Water governance as a question of justice : Politics, rights, and representation
Roth, Dik ; Zwarteveen, Margreet ; Joy, K.J. ; Kulkarni, Seema - \ 2018
In: Water Justice / Boelens, Rutgerd, Perreault, Tom, Vos, Jeroen, Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107179080 - p. 43 - 58.
Introduction Policy discourses - at the heart of water governance - are seldom explicit about the distributional assumptions and consequences underlying water policies, technologies, and institutions. They treat water problems as natural problems affecting all of us, and proposed solutions are “rendered technical” (Li, 2007) or leave allocation to anonymous markets. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to recognize that water governance is significantly about justice. Therefore, this chapter shows how making water justice issues visible significantly hinges on defining water governance through water distribution and water rights (see also Zwarteveen, 2015). This starts by acknowledging and teasing out how the socio-environmental processes of change that water interventions (involving institutions, technologies and markets) entail alter existing water stocks, flows, quantity and quality, and create new access patterns and mechanisms, establish new rights and forms of in/exclusion, and thus new constellations of winners and losers (Swyngedouw and Heynen, 2003). Contestation and conflict are intrinsic to such changes, which is why “rational organization of dissent” (see Mollinga, 2008) is essential to water governance approaches that take justice seriously. Debate and disagreement may concern direct physical control over water resources; rules and laws governing water allocation, use and management; authority and power to define, decide upon, and enforce such rules; or the discourses and knowledge used to frame or make sense of society-water relations (Boelens and Zwarteveen, 2005; Zwarteveen et al., 2005).To understand water governance in terms of justice, we recognize that many current water governance reforms are part of broader capitalist transformation under globalization. Dominant water governance language and logic are so deeply infused with neoliberalism that it has become difficult to see and recognize them as part of an ideology or belief rather than a (natural or economic) given or a necessity (see Achterhuis et al., 2010; Ahlers and Zwarteveen, 2009; Boelens and Zwarteveen, 2005). The following section shows how India’s rapid economic growth is partly driven by equally rapid (although neither new nor recent) capitalization of nature, increasingly allocating water resources to supposedly more productive uses - industries and private companies - at the expense of supposedly less-productive users, including smallholder farmers or the urban poor. The state actively supports and facilitates this, reforming water law to standardize and privatize water rights (Cullet et al., 2010a).
Gender, migration and rural livelihoods in Uzbekistan in times of change
Nizamedinkhodjayeva, N. ; Bock, B.B. ; Mollinga, P.P. - \ 2017
In: Gender and rural globalization / Bock, Bettina Barbara, Shortall, Sally, CABI International - ISBN 9781780646251 - p. 34 - 51.
This chapter discusses how labour migration in rural Uzbekistan, which increased enormously in the aftermath of its independence, affects the livelihood of those who stay behind and how the importance of the economic contribution of labour migrants impacts on household relations in terms of gender and generation.
Ruling by canal: Governance and system-level design characteristics of large scale irrigation infrastructure in India and Uzbekistan
Mollinga, P. ; Veldwisch, G.J.A. - \ 2016
Water Alternatives 9 (2016)2. - ISSN 1965-0175 - p. 222 - 249.
This paper explores the relationship between governance regime and large-scale irrigation system design by investigating three cases: 1) protective irrigation design in post-independent South India; 2) canal irrigation system design in Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan, as implemented in the USSR period, and 3) canal design by the Madras Irrigation and Canal Company, as part of an experiment to do canal irrigation development in colonial India on commercial terms in the 1850s-1860s. The mutual shaping of irrigation infrastructure design characteristics on the one hand and management requirements and conditions on the other has been documented primarily at lower, within-system levels of the irrigation systems, notably at the level of division structures. Taking a 'social construction of technology' perspective, the paper analyses the relationship between technological structures and management and governance arrangements at irrigation system level. The paper finds qualitative differences in the infrastructural configuration of the three irrigation systems expressing and facilitating particular forms of governance and rule, differences that matter for management and use, and their effects and impacts.
Lost in transition? The introduction of water users associations in Uzbekistan
Veldwisch, G.J.A. ; Mollinga, P.P. - \ 2013
Water International 38 (2013)6. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 758 - 773.
management - policy
A "policy as process" perspective is adopted to analyze the early period of water users associations (WUAs) in Uzbekistan (2000–2006). The article is based on extensive fieldwork (in 2005–2006) and analysis of policy and other relevant documents. It is shown that WUAs have a role and logic beyond water management and are used by the state as instruments with which to monitor and regulate “state-ordered” agricultural production. Through a state-centric policy process with room for local experimentation, the WUA was fit into the socio-political landscape of continued state control and the increased role of individualized risks and benefits
Livelihood strategies : gender and generational specificities of rural levilihoods in transition
Nizamedinkhodjayeva, N. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): P.P. Mollinga; Bettina Bock. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734501 - 166
strategieën voor levensonderhoud - platteland - overgangseconomieën - cultuur - sociologie - geslacht (gender) - vrouwen - besluitvorming - landbouwhuishoudens - oezbekistan - centraal-azië - livelihood strategies - rural areas - transition economies - culture - sociology - gender - women - decision making - agricultural households - uzbekistan - central asia
|Boundary Concepts for the Interdiciplinary Analysis of irrigation Water Management in South Asia
Mollinga, P.P. - \ 2013
In: Controlling the Water. Matching Technology and Institutions in Irrigation Management in India and Nepal / Roth, D., Vincent, L.F., New Delhi : Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780198082927 - p. 342 - 365.
Correlation, causes and the logic of obscuration: Donor shaping of dominant narratives in Indonesia's irrigation development
Suhardiman, D. ; Mollinga, P.P. - \ 2012
Journal of Development Studies 48 (2012)7. - ISSN 0022-0388 - p. 923 - 938.
canal irrigation - foreign-aid - policy - philippines - management - system - model
This article analyses policy trends in Indonesian irrigation, particularly during the last five decades, from the perspective of dominant narratives, as authored, suggested and pushed by international donors. It argues that international donors' adherence to ‘deferred maintenance’ as the core element of irrigation policy problem framing does not match with farmers' and the irrigation agency staff perceptions and practices. The logic of obscuration and the discursive manoeuvers that maintain it are analysed. The article concludes that there is space for more profound conceptual contestation and for alternative actions pathways even within the ‘dominant paradigm’ to address management problems more effectively.
|Politics of Agricultural Water Management in Khorezm, Uzbekistan
Veldwisch, G.J.A. ; Mollinga, P.P. - \ 2011
In: Cotton, Water, Salts and Soums. Economic and Ecological Restructuring in Khorezm, Uzbekistan / Martuis, C., Rudenko, I., Lamers, J.P.A., Vlek, P.L.G., Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York : Springer - ISBN 9789400719620 - p. 127 - 140.
Hydraulic Bureaucracies and the Hydraulic Mission: Flows of Water, Flows of Power
Molle, F. ; Mollinga, P.P. ; Wester, P. - \ 2009
Water Alternatives 2 (2009)3. - ISSN 1965-0175 - p. 328 - 349.
Anchored in 19th century scientism and an ideology of the domination of nature, inspired by colonial hydraulic feats, and fuelled by technological improvements in high dam constructions and power generation and transmission, large-scale water resources development has been a defining feature of the 20th century. Whether out of a need to increase food production, raise rural incomes, or strengthen state building and the legitimacy of the state, governments – North and South, East and West – embraced the 'hydraulic mission' and entrusted it to powerful state water bureaucracies (hydrocracies). Engaged in the pursuit of iconic and symbolic projects, the massive damming of river systems, and the expansion of large-scale public irrigation these hydrocracies have long remained out of reach. While they have enormously contributed to actual welfare, including energy and food generation, flood protection and water supply to urban areas, infrastructural development has often become an end in itself, rather than a means to an end, fuelling rent-seeking and symbolising state power. In many places projects have been challenged on the basis of their economic, social or environmental impacts. Water bureaucracies have been challenged internally (within the state bureaucracies or through political changes) and externally (by critiques from civil society and academia, or by reduced funding). They have endeavoured to respond to these challenges by reinventing themselves or deflecting reforms. This paper analyses these transformations, from the emergence of the hydraulic mission and associated water bureaucracies to their adjustment and responses to changing conditions.
|The Water Resources Policy Process in India: Centralisation, Polarisation and New Demands on Governance
Mollinga, P.P. - \ 2008
In: Governance of Water. Institutional Alternatives and Political Economy / Ballabh, V., New Delhi : SAGE Publications - ISBN 9788178297705 - p. 339 - 370.
Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management
Mollinga, P.P. ; Bhat, A. ; Cleaver, F. ; Meinzen-Dick, R. ; Molle, F. ; Neef, A. ; Subramanian, S. ; Wester, P. - \ 2008
Water Alternatives 1 (2008)1. - ISSN 1965-0175 - p. 7 - 23.
EDITORIAL PREAMBLE: The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany) in 2004/2005 in the context of a national-level discussion on the role of social science in global (environmental) change research. In April 2005 a roundtable workshop with this title was held at ZEF, sponsored by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/German Research Foundation) and supported by the NKGCF (Nationales Komitee für Global Change Forschung/German National Committee on Global Change Research), aiming to design a research programme in the German context. In 2006 it was decided to design a publication project on a broader, European and international basis. The Irrigation and Water Engineering Group at Wageningen University, the Netherlands joined as a co-organiser and co-sponsor. The collection of papers published in this issue of Water Alternatives is one of the products of the publication project. As part of the initiative a session on Water, Politics and Development was organised at the Stockholm World Water Week in August 2007, where most of the papers in this collection were presented and discussed. Through this publication, the Water, Politics and Development initiative links up with other initiatives simultaneously ongoing, for instance the 'Water governance ¿ challenging the consensus' project of the Bradford Centre for International Development at Bradford University, UK. At this point in time, the initiative has formulated its thrust as 'framing a political sociology of water resources management'. This, no doubt, is an ambitious project, methodologically, theoretically as well as practically. Through the compilation of this collection we have started to explore whether and how such an endeavour might make sense. The participants in the initiative think it does, are quite excited about it, and are committed to pursue it further. To succeed the project has to be a collective project, of a much larger community than the present contributors. All readers are invited to comment on sense, purpose and content of this endeavour to profile and strengthen critical and public sociologies of water resources management.
Bureaucratic designs : the paradox of irrigation management transfer in Indonesia
Suhardiman, D. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): P.P. Mollinga. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049067 - 281
irrigatie - waterbeheer - bedrijfsvoering - indonesië - overheidsorganisaties - overheidsbeleid - corruptie - kennisoverdracht - bureaucratie - irrigation - water management - management - indonesia - government organizations - government policy - corruption - knowledge transfer - bureaucracy
Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) policy has been formulated and implemented worldwide, relying on three basic assumptions: that the irrigation agency are motivated to adapt their role in the sector's development; that farmers are willing to take over the system management; and that the process of management transfer is a neutral process, involving primarily managerial and technical aspects.
This thesis illuminates the political dimensions of IMT policy. IMT policy formulation and implementation in Indonesia was shaped by continuous power struggles at the different administrative levels. The way the IMT policy agenda was defined and redefined in respectively Irrigation Operation and Maintenance Project (IOMP) 1987 and the 1999 Water Sector Adjustment Loan (WATSAL) shows that the idea of management transfer did not always coincide with either the irrigation agency's perception or farmers' actual needs in the sector's development. Under IOMP 1987 the irrigation agency transformed IMT into a construction program. Similarly, under WATSAL, IMT was reduced as a policy instrument to eradicate bureaucratic rent-seeking within the irrigation agency. Farmers' perceptions of their position prior and after management transfer remained obscured in both IMT programs.
This study investigates the IMT policy channeling from the national down to the field level, using the seven technical irrigation systems in Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta province, as the research context for IMT implementation. It started at the national level, looking at the way IMT policy characteristics under WATSAL were shaped by the policy elites' perceptions and interests under the WATSAL Task Force (WTF). Later, when the struggle over the principles of IMT occurred in September 2003, this thesis focuses on studying strategies and manouvres used by the policy actors from the different central government ministries to influence the decision making process at the parliament. These central government ministries are the National Development Planning Agency (NDPA), the Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure (Kimpraswil), and the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA). From the national level, this study moves further down to regional level, before it analyzes the actual implementation of IMT in the seven irrigation systems in Kulon Progo district, from inter-system level down to farmers' fields.
This thesis consists of nine chapters. After the introduction, chapter 2 started with the discussion of the changing characteristics of the Indonesian state. Following the fall of Suharto's government and the political reform in 1998, the concept of regional autonomy was introduced and widely applied. In practice, regional autonomy was handicapped by
inoperative fiscal decentralization. Despite their decision making authority to direct the regional development, regional governments remained dependent on fund disbursement from the central government. The central government's domination in the country's development was evident from the preservation of 'project approach' as the only structure to channel policy program from the national down to the field level. Adopted in the late 1960s, the project approach continued to serve as the country's development engine in the post Suharto Indonesia. The way IMT policy was implemented relying on project structure and mechanisms linked the organizational functioning of the Federations of Water Users Associations (FWUAs) to the bureaucratic mechanisms and procedures within the government agency.
Chapter 3 discusses how the irrigation agency's bureaucratic identity contradicts with the idea of management transfer and thus how the first assumption in IMT flaws. As IMT policy embodied the shift from infrastructure-oriented to farmer-focused irrigation development, this contradicts with the irrigation agency's interests and organizational foundation in construction and rehabilitation activities. Unlike what is assumed by the international policy makers, the irrigation agency perceived IMT as a threat that could endanger their bureaucratic position and decision making authority in the sector's development. Despite the abolition of the Ministry of Public Works (MPW) in 1999, the bureaucratic identity of the irrigation agency remained unchanged. This was evident from the way the core policy actors in the agency continued to direct the agency's organizational development following the construction-based approach. Following the abolition of the MPW, the core policy actors defended their bureaucratic position with the formation of the State Ministry of Public Works (Meneg PU) next to the newly formed Ministry of Settlement and Regional Development (Kimbangwil). Later, the core policy actors in the irrigation agency resumed their bureaucratic power with the unification of the Meneg PU and Kimbangwil into the Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure (Kimpraswil)in2001.
Chapter 4 shows how the decision to transfer the management of government irrigation systems from the irrigation agency to farmers was neither rooted in farmers' opinion nor their capability in system management. Similarly, the idea of management transfer was not based on organizational performance and functioning of these farmer organizations. Rather, the shift from organizational to institutional approach in irrigation development was triggered by the overall dominance of the neo-liberal development approach and the extrapolation of farmers' capability as this was observed in the farmer managed irrigation system (FMIS) as the means to solve the persistent poor performance of government irrigation system. Using the evolution of IMT policy in Indonesia, this thesis illustrates how the manifestation of IMT policy as the new international policy trend in irrigation management was rooted primarily in the international donors' concern of their earlier investments in the sector's development, and thus failed to focus on the actual management problems encountered by the irrigation agency and farmers. Despite the strong focus on farmers in IMT policy, the policy formulation was based primarily on the international policy makers' perception on how farmers' role in system management
could contribute to a better system performance. The way fanners perceived their own role in the overall system management remained obscured.
The way the process of management transfer is shaped by continuous power struggles is illustrated in respectively chapter 5, 6, 7 and 8. In chapter 5, the way IMT policy formulation was shaped by hidden policy agenda illuminates the policy political dimension. Using the evolution of IMT from the IOMP 1987 to the 1999 WATSAL, this thesis illustrates how the idea of management transfer has always been tempered by policy elites' interests and perceptions. In both IOMP 1987 and WATSAL, IMT policy agenda was defined as the result of power struggles between the different segments within the government bureaucracy. Under IOMP 1987, the irrigation agency manoeuvred their construction-based interests by redefining and extending the scope and degree of system rehabilitation as one of the requirement for management transfer. Under WATSAL, the WATSAL Task Force hid the real implications of the Kabupaten Irrigation Improvement Fund (KIIF) concept from the irrigation agency so that they could proceed with the application of 'stimulant fund'. By shifting the access to the sectoral development funds from the agency to FWUAs, the WATSAL policy makers attempted to use the FWUAs as their grass roots weapon to counteract the irrigation agency's bureaucratic power in the sector's development.
The political aspect of management transfer became more apparent from the policy struggle over the principles of IMT which occurred in 2003. Chapter 6 illustrates how the struggle began when Kimpraswil realized the real implications of IMT under WATSAL for their bureaucratic existence. Kimpraswil strategically used the to-be promulgated Water Act at that time as its legal shield to redirect the development path in the irrigation sector, towards recentralization. Despite strong attempts made by both the National Development Planning Agency (NDPA) and the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) to counteract Kimpraswil's position on IMT, the WATSAL IMT program was halted following the promulgation of the new Water Act in February 2004. With the promulgation of the new Water Act in February 2004, Kimpraswil center staged its bureaucratic power and its decision making authority in directing the irrigation sector development. Kimpraswil's successful attempt to limit farmers' involvement at the tertiary level was linked to their ability to steer and direct parliament members' decision on the scope and degree of management transfer as this was incorporated in the Water Act Number 7 of 2004. As the government agency responsible for the sector's development, Kimpraswil had better access and resources to influence the parliamentary decision making process than any other government agencies.
In chapter 7 and 8, the way the district irrigation agency directed the FWUAs organizational development towards their bureaucratic replica once again illuminates the irrigation agency's position on the idea of management transfer. Contradicting with the assumption that the irrigation agency was willing or could be forced to hand over the management responsibility to the FWUAs, in practice, the district irrigation agency remains pretty much interested to preserve their bureaucratic power by sustaining their role in irrigation system management. In the aftermath of the IMT policy struggle, the
district irrigation agency in Kulon Progo decided to continue with the WATSAL IMT program. However, this decision was rooted in the agency's ability to steer the program implementation, in such a way that IMT sustained the agency's bureaucratic power in directing the sector's development. At district level, the way the district irrigation agency contested IMT policy was evident from the way they had directed the organizational development of the FWUAs towards bureaucratization. Like the irrigation agency, FWUA staff were more concerned with the management of the stimulant fund, and the necessary administrative and technical requirements related to the fund allocation, than ensuring farmers' actual water needs. FWUA functioning was focused on FWUA staffs ability to 'pull in' as many as possible development funds under the FWUA management. Like the irrigation agency, FWUA managed the stimulant fund in accordance to their financial interests, rather than to respond to farmers' actual needs for system repairs. IMT has extended the practice of rent-seeking to FWUAs, as FWUAs' access to the stimulant fund linked them with the cycle of bureaucratic rent-seeking in the irrigation agency.
In water distribution context, IMT did not result in transferred decision making authority from the irrigation agency to the FWUAs. Even after IMT, the irrigation agency remained in charge for the inter-system level water distribution and the operation of the major irrigation infrastructure. FWUAs' role in system water distribution was limited to their ability to negotiate their water needs. FWUAs lacked any formal decision making authority to direct the system water distribution. Nevertheless, IMT reshaped the existing pattern of alliances between farmers and the irrigation agency. Unlike before, the establishment of 'spatial authority' as the result of alliances between FWUA staff and some staff in the district irrigation agency seems to diminish the centralized decision making in system management. Reacting to these new patterns of alliances, the district irrigation agency created a decision making platform to include FWUA staff in the overall water distribution arrangement at the inter-system level. The emerging patterns of alliances in water distribution formed the foundation for the establishment of polycentric decision making process in irrigation system management.
The last chapter gives concluding answers on the research questions and discusses the IMT policy paradoxes. It argues that the main reasons behind the national government's partial initiative in IMT policy formulation and implementation, as well as farmers' lack of awareness of the idea of management transfer and thus their marginal involvement in the WATSAL IMT program are rooted in the IMT policy paradoxes. The first paradox concerned the way the international donors treated the irrigation agency as government agent incapable to conduct the sector's development, and at the same time as the reform agent responsible for the sectoral reform. The second paradox in IMT policy formulation concerned how international policy makers took for granted farmers' willingness to take over the irrigation system management, as proposed in the IMT policy.
With reference to the above paradoxes, this thesis brings to light the multiple identities of international donor agencies in relation to their role as the trend setter in irrigation development as the area for further research. Similarly, future research on IMT policy
should focus on farmers' actual role and capability in irrigation system management, and how farmers perceived their position in relation to the idea of management transfer.
Finally, this thesis emphasizes the need to address the issue of bureaucratic reform within the IMT policy discourse. Apart from the irrigation agency's resistance to change, in Indonesia, the need for bureaucratic reform was recognized at both national and regional levels. The question remains on how to persuade the core policy actors in the agency that they could only sustain their bureaucratic power in the sector's development in the long term, only by allowing themselves to change and adapt to the present development needs.
Enclosed waters : property rights, technology and ecology in the management of water resources in Palakkad, Kerala
Krishnan, J. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. von Benda-Beckmann; Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): P.P. Mollinga. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048145 - 303
waterbeheer - grondeigendom - watervoorraden - waterbeleid - irrigatiewater - india - kerala - eigendomsrechten - water management - land ownership - water resources - water policy - irrigation water - india - kerala - property rights
This thesis is an enquiry into the persistent problem of water scarcity in the paddy growing regions in the southeastern part of Palakkad district, in the state of Kerala, in South India. It views the problem of scarcity as an outcome of the existing unsustainable and inequitable mode of water resources management and distribution. It therefore places the problem of scarcity in the particular irrigation and agricultural context of Kerala. Following the introductory chapter and the discussion on the conceptual framework, the first part of the thesis (Chapters 3-4) deals with the underlying approach towards the management of water resources, with a focus on the sustainability dimension. It provides a critique of the irrigation and agricultural policies implemented by the state of Kerala since the 1960s, for their neglect of local specificities. It also analyses the impact of single crop (paddy) focussed irrigation and agricultural policies on the micro-level land and water use practices in the study area. It also discusses the impact of supply oriented, large-scale canal projects and inter-basin transfers of water on the management of local water sources, primarily the tanks of the area. Finally, it analyses the extent to which the existing policy emphasis on local level water resource management and planning, as a part of the decentralisation agenda of the state, has ensured sustainable water management. The second part of the thesis (Chapters 5-7) is focussed on the distribution issue. The issue of equitable distribution of water has been located within the property rights framework. Rights to land explain the present distribution of access to water. The thesis has illustrated how the implementation of land reforms in the state (hailed as one of the most radical land reform initiatives in India), by neglecting the issue of water rights, resulted in an inequitable distribution of access to water. It also discusses how the increasing private control over water eats into public and common rights, giving rise to conflicts and contestations. Finally, the thesis critiques the existing formulation of property rights over land and water, for their neglect of issues related to ecological sustainability. While discussing the creation of public and private rights over a fluid and common pool resource such as water, it argues that issues of ecological sustainability should be central to the framing of property rights over both land and water. In conclusion, this thesis illustrates that the recurring problem of water scarcity necessitates a thorough re consideration of existing irrigation and agricultural policies that influence the management of water resources. It also argues for a re consideration of the existing property rights formulations that determine access to a scarce and critical resource.
|Policy and institutional reform: the art of the possible
Merrey, D.J. ; Meinzen-Dick, R. ; Mollinga, P.P. ; Karar, E. ; Huppert, W. ; Rees, J. ; Vera, D.J.R. ; Wegerich, K. ; Zaag, P. van der - \ 2007
In: Water for food, Water for life : a comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture / Molden, D., London : Earthscan - ISBN 9781844073962 - p. 193 - 231.
|Integrated Water Resources Management. Global Theory, Emerging Practice and Local Needs
Mollinga, P.P. ; Dixit, A. ; Athukorala, K. - \ 2006
New Delhi : SAGE Publications (Water in South Asia vol. 1) - ISBN 9780761935490 - 403
watervoorraden - zuid-azië - waterbeheer - watervoorziening - ontwikkeling - beheer van waterbekkens - milieutoets - overheidsbeleid - integraal waterbeheer - water resources - south asia - water management - water supply - development - watershed management - environmental assessment - government policy - integrated water management
|IWRM in South Asia: A Concept Looking for a Constituency
Mollinga, P.P. - \ 2006
In: Integrated Water Resources Management. Global Theory, Emerging Practice and Local Needs / Mollinga, P.P., Dixit, A., Athukorala, K., New Delhi : SAGE Publications - ISBN 9780761935490 - p. 21 - 37.
The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh
Nikku, B.R. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): P.P. Mollinga; Dik Roth. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045434 - 284
irrigatie - bedrijfsvoering - participatief management - politiek - beleid - andhra pradesh - india - irrigation - management - participative management - politics - policy - andhra pradesh - india
This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra Pradesh's PIM programe has received internal attention. The program has been seen as a successful model because of the political will and legal bureaucratic support it received and its big-bang approach to implementation. Consequently the reform program influenced the thinking on irrigation management policies in other states within India and abroad.
This study investigates the process of PIM policy implemented since 1997 in the state. The objective is to understand the nature and dynamics of the policy process i.e. the role of different actors such as water users, water users' association leaders, politicians, irrigation bureaucrats and their contestation of policy and shaping of courses of action and outcomes. By doing so the study aims to contribute to the general debate on reform policies and particiculary irrigation reform policy in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
The thesis is a product of intensive field work carried out from March 2001 to June 2002 with additional field work visits at different intervals during 2002-2004. The research was also benefited by my earlier research work carried out Gujarat Institute of Development Research on PM in Andhra Pradesh during 1999-2000. The first stage concerned a reconnaissance survey of WUAs in the state and a detailed study of WUAs formed on Madhira branch canal under Kalluru and Madhira irrigation sub-divisions. I studied the outcomes of reform policy contestation in key arenas of irrigation management namely, irrigation works, irrigation, expansion (i.e. bridging the gap command) and irrigation revenue assessment ( known as joint Azmoish) in Madhira branch canal. I focused on the day-to-day engagement of the WUA leaders and middle and lower level irrigation bureaucrats with the policy and implementation on the ground. The second stage of field work focused on policy actors at the state capital.
The thesis is divided into nine chapters and an epilogue. After the introductory chapter, chapter 2 presents the conceptual framework used for the analysis. The subsequent empirical chapters set out to study the key means of policy implementation and related irrigation management policy process arenas. Chapter 3 discusses the emergence of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) policy in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Chapter 4 introduces the details of the irrigation and social organisation of Madhira Branch Canal (MBC). The Chapter shows how irrigation organisation linked with local social organisation.
Chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8 are based on empirical analysis and together answer the main research question. Chapter 5 focuses on the first management arena of reform studied of irrigation works. It analyses the process of carrying out physical works (operation and maintenance and minimum rehabilitation works) after the introduction of the PIM programme in the state, and the key actors reshaping outcomes. Chapter 6 focuses on the second irrigation management arena of irrigation expansion and focuses in to government daims on bridging the gap command. Chapter 7 discusses the third irrigation management arena of reform in joint irrigation supervision and revenue collection (joint Azmoish). It examines the role and participation of the Irrigation, Revenue, Agriculture departments and the WUA in a new process created under the reforms through which the extent of area that received canal irrigation in a crop season will be jointly finalised. Chapter 8 returns to the issue of socio-political embeddedness as it reshapes reforms, looking this time at the system-bureaucracy domain and irrigation bureaucrats, especially the field level staff. Chapter 9 is the concluding chapter and summarises the key findings of the research. Many changes have taken place in the irrigation sector after 2002. The Naidu government that introduced the irrigation reforms stalled the elections for WUAs after the completion of their first term in the office. A Congress government came in to power in 2004. As a result there were many changes in the course of irrigation reform policy. I discuss these changes as a brief epilogue to the book.
This thesis show how reform policies are interpreted and reconstructed by the participating actors. Initially the reform policies were resisted covertly by middle and lower level of irrigation bureaucrats. They understood that the programme aimed to decentralise their powers and transfer irrigation management activities to water users associations. In process these bureaucrats made alliances with WUA representatives and local leaders and controlled the irrigation management arenas. The lower level bureaucrats could successfully lobby with the higher officials and with government using legal measures and retained their status within the irrigation hierarchy. The irrigation bureaucracy gained more technical and financial powers in the process and retained their control in irrigation management and decision making processes. Hence I argue that, contrary to what is generally expected, PIM in Andhra Pradesh did not 1ead to participatory management of irrigation resources, but served to preserve or strengthen the actors' interests.
Agricultural drainage: Towards an integrated approach
Abdeldayem, S. ; Hoevenaars, J. ; Mollinga, P.P. ; Scheuman, W. ; Slootweg, R. ; Steenbergen, F. van - \ 2005
Irrigation and Drainage Systems 19 (2005)1. - ISSN 0168-6291 - p. 71 - 87.
Drainage needs to reclaim its rightful position as an indispensable element in the integrated management of land and water. An integrated approach to drainage can be developed by means of systematic mapping of the functions of natural resources systems (goods and services) and the values attributed to these functions by people. This mapping allows the exploration of the implications of particular drainage interventions. In that sense an analytical tool for understanding a drainage situation is proposed. The process dimension of the functions and values evaluation and assessment is participatory planning, modelled on co-management approaches to natural resources management. This provides a framework for discussion and negotiation of trade-offs related to the different functions and values related to drainage. In that sense the approach is a communication, planning and decision-making tool. The tool is called DRAINFRAME, which stands for Drainage Integrated Analytical Framework. The implementation of an integrated approach posits challenges for the governance, management and finance of drainage, as well as for research and design of drainage infrastructure and operation. Both have to be rethought from the perspective of multi-functionality. The paper concludes with five main policy messages.
|Leadership and Turnover: The Contradicitons of Irrigation Management Reform in the People's Republic of China
Mollinga, P.P. ; Hong, G. ; Bhatia, A.M. - \ 2005
In: Asian Irrigation in Transition. Responding to Challenges / Shivakoti, G.P, Vermillion, D.L., Lam, Wai-Fung, Ostrom, E., Pradhan, U., Yoder, R., New Delhi : SAGE Publications - ISBN 9780761933502 - p. 310 - 345.
The Dark Zone: Groundwater Irrigation, Politics and Social Power in North Gujarat
Prakash, A. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): P.P. Mollinga; Dik Roth. - [S.L] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085041580 - 245
irrigatie - politiek - sociale activiteiten - gujarat - india - grondwaterwinning - putten - watervoorraden - prijzen - marktprijzen - deelpacht - plaatselijke planning - dorpen - communes - irrigation - politics - social activities - gujarat - india - groundwater extraction - wells - water resources - prices - market prices - metayage - local planning - villages - communes