Plant volatiles induced by herbivore eggs prime defences and mediate shifts in the reproductive strategy of receiving plants
Pashalidou, Foteini G. ; Eyman, Lisa ; Sims, James ; Buckley, James ; Fatouros, Nina E. ; Moraes, Consuelo M. De; Mescher, Mark C. - \ 2020
Ecology Letters (2020). - ISSN 1461-023X
Brassica - cues - defence - fitness - herbivore performance - herbivore-induced plant volatiles - oviposition-induced plant volatiles - Pieris brassicae - priming
Plants can detect cues associated with the risk of future herbivory and modify defence phenotypes accordingly; however, our current understanding is limited both with respect to the range of early warning cues to which plants respond and the nature of the responses. Here we report that exposure to volatile emissions from plant tissues infested with herbivore eggs promotes stronger defence responses to subsequent herbivory in two Brassica species. Furthermore, exposure to these volatile cues elicited an apparent shift from growth to reproduction in Brassica nigra, with exposed plants exhibiting increased flower and seed production, but reduced leaf production, relative to unexposed controls. Our results thus document plant defence priming in response to a novel environmental cue, oviposition-induced plant volatiles, while also showing that plant responses to early warning cues can include changes in both defence and life-history traits.
Optimal dairy feed input selection under alternative feeds availability and relative prices
Alqaisi, Othman ; Moraes, Luis Eduardo ; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah ; Williams, Ryan Blake - \ 2019
Information Processing in Agriculture 6 (2019)4. - ISSN 2214-3173 - p. 438 - 453.
Diet formulation - Feed availability - Feed prices - Feed switch - LP modelling
Feed formulation is essential in the dairy production chain from economic, nutritional, and environmental perspectives. Optimizing the feed formulation across those three domains – given uncertainty of input prices, input availability, and regional climatic conditions – is a challenge for those in the industry. The diet formulation method that is widely used by trading firms and feed production facilities employs a static linear programming (LP) approach. This approach does not allow for intertemporal feed formulations and switches between dietary feed commodities under feed availability conditions, which result in foregone economic gains for feed producers. The current study develops a multi-period LP feed model that uses historical data to capture ration switch opportunities between available feed resources for dairy cows and demonstrates the potential use of the method in different commodity feed availability situations. We apply 14 diet formulations, each covering 150 months, representing a total of 2100 diets. The diet formulation considers a specific milk production level for a “model cow”, alternative feed formulations available, and volatility in feed prices. The results demonstrate that there is an opportunity for efficiency gains in the dairy industry with respect to feed formulation. Based on dietary feed inclusion and price spreads, barley can be an important dairy feed grain which completely replaces wheat, corn, and sorghum at price spreads of less than 94%, less than 78%, and less than 67%, respectively. Grain-based feed scenarios represent the lowest nutrient variation while multiple meal feeds had the lowest costs. Furthermore, and on average, multiple meal feed scenarios provided 10% higher dietary crude protein contents compared to grain based feed scenarios (i.e. 163 vs 179 g/kg DM formulated feed). Meanwhile, multiple meal feeding cost was 11% lower than that in the grain based feeding scenarios. Additionally, the use of multiple meals reduces alfalfa dietary inclusion by 7% on dry matter basis. Our analysis shows a strong reduction in feed cost associated with dietary crude protein reduction equivalent to 7.6 USD/tonne per 1% reduction in dietary crude protein level. The modeling approach allows for the interaction between feed components over time taking into consideration volatile global feed prices, thereby improving feed availability and feed formulation. Overall, the model provides a decision making tool to improve the use of feed resources in the dairy sector.
Rarity of monodominance in hyperdiverse Amazonian forests
Steege, Hans Ter; Henkel, Terry W. ; Helal, Nora ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Huth, Andreas ; Groeneveld, Jürgen ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Souza Coelho, Luiz de; Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes de; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia de; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo de; Cárdenas López, Dairon ; Magnusson, William E. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Silva Guimarães, José Renan da; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo ; Ramos, José Ferreira ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Moraes de Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia ; Núñez Vargas, Percy ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Terborgh, John ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Baraloto, Chris ; Engel, Julien ; Petronelli, Pascal ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Quaresma, Adriano ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Andrade, Ana ; Camargo, José Luís ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Laurance, William F. ; Rincón, Lorena M. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sousa, Thaiane R. ; Sousa Farias, Emanuelle de; Lopes, Maria Aparecida ; Magalhães, José Leonardo Lima ; Mendonça Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo ; Lima de Queiroz, Helder ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Brienen, Roel ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri Oliveira ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Lozada, José Rafael ; Comiskey, James A. ; Toledo, José Julio de; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; Draper, Freddie ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Lopes, Aline ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Lloyd, Jon ; Neill, David ; Aguiar, Daniel Praia Portela de; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Amaral, Dário Dantas do; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Gribel, Rogerio ; Pansonato, Marcelo Petratti ; Barlow, Jos ; Berenguer, Erika ; Ferreira, Joice ; Fine, Paul V.A. ; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro ; Jimenez, Eliana M. ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Villa, Boris ; Cerón, Carlos ; Maas, Paul ; Silveira, Marcos ; Stropp, Juliana ; Thomas, Raquel ; Baker, Tim R. ; Daly, Doug ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Milliken, William ; Pennington, Toby ; Ríos Paredes, Marcos ; Fuentes, Alfredo ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Pena, José Luis Marcelo ; Peres, Carlos A. ; Silman, Miles R. ; Tello, J.S. ; Chave, Jerome ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Hilário, Renato Richard ; Phillips, Juan Fernando ; Rivas-Torres, Gonzalo ; Andel, Tinde R. van; Hildebrand, Patricio von; Noronha, Janaína Costa ; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques ; Barbosa, Flávia Rodrigues ; Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos de; Sá Carpanedo, Rainiellen de; Dávila Doza, Hilda Paulette ; Fonty, Émile ; GómeZárate Z, Ricardo ; Gonzales, Therany ; Gallardo Gonzales, George Pepe ; Hoffman, Bruce ; Junqueira, André Braga ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula de; Pinto, Linder Felipe Mozombite ; Prieto, Adriana ; Jesus Rodrigues, Domingos de; Rudas, Agustín ; Ruschel, Ademir R. ; Silva, Natalino ; Vela, César I.A. ; Vos, Vincent Antoine ; Zent, Egleé L. ; Zent, Stanford ; Weiss Albuquerque, Bianca ; Cano, Angela ; Carrero Márquez, Yrma Andreina ; Correa, Diego F. ; Costa, Janaina Barbosa Pedrosa ; Flores, Bernardo Monteiro ; Galbraith, David ; Holmgren, Milena ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade ; Oliveira, Alexandre A. ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Rocha, Maira ; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Tirado, Milton ; Umaña Medina, Maria Natalia ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Vilanova Torre, Emilio ; Vriesendorp, Corine ; Wang, Ophelia ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Ahuite Reategui, Manuel Augusto ; Baider, Cláudia ; Balslev, Henrik ; Cárdenas, Sasha ; Casas, Luisa Fernanda ; Farfan-Rios, William ; Ferreira, Cid ; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Mesones, Italo ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego ; Villarroel, Daniel ; Zagt, Roderick ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina ; Hernandez, Lionel ; Palacios Cuenca, Walter ; Pansini, Susamar ; Pauletto, Daniela ; Ramirez Arevalo, Freddy ; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe ; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H. ; Valenzuela Gamarra, Luis ; Levesley, Aurora ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Melgaço, Karina - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322
Tropical forests are known for their high diversity. Yet, forest patches do occur in the tropics where a single tree species is dominant. Such "monodominant" forests are known from all of the main tropical regions. For Amazonia, we sampled the occurrence of monodominance in a massive, basin-wide database of forest-inventory plots from the Amazon Tree Diversity Network (ATDN). Utilizing a simple defining metric of at least half of the trees ≥ 10 cm diameter belonging to one species, we found only a few occurrences of monodominance in Amazonia, and the phenomenon was not significantly linked to previously hypothesized life history traits such wood density, seed mass, ectomycorrhizal associations, or Rhizobium nodulation. In our analysis, coppicing (the formation of sprouts at the base of the tree or on roots) was the only trait significantly linked to monodominance. While at specific locales coppicing or ectomycorrhizal associations may confer a considerable advantage to a tree species and lead to its monodominance, very few species have these traits. Mining of the ATDN dataset suggests that monodominance is quite rare in Amazonia, and may be linked primarily to edaphic factors.
Bayesian mechanistic modeling of thermodynamically controlled volatile fatty acid, hydrogen and methane production in the bovine rumen
Lingen, Henk J. van; Fadel, James G. ; Moraes, Luis E. ; Bannink, André ; Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2019
Journal of Theoretical Biology 480 (2019). - ISSN 0022-5193 - p. 150 - 165.
Cattle - Dairy cow - Diurnal dynamics - Enteric fermentation - Global sensitivity analysis - Methanogenesis
Dynamic modeling of mechanisms driving volatile fatty acid and hydrogen production in the rumen microbial ecosystem contributes to the heuristic prediction of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle into the environment. Existing mathematical rumen models, however, lack the representation of these mechanisms. A dynamic mechanistic model was developed that simulates the thermodynamic control of hydrogen partial pressure (pH2 ) on volatile fatty acid (VFA) fermentation pathways via the NAD+ to NADH ratio in fermentative microbes, and methanogenesis in the bovine rumen. This model is unique and closely aligns with principles of reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. Model state variables represent ruminal carbohydrate substrates, bacteria and protozoa, methanogens, and gaseous and dissolved fermentation end products. The model was extended with static equations to model the hindgut metabolism. Feed composition and twice daily feeding were used as model inputs. Model parameters were estimated to experimental data using a Bayesian calibration procedure, after which the uncertainty of the parameter distribution on the model output was assessed. The model predicted a marked peak in pH2 after feeding that rapidly declined in time. This peak in pH2 caused a decrease in NAD+ to NADH ratio followed by an increased propionate molar proportion at the expense of acetate molar proportion, and an increase in CH4 production that steadily decreased in time, although the magnitude of increase for CH4 emission was less than for pH2 . A global sensitivity analysis indicated that parameters that determine the fractional passage rate and NADH oxidation rate altogether explained 86% of the variation in predicted daily CH4 emission. Model evaluation indicated over-prediction of in vivo CH4 emissions shortly after feeding, whereas under-prediction was indicated at later times. The present rumen fermentation modeling effort uniquely provides the integration of the pH2 controlled NAD+ to NADH ratio for dynamically predicting metabolic pathways that yield VFA, H2 and CH4.
Novel function of Bleutongue Virus NS3 Protein in Regulation of the MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathway
Kundlacz, Cindy ; Pourcelot, Marie ; Fablet, Aurore ; Amaral Da Silva Moraes, Rayane ; Leger, Thibaut ; Morlet, Bastien ; Viarouge, Cyril ; Sailleau, C. ; Turpaud, Mathilde ; Gorlier, Axel ; Breard, Emmanuel ; Lecollinet, S. ; Rijn, P.A. van; Zientara, Stephan ; Vitour, Damien ; Caignard, Gregory - \ 2019
Journal of Virology 93 (2019)16. - ISSN 0022-538X - 17 p.
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus transmitted by blood-feeding midges to a wide range of wild and domestic ruminants. In this report, we showed that BTV, through its nonstructural protein NS3 (BTV-NS3), is able to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway, as assessed by phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and the translation initiation factor eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). By combining immunoprecipitation of BTV-NS3 and mass spectrometry analysis from both BTV-infected and NS3-transfected cells, we identified the serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf (BRAF), a crucial player in the MAPK/ERK pathway, as a new cellular interactor of BTV-NS3. BRAF silencing led to a significant decrease in the MAPK/ERK activation by BTV, supporting a model wherein BTV-NS3 interacts with BRAF to activate this signaling cascade. This positive regulation acts independently of the role of BTV-NS3 in counteracting the induction of the alpha/beta interferon response. Furthermore, the intrinsic ability of BTV-NS3 to bind BRAF and activate the MAPK/ERK pathway is conserved throughout multiple serotypes/strains but appears to be specific to BTV compared to other members of Orbivirus genus. Inhibition of MAPK/ERK pathway with U0126 reduced viral titers, suggesting that BTV manipulates this pathway for its own replication. Altogether, our data provide molecular mechanisms that unravel a new essential function of NS3 during BTV infection.
Seasonal and diel variation in greenhouse gas emissions from an urban pond and its major drivers
Bergen, Tamara van; Barros, Nathan O. ; Mendonça, Raquel ; Aben, Ralf ; Althuizen, Inge H.J. ; Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia de; Lamers, Leon P.M. ; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Roland, Fabio ; Kosten, Sarian - \ 2019
Limnology and Oceanography 64 (2019)5. - ISSN 0024-3590 - p. 2129 - 2139.
Small water systems are important hotspots of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, but estimates are poorly constrained as data are scarce. Small ponds are often constructed in urban areas, where they receive large amounts
of nutrients and therefore tend to be highly productive. Here, we investigated GHG emissions, seasonal and diel
variation, and net ecosystem production (NEP) from an urban pond. In monthly 24-h field campaigns during
11 months, diffusive water–atmosphere methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and CH4 ebullition
and oxidation were quantified. With oxygen (O2) measurements, NEP was assessed. The pond was a net GHG
source the entire year, with an emission of 3.4 kg CO2 eq m−2 yr−1
. The dominant GHG emission pathway was
CH4 ebullition (bubble flux, 50%), followed by diffusive emissions of CO2 (38%) and CH4 (12%). Sediment CH4
release was primarily driven by temperature and especially ebullition increased exponentially above a temperature threshold of 15C. The pond’s atmospheric CO2 exchange was not related to NEP or temperature but likely
to a high allochthonous carbon (C) input via runoff and anaerobic mineralization of C. We expect urban ponds
to show a large increase in GHG emission with increasing temperature, which should be considered carefully
when constructing ponds in urban areas. Emissions may partly be counteracted by pond management focusing
on a reduction of nutrient and organic matter input.
Managing Eutrophication in a Tropical Brackish Water Lagoon : Testing Lanthanum-Modified Clay and Coagulant for Internal Load Reduction and Cyanobacteria Bloom Removal
Magalhães, Leonardo de; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Furtado, Luciana Lima ; Drummond, Erick ; Leite, Vivian Balthazar Gonçalves ; Mucci, Maíra ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia de; Lürling, Miquel ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi - \ 2019
Estuaries and coasts 42 (2019)2. - ISSN 1559-2723 - p. 390 - 402.
Geo-engineering - Lake restoration - PAC - Phoslock - Phosphorus control - Sediment release
The release of phosphorus (P) stored in the sediment may cause long-term delay in the recovery of lakes, ponds, and lagoons from eutrophication. In this paper, we tested on a laboratory scale the efficacy of the flocculant polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and a strong P-binding agent (lanthanum-modified bentonite, LMB) on their ability to flocculate a cyanobacterial bloom and hamper P release from a hypertrophic, brackish lagoon sediment. In addition, critical P loading was estimated through PCLake. We showed that cyanobacteria could be effectively settled using a PAC dose of 2 mg Al L−1 combined with 400-mg L−1 LMB; PAC 8 mg Al L−1 alone could also remove cyanobacteria, although its performance was improved adding low concentrations of LMB. The efficacy of LMB to bind P released from the sediment was tested based on potentially available sediment P. A dose of 400 g LMB m−2 significantly reduced the P release from sediment to over-standing water (either deionized water or water from the lagoon with and without cyanobacteria). In sediment cores, LMB + PAC reduced sediment P flux from 9.9 (± 3.3) to − 4.6 (± 0.3) mg P m−2 day−1 for the experimental period of 3 months. The internal P load was 14 times higher than the estimated P critical load (0.7 mg P m−2 day−1), thus even if all the external P sources would be ceased, the water quality will not improve promptly. Hence, the combined LMB + PAC treatment seems a promising in-lake intervention to diminish internal P load bellow the critical load. Such intervention is able to speed up recovery in the brackish lagoon once external loading has been tackled and at a cost of less than 5% of the estimated dredging costs.
Dynamics of volatile fatty acids, hydrogen, and methane in dairy cattle: A model of rumen metabolic pathways
Lingen, H.J. van; Fadel, J.G. ; Moraes, L.E. ; Kebreab, Ermias ; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)Supplement 2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 198 - 198.
How People Domesticated Amazonian Forests
Levis, C. ; Flores, Bernardo ; Moreira, Priscilla ; Luize, Bruno G. ; Alves, Rubana ; Franco-Moraes, Juliano ; Lins, Juliana ; Konings, Evelien ; Pena Claros, M. ; Bongers, F. ; Costa, Flavia ; Clement, Charles - \ 2018
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 5 (2018). - ISSN 2296-701X - 21 p.
For millennia, Amazonian peoples have managed forest resources, modifying the natural environment in subtle and persistent ways. Legacies of past human occupation are striking near archaeological sites, yet we still lack a clear picture of how human management practices resulted in the domestication of Amazonian forests. The general view is that domesticated forests are recognizable by the presence of forest patches dominated by one or a few useful species favored by long-term human activities. Here, we used three complementary approaches to understand the long-term domestication of Amazonian forests. First, we compiled information from the literature about how indigenous and traditional Amazonian peoples manage forest resources to promote useful plant species that are mainly used as food resources. Then, we developed an interdisciplinary conceptual model of how interactions between these management practices across space and time may form domesticated forests. Finally, we collected field data from 30 contemporary villages located on and near archaeological sites, along four major Amazonian rivers, to compare with the management practices synthesized in our conceptual model. We identified eight distinct categories of management practices that contribute to form forest patches of useful plants: (1) removal of non-useful plants, (2) protection of useful plants, (3) attraction of non-human animal dispersers, (4) transportation of useful plants, (5) selection of phenotypes, (6) fire management, (7) planting of useful plants, and (8) soil improvement. Our conceptual model, when ethnographically projected into the past, reveals how the interaction of these multiple management practices interferes with natural ecological processes, resulting in the domestication of Amazonian forest patches dominated by useful species. Our model suggests that management practices became more frequent as human population increased during the Holocene. In the field, we found that useful perennial plants occur in multi-species patches around archaeological sites, and that the dominant species are still managed by local people, suggesting long-term persistence of ancient cultural practices. The management practices we identified have transformed plant species abundance and floristic composition through the creation of diverse forest patches rich in edible perennial plants that enhanced food production and food security in Amazonia.
Soil morphology related to hydrology and degradation in tropical coastal podzols (SE Brazil)
Lopes-Mazzetto, Josiane Millani ; Buurman, Peter ; Schellekens, Judith ; Moraes Martinez, Pedro Henrique Rodrigues de; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo - \ 2018
Catena 162 (2018). - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 1 - 13.
Microbial organic matter depletion - Podzol B horizon degradation - Podzol hydrology - Soil micromorphology
Morphology of podzol profiles can be used to improve our understanding of soil formation and degradation processes. The morphology of a podzol chronosequence was studied for a 1800 m long cliff perpendicular to the coastline at the southern coast of the Island Ilha Comprida (São Paulo, Brazil). The large variation in hydrological conditions with time (surfaces with ages from 6000 to 300 yrs BP) and space (topography) allowed studying the relation between podzol morphology and drainage conditions, both during soil formation and degradation. On the oldest two surfaces, the podzols formed under poorly drained circumstances. Uplift during their formation resulted in (1) very deep Bh horizons and (2) degradation of the upper B horizon as a result of improved drainage. On the younger surface most podzols were poorly drained, but well-drained podzols and transitions occurred in beach ridges. In the cliffs on the southern coast of the island, improved drainage of the poorly drained podzols resulted in degradation of the B horizon. This degradation exhibits various forms, including (1) complete removal of the B horizon down to an underlying clay layer, (2) degradation of the B horizon along root channels with preferential vertical water transport, (3) degradation of the upper B horizon resulting in a diffuse EB transition, and (4) areas of organic matter (OM) depletion related to microbial activity, sometimes combined with burrowing. Type (2) degradation may result in a convoluted EB transition, the formation of islands of B horizon in the deepening E horizon, and formation of E horizon tongues into the Bh. Recent (post degradation) OM bands were found in E and B horizons. A thorough study of podzol morphology can be used to reconstruct several stages of their formation and degradation in relation to drainage conditions.
Process for liquid food preservation using pulsed electrical field treatment
Timmermans, R.A.H. ; Moraes, R.E. De; Mastwijk, H.C. - \ 2017
Octrooinummer: WO2017086784, gepubliceerd: 2017-05-26.
The present invention relates to a process for fast and homogeneously heating a liquid product to a predetermined temperature by means of resistive heating. According to the invention, sufficient and effective microbial inactivation is achieved upon applying an electrical field strength of between 0.1 - 5.0 kV/cm for a prolonged period of time, thus by selecting a relatively low electrical field strength and a pulse duration of at least 10 microseconds while the maximum temperature of the liquid product autonomously remains below 92°C during the resistive heating. The process of the invention is efficient at neutral pH and at pH below 7. Furthermore, the process of the invention is efficient in inactivating a broad array of relevant micro-organisms. The present invention further relates to said process wherein the liquid product is pre-heated prior to subjecting the liquid product to the process. The present invention also relates to the liquid product obtainable by the process according to the invention.
Coagulant plus ballast technique provides a rapid mitigation of cyanobacterial nuisance
Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Magalhães, Leonardo De; Miranda, Marcela ; Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia de; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi ; Lima, Eduardo R.A. ; Lurling, Miquel - \ 2017
PLoS ONE 12 (2017)6. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16 p.
Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose coagulant (poly-aluminium chloride-PAC-or chitosan) with different ballast compounds (red soil, bauxite, gravel, aluminium modified zeolite and lanthanum modified bentonite) to remove cyanobacterial biomass from water collected in Funil Reservoir (Brazil). We tested the effect of different cyanobacterial biomass concentrations on removal efficiency. We also examined if zeta potential was altered by treatments. Addition of low doses of PAC and chitosan (1±8 mg Al L-1) to the cyanobacterial suspensions caused flock formation, but did not settle the cyanobacteria. When those low dose coagulants were combined with ballast, effective settling in a dose-dependent way up to 99.7% removal of the flocks could be achieved without any effect on the zeta potential and thus without potential membrane damage. Removal efficacy was influenced by the cyanobacterial biomass and at higher biomass more ballast was needed to achieve good removal. The combined coagulant-ballast technique provides a promising alternative to algaecides in lakes, ponds and reservoirs.
Canopy-scale biophysical controls of transpiration and evaporation in the Amazon Basin
Mallick, Kaniska ; Trebs, Ivonne ; Boegh, Eva ; Giustarini, Laura ; Schlerf, Martin ; Drewry, Darren T. ; Hoffmann, Lucien ; Randow, Celso Von; Kruijt, Bart ; Araùjo, Alessandro ; Saleska, Scott ; Ehleringer, James R. ; Domingues, Tomas F. ; Ometto, Jean Pierre H.B. ; Nobre, Antonio D. ; Luiz Leal De Moraes, Osvaldo ; Hayek, Matthew ; William Munger, J. ; Wofsy, Steven C. - \ 2016
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 20 (2016)10. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 4237 - 4264.
Canopy and aerodynamic conductances (gC and gA) are two of the key land surface biophysical variables that control the land surface response of land surface schemes in climate models. Their representation is crucial for predicting transpiration (λET) and evaporation (λEE) flux components of the terrestrial latent heat flux (λE), which has important implications for global climate change and water resource management. By physical integration of radiometric surface temperature (TR) into an integrated framework of the Penman-Monteith and Shuttleworth-Wallace models, we present a novel approach to directly quantify the canopy-scale biophysical controls on λET and λEE over multiple plant functional types (PFTs) in the Amazon Basin. Combining data from six LBA (Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) eddy covariance tower sites and a TR-driven physically based modeling approach, we identified the canopy-scale feedback-response mechanism between gC, λET, and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (DA), without using any leaf-scale empirical parameterizations for the modeling. The TR-based model shows minor biophysical control on λET during the wet (rainy) seasons where λET becomes predominantly radiation driven and net radiation (RN) determines 75 to 80% of the variances of λET. However, biophysical control on λET is dramatically increased during the dry seasons, and particularly the 2005 drought year, explaining 50 to 65% of the variances of λET, and indicates λET to be substantially soil moisture driven during the rainfall deficit phase. Despite substantial differences in gA between forests and pastures, very similar canopy-atmosphere "coupling" was found in these two biomes due to soil moisture-induced decrease in gC in the pasture. This revealed the pragmatic aspect of the TR-driven model behavior that exhibits a high sensitivity of gC to per unit change in wetness as opposed to gA that is marginally sensitive to surface wetness variability. Our results reveal the occurrence of a significant hysteresis between λET and gC during the dry season for the pasture sites, which is attributed to relatively low soil water availability as compared to the rainforests, likely due to differences in rooting depth between the two systems. Evaporation was significantly influenced by gA for all the PFTs and across all wetness conditions. Our analytical framework logically captures the responses of gC and gA to changes in atmospheric radiation, DA, and surface radiometric temperature, and thus appears to be promising for the improvement of existing land-surface-atmosphere exchange parameterizations across a range of spatial scales.
Prediction and evaluation of enteric methane emissions from lactating dairy cows using different levels of covariate information
Santiago-Juarez, B. ; Moraes, L.E. ; Appuhamy, J.A.D.R.N. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Casper, D.P. ; Tricarico, J. ; Kebreab, E. - \ 2016
Animal Production Science 56 (2016)3. - ISSN 1836-0939 - p. 557 - 564.
The dairy sector contributes to global warming through enteric methane (CH4) emissions. Methane is also a loss of energy to the ruminant. Several studies have developed CH4 prediction models to assess mitigation strategies to reduce emissions. However, the majority of these models have low predictive ability or require numerous inputs that are often not readily available in commercial dairy operations. In this context, the objective of the present paper was to develop CH4 prediction models by using varying levels of information available at the farm level. The seven complexity levels used the following information: (1) dietary nutrient composition, (2) milk yield and composition, (3) Levels 1 and 2, (4) Level 3 plus dry matter intake (DMI), (5) Level 4 plus bodyweight, (6) Level 2 plus DMI, and (7) DMI only. Models were fitted to 489 individual enteric-CH4 measurements from 30 indirect calorimetry studies and evaluated with an independent database comprising 215 treatment means from 62 studies collected from the literature. Within each complexity level, all possible mixed-effect models were fitted and those with the lowest values of Akaike or Bayesian information criteria were selected using lme4 package in R. Models were evaluated using mean square prediction error (MSPE) based statistic, root MSPE (RMSPE) to observation standard deviation ratio, concordance correlation coefficient and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency methods. All fitted models performed well with an acceptable error estimates (RMSPE as a percentage of observed mean (RMSPE%) = 16–24%), with more than two-thirds of total error originating from random bias. Overall, models with DMI were more accurate (RMSPE% = 16–20%) than those without (RMSPE% = 20–24%). Although the best prediction model (RMSPE% = 16%) was developed using Level 5 information, a model using Level 2 information is recommended for on-farm methane estimates if DMI is not measured. The proposed models offer easy and practical tools to dairy producers for predicting CH4 emissions and evaluating CH4 mitigation strategies.
|An overview of informal seed systems with references to Ethiopia and Ghana
Moraes Sarmento, Ariana Sousa de; Subedi, A. ; Roo, N. de; Kraaijvanger, Richard - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 60 p.
Environmental rather than spatial factors structure bacterioplankton communities in shallow lakes along a >6000km latitudinal gradient in South America
Souffreau, Caroline ; Gucht, Katleen Van der; Gremberghe, Ineke van; Kosten, Sarian ; Lacerot, Gissell ; Lobão, Lúcia Meirelles ; Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia de; Roland, Fabio ; Jeppesen, Erik ; Vyverman, Wim ; Meester, Luc De - \ 2015
Environmental Microbiology 17 (2015)7. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 2336 - 2351.
Metacommunity studies on lake bacterioplankton indicate the importance of environmental factors in structuring communities. Yet most of these studies cover relatively small spatial scales. We assessed the relative importance of environmental and spatial factors in shaping bacterioplankton communities across a >6000km latitudinal range, studying 48 shallow lowland lakes in the tropical, tropicali (isothermal subzone of the tropics) and tundra climate regions of South America using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) differed significantly across regions. Although a large fraction of the variation in BCC remained unexplained, the results supported a consistent significant contribution of local environmental variables and to a lesser extent spatial variables, irrespective of spatial scale. Upon correction for space, mainly biotic environmental factors significantly explained the variation in BCC. The abundance of pelagic cladocerans remained particularly significant, suggesting grazer effects on bacterioplankton communities in the studied lakes. These results confirm that bacterioplankton communities are predominantly structured by environmental factors, even over a large-scale latitudinal gradient (6026km), and stress the importance of including biotic variables in studies that aim to understand patterns in BCC.
Mutrivariate and univariate analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows
Moraes, L.E. ; Kebreab, E. ; Strathe, A.B. ; Dijkstra, J. ; France, J. ; Casper, D.P. ; Fadel, J.G. - \ 2015
Journal of Dairy Science 98 (2015)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 4012 - 4029.
body tissue mobilization - random regression - equation models - milk-production - major advances - genetic merit - growing pigs - net energy - efficiency - expression
The objectives of the study were to develop a multivariate framework for analyzing energy balance data from lactating cows and investigate potential changes in maintenance requirements and partial efficiencies of energy utilization by lactating cows over the years. The proposed model accounted for the fact that metabolizable energy intake, milk energy output, and tissue energy balance are random variables that interact mutually. The model was specified through structural equations implemented in a Bayesian framework. The structural equations, along with a model traditionally used to estimate energetic parameters, were fitted to a large database of indirect calorimetry records from lactating cows. Maintenance requirements and partial efficiencies for both models were similar to values reported in the literature. In particular, the estimated parameters (with 95% credible interval in parentheses) for the proposed model were: net energy requirement for maintenance equal to 0.36 (0.34, 0.38) MJ/kg of metabolic body weight·day; the efficiency of utilizing dietary energy for milk production and tissue gain were 0.63 (0.61, 0.64) and 0.70 (0.68, 0.72), respectively; the efficiency of utilizing body stores for milk production was 0.89 (0.87, 0.91). Furthermore, additional analyses were conducted for which energetic parameters were allowed to depend on the decade in which studies were conducted. These models investigated potential changes in maintenance requirements and partial efficiencies over the years. Canonical correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between changes in energetic parameters with additional dietary and animal characteristics available in the database. For both models, net energy requirement for maintenance and the efficiency of utilizing dietary energy for milk production and tissue gain increased in the more recent decades, whereas the efficiency of utilizing body stores for milk production remained unchanged. The increase in maintenance requirements in modern milk production systems is consistent with the literature that describes increased fasting heat production in cows of higher genetic merit. The increase in utilization of dietary energy for milk production and tissue gain was partially attributed to the changes in dietary composition, in particular to the increase in dietary ether extract to levels closer to currently observed in modern milk production systems. Therefore, the estimated energetic parameters from this study can be used to update maintenance requirements and partial efficiencies of energy utilization in North American feeding systems for lactating cows.
Bayesian analysis of energy balance data from growing cattle using parametric and non-parametric modelling
Moraes, L.E. ; Kebreab, E. ; Strathe, A.B. ; France, J. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Casper, D. ; Fadel, J.G. - \ 2014
Animal Production Science 54 (2014)12. - ISSN 1836-0939 - p. 2068 - 2081.
lactating dairy-cows - metabolizable energy - net energy - penalized splines - dynamic-model - mixed models - efficiency - growth - regression - gain
Linear and non-linear models have been extensively utilised for the estimation of net and metabolisable energy requirements and for the estimation of the efficiencies of utilising dietary energy for maintenance and tissue gain. In growing animals, biological principles imply that energy retention rate is non-linearly related to the energy intake level because successive increments in energy intake above maintenance result in diminishing returns for tissue energy accretion. Heat production in growing cattle has been traditionally described by logarithmic regression and exponential models. The objective of the present study was to develop Bayesian models of energy retention and heat production in growing cattle using parametric and non-parametric techniques. Parametric models were used to represent models traditionally employed to describe energy use in growing steers and heifers whereas the non-parametric approach was introduced to describe energy utilisation while accounting for non-linearities without specifying a particular functional form. The Bayesian framework was used to incorporate prior knowledge of bioenergetics on tissue retention and heat production and to estimate net and metabolisable energy requirements (NEM and MEM, respectively), and the partial efficiencies of utilising dietary metabolisable energy for maintenance (km) and tissue energy gain (kg). The database used for the study consisted of 719 records of indirect calorimetry on steers and non-pregnant, non-lactating heifers. The NEM was substantially larger in energy retention models (ranged from 0.40 to 0.50 MJ/kg BW0.75.day) than were NEM estimates from heat-production models (ranged from 0.29 to 0.49 MJ/kg BW0.75.day). Similarly, km was also larger in energy retention models than in heat production models. These differences are explained by the nature of y-intercepts (NEM) in these two models. Energy retention models estimate fasting catabolism as the y-intercept, while heat production models estimate fasting heat production. Conversely, MEM was virtually identical in all models and approximately equal to 0.53 MJ/kg BW0.75.day in this database.
Methane production and hydrogen dynamics in dairy cattle: a model of rumen metabolic pathways
Lingen, H.J. van; Moraes, L.E. ; Bannink, A. ; Kebreab, E. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2014
In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Modelling Nutrient Digestion and Utilisation in Farm Animals. - CSIRO Publishing - p. ii - ii.
Prediction of nitrogen use in dairy cattle: a multivariate Bayesian approach
Reed, K.F. ; Moraes, L.E. ; Fadel, J.G. ; Casper, D.P. ; Dijkstra, J. ; France, J. ; Kebreab, E. - \ 2014
Animal Production Science 54 (2014)12. - ISSN 1836-0939 - p. 1918 - 1926.
cows - excretion - protein - management - metabolism - efficiency - ruminants - pollution - dietary - manure
Quantification of dairy cattle nitrogen (N) excretion and secretion is necessary to improve the efficiency with which feed N is converted to milk N (ENU). Faecal and urinary N excretion and milk N secretion are correlated with each other and thus are more accurately described by a multivariate model that can accommodate the covariance between the three observations than by three separate univariate models. Further, by simultaneously predicting the three routes of excretion and taking advantage of the mass balance relationships between them, covariate effects on N partitioning from feed to faeces and absorbed N and from absorbed N to milk and urine N and animal ENU can be estimated. A database containing 1094 lactating dairy cow observations collated from indirect calorimetry experiments was used for model development. Dietary metabolisable energy content (ME, MJ/kg DM) increased ENU at a decreasing rate, increased the efficiency with which feed N was converted to absorbed N and decreased the efficiency with which absorbed N was converted to milk N. However, the parameter estimate of the effect of ME on post-absorption efficiency was not different from zero when the model was fitted to a data subset in which net energy and metabolisable protein were at or above requirement. This suggests the effect of ME on post-absorption N use is dependent on the energy status of the animal.