbi ; Khamis, Fathiya M. ; Mohamed, Samira A. ; Salifu, Daisy ; Sevgan, Subramanian ; Fiaboe, Komi K.M. ; Niassy, Saliou ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel ; Ekesi, Sunday - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)11. - ISSN 1932-6203

Efforts to recycle organic wastes using black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens into high-nutrient biomass that constitutes a sustainable fat (biodiesel) and high-quality protein ingredient in animal feeds have recently gained momentum worldwide. However, there is little information on the most suitable rearing conditions for growth, development and survivorship of these flies, which is a prerequisite for mass production technologies. We evaluated the physiological requirements for growth and reproduction of H. illucens on two diets [spent grains supplemented with brewers' yeast (D1) and un-supplemented (D2)]. Development rates at nine constant temperatures (10-42°C) were fitted to temperature-dependent linear and non-linear day-degree models. Thereafter, life history table parameters were determined within a range of favourable temperatures. The thermal maximum (TM) estimates for larval, pre-pupal and pupal development using non-linear model ranged between 37.2 ± 0.3 and 44.0 ± 2.3°C. The non-linear and linear day-degree model estimations of lower developmental temperature threshold for larvae were 11.7 ± 0.9 and 12.3 ± 1.4°C for D1, and 10.4 ± 1.7 and 11.7 ± 3.0°C for D2, respectively. The estimated thermal constant of immature life stages development of BSF was higher for the larval stage (250±25 DD for D1 and 333±51 for D2) than the other stages evaluated. Final larval wet weight was higher on D1 compared to D2. The population growth rate was most favourable at 30-degree celsius (°C) with higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm = 0.127 for D1 and 0.122 for D2) and shorter doubling time (5.5 days for D1 and 5.7 days for D2) compared to the other temperatures. These results are valuable for the optimization of commercial mass rearing procedures of BSF under various environmental conditions and prediction of population dynamics patterns using computer simulation models.

Effects of Stigeoclonium nanum, a freshwater periphytic microalga on water quality in a small-scale recirculating aquaculture system
Mohamed Ramli, Norulhuda ; Yusoff, Fatimah M. ; Giatsis, Christos ; Tan, Geok Yuan A. ; Verreth, Johan A.J. ; Verdegem, Marc C.J. - \ 2018
Aquaculture Research 49 (2018)11. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 3529 - 3540.
ammonia - bacterial community - microalgae - nitrate - recirculating aquaculture system - Stigeoclonium nanum - water quality

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are becoming important for aquaculture due to land and water supply limitations and due to their low environmental impact. Bacteria are important in RAS as their role in nutrient recycling has been the main mechanism for waste removal in these systems. Besides bacteria, the presence of microalgae can benefit the water quality through the absorption of inorganic nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) and phosphorus from the water. However, reports on the inclusion of microalgae in RAS are very scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of microalgae on water quality (total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate) and bacterial composition in a freshwater small-scale RAS. A periphytic microalga, Stigeoclonium nanum, was used in this study. A rapid fingerprint analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), was used to determine the bacterial community composition in the water. The results showed that ammonia concentrations were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between RAS with microalgae (RAS+A) and RAS without microalgae (RAS-A). However, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate were significantly lower in the RAS+A than the RAS-A (p < 0.05). Pielou's evenness and Shannon diversity index of bacterial community between the treatments were not different (p > 0.05); however, the bacterial composition between the treatments was significantly different (p < 0.05).

A GIS-based approach for identifying potential sites for harvesting rainwater in the Western Desert of Iraq
Adham, Ammar ; Sayl, Khamis Naba ; Abed, Rasha ; Abdeladhim, Mohamed Arbi ; Wesseling, Jan G. ; Riksen, Michel ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Karim, Usama ; Ritsema, Coen J. - \ 2018
International Soil and Water Conservation Research 6 (2018)4. - ISSN 2095-6339 - p. 297 - 304.
GIS - Iraq's western desert - Rainwater harvesting - Suitability map

People living in arid and semi-arid areas with highly variable rainfall and unforeseeable periods of droughts or floods are severely affected by water shortages and often have insecure livelihoods. The construction of dams in wadies to harvest rainwater from small watersheds and to induce artificial groundwater recharge is one of the solutions available to overcome water shortages in the Western Desert of Iraq. The success of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems depends heavily on their technical design and on the identification of suitable sites. Our main goal was to identify suitable sites for dams using a suitability model created with ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10.2. The model combined various biophysical factors: slope, runoff depth, land use, soil texture, and stream order. The suitability map should be useful to hydrologists, decision-makers, and planners for quickly identifying areas with the highest potential for harvesting rainwater. The implementation of this method should also support any policy shifts towards the widespread adoption of RWH.

Nanosheets of Nonlayered Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks through a Surfactant-Assisted Method
Pustovarenko, Alexey ; Goesten, Maarten G. ; Sachdeva, Sumit ; Shan, Meixia ; Amghouz, Zakariae ; Belmabkhout, Youssef ; Dikhtiarenko, Alla ; Rodenas, Tania ; Keskin, Damla ; Voets, Ilja K. ; Weckhuysen, Bert M. ; Eddaoudi, Mohamed ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Kapteijn, Freek ; Seoane, Beatriz ; Gascon, Jorge - \ 2018
Advanced Materials 30 (2018)26. - ISSN 0935-9648
Chemical sensing - Crystal design - Gas separation - Metal-organic framework nanolamellae - Molecular recognition

During the last decade, the synthesis and application of metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets has received growing interest, showing unique performances for different technological applications. Despite the potential of this type of nanolamellar materials, the synthetic routes developed so far are restricted to MOFs possessing layered structures, limiting further development in this field. Here, a bottom-up surfactant-assisted synthetic approach is presented for the fabrication of nanosheets of various nonlayered MOFs, broadening the scope of MOF nanosheets application. Surfactant-assisted preorganization of the metallic precursor prior to MOF synthesis enables the manufacture of nonlayered Al-containing MOF lamellae. These MOF nanosheets are shown to exhibit a superior performance over other crystal morphologies for both chemical sensing and gas separation. As revealed by electron microscopy and diffraction, this superior performance arises from the shorter diffusion pathway in the MOF nanosheets, whose 1D channels are oriented along the shortest particle dimension.

Integrated technological and management solutions for wastewater treatment and efficient agricultural reuse in Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia : Solutions for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in North Africa
Frascari, Dario ; Zanaroli, Giulio ; Motaleb, Mohamed Abdel ; Annen, Giorgio ; Belguith, Khaoula ; Borin, Sara ; Choukr-Allah, Redouane ; Gibert, Catherine ; Jaouani, Atef ; Kalogerakis, Nicolas ; Karajeh, Fawzi ; Ker Rault, Philippe A. ; Khadra, Roula ; Kyriacou, Stathis ; Li, Wen-Tao ; Molle, Bruno ; Mulder, Marijn ; Oertlé, Emmanuel ; Ortega, Consuelo Varela - \ 2018
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 14 (2018)4. - ISSN 1551-3777 - p. 447 - 462.
Mediterranean‐African countries (MACs) face a major water crisis. The annual renewable water resources are close to the 500 m3/capita threshold of absolute water scarcity, and water withdrawals exceed total renewable water resources by 30%. Such a low water availability curbs economic development in agriculture, which accounts for 86% of freshwater consumption. The analysis of the current situation of wastewater treatment, irrigation, and water management in MACs and of the research projects targeted to these countries indicates the need for 1) an enhanced capacity to analyze water stress, 2) the development of water management strategies capable of including wastewater reuse, and 3) development of locally adapted water treatment and irrigation technologies. This analysis shaped the MADFORWATER project (, whose goal is to develop a set of integrated technological and management solutions to enhance wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse for irrigation, and water efficiency in agriculture in Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. MADFORWATER develops and adapts technologies for the production of irrigation‐quality water from drainage canals and municipal, agro‐industrial, and industrial wastewaters and technologies for water efficiency and reuse in agriculture, initially validated at laboratory scale, to 3 hydrological basins in the selected MACs. Selected technologies will be further adapted and validated in 4 demonstration plants of integrated wastewater treatment and reuse. Integrated strategies for wastewater treatment and reuse targeted to the selected basins are developed, and guidelines for the development of integrated water management strategies in other basins of the 3 target MACs will be produced. The social and technical suitability of the developed technologies and nontechnological tools in relation to the local context is evaluated with the participation of MAC stakeholders and partners. Guidelines on economic instruments and policies for the effective implementation of the proposed water management solutions in the target MACs will be developed.
The Hot Serial Cereal Experiment for modeling wheat response to temperature: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations
Martre, Pierre ; Kimball, Bruce A. ; Ottman, Michael J. ; Wall, Gerard W. ; White, Jeffrey W. ; Asseng, Senthold ; Ewert, Frank ; Cammarano, Davide ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Aggarwal, Pramod K. ; Anothai, Jakarat ; Basso, Bruno ; Biernath, Christian ; Challinor, Andrew J. ; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Doltra, Jordi ; Dumont, Benjamin ; Fereres, Elias ; Garcia-Vila, Margarita ; Gayler, Sebastian ; Hoogenboom, Gerrit ; Hunt, Leslie A. ; Izaurralde, Roberto C. ; Jabloun, Mohamed ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Kassie, Belay T. ; Kersebaum, Kurt C. ; Koehler, Ann-Kristin ; Müller, Christoph ; Kumar, Soora Naresh ; Liu, Bing ; Lobell, David B. ; Nendel, Claas ; O'Leary, Garry ; Olesen, Jørgen E. ; Palosuo, Taru ; Priesack, Eckart ; Rezaei, Ehsan Eyshi ; Ripoche, Dominique ; Rötter, Reimund P. ; Semenov, Mikhail A. ; Stöckle, Claudio ; Stratonovitch, Pierre ; Streck, Thilo ; Supit, Iwan ; Tao, Fulu ; Thorburn, Peter ; Waha, Katharina ; Wang, Enli ; Wolf, Joost ; Zhao, Zhigan ; Zhu, Yan - \ 2018
ODjAR : open data journal for agricultural research 4 (2018). - ISSN 2352-6378 - p. 28 - 34.
The data set reported here includes the part of a Hot Serial Cereal Experiment (HSC) experiment recently used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat models and quantify their response to temperature. The HSC experiment was conducted in an open-field in a semiarid environment in the southwest USA. The data reported herewith include one hard red spring wheat cultivar (Yecora Rojo) sown approximately every six weeks from December to August for a two-year period for a total of 11 planting dates out of the 15 of the entire HSC experiment. The treatments were chosen to avoid any effect of frost on grain yields. On late fall, winter and early spring plantings temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) apparatus utilizing infrared heaters with supplemental irrigation were used to increase air temperature by 1.3°C/2.7°C (day/night) with conditions equivalent to raising air temperature at constant relative humidity (i.e. as expected with global warming) during the whole crop growth cycle. Experimental data include local daily weather data, soil characteristics and initial conditions, detailed crop measurements taken at three growth stages during the growth cycle, and cultivar information. Simulations include both daily in-season and end-of-season results from 30 wheat models.
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