Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Two-step accelerating freezing protocol yields a better motility, membranes and DNA integrities of thawed ram sperm than three-steps freezing protocols
Galarza, Diego A. ; López-Sebastián, Antonio ; Woelders, Henri ; Blesbois, Elizabeth ; Santiago-Moreno, Julián - \ 2019
Cryobiology (2019). - ISSN 0011-2240
Cooling - DNA integrity - Ram - Semen cryopreservation - Semen quality

The present study compares a protocol that mimics freezing of ram semen in static nitrogen vapor with two protocols with an initial low cooling rate in the first step, followed by higher cooling rates where ice nucleation occurs. Semen ejaculates, obtained from twelve adults rams, were diluted with TEST-based extender and frozen with either Protocol 1 (three-step decelerating cooling): from +5 °C to −35 °C (40 °C/min), from −35 °C to −65 °C (17 °C/min), and then from −65 °C to −85 °C (3 °C/min); or Protocol 2 (three-step accelerating cooling): from +5 °C to −5 °C (4 °C/min), from −5 °C to −110 °C (25 °C/min), and then from −110 °C to −140 °C (35 °C/min); or Protocol 3 (two-step accelerating cooling), from +5 °C to −10 °C (5 °C/min), and then from −10 °C to −130 °C (60 °C/min). Post-thaw sperm quality was reduced for all protocols (p < .05) compared with fresh semen. Post-thaw percentages of sperm motility characteristics and sperm with intact plasma membrane, intact acrosome, and intact mitochondrial membrane were greater using Protocol 3 than Protocol 2 (p < .05) and Protocol 1 (p < .01). In addition, the post-thaw percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA was lower (p < .05) using Protocol 3 compared with Protocol 1. The present results indicate that a cooling rate of 60 °C/min around and after the time point of ice nucleation provided better post thaw survival and function of ram sperm than lower (and/or decelerating) cooling rates.

Global distribution of earthworm diversity
Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Guerra, Carlos A. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Crowther, Thomas W. ; Ferlian, Olga ; Gongalsky, Konstantin B. ; Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Krebs, Julia ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Routh, Devin ; Schwarz, Benjamin ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bennett, Joanne ; Brose, Ulrich ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Russell, David ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Thakur, Madhav P. ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Arai, Miwa ; Ayuke, Fredrick O. ; Baker, Geoff H. ; Beauséjour, Robin ; Bedano, José C. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Blanchart, Eric ; Blossey, Bernd ; Bolger, Thomas ; Bradley, Robert L. ; Callaham, Mac A. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Caulfield, Mark E. ; Choi, Amy ; Crotty, Felicity V. ; Dávalos, Andrea ; Diaz Cosin, Darío J. ; Dominguez, Anahí ; Duhour, Andrés Esteban ; Eekeren, Nick Van; Emmerling, Christoph ; Falco, Liliana B. ; Fernández, Rosa ; Fonte, Steven J. ; Fragoso, Carlos ; Franco, André L.C. ; Fugère, Martine ; Fusilero, Abegail T. ; Gholami, Shaieste ; Gundale, Michael J. ; Gutiérrez Lopez, Monica ; Hackenberger, Davorka K. ; Hernández, Luis M. ; Hishi, Takuo ; Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Hopfensperger, Kristine N. ; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Huhta, Veikko ; Hurisso, Tunsisa T. ; Iannone, Basil V. ; Iordache, Madalina ; Joschko, Monika ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kanianska, Radoslava ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Kelly, Courtland A. ; Kernecker, Maria L. ; Klaminder, Jonatan ; Koné, Armand W. ; Kooch, Yahya ; Kukkonen, Sanna T. ; Lalthanzara, H. ; Lammel, Daniel R. ; Lebedev, Iurii M. ; Li, Yiqing ; Jesus Lidon, Juan B. ; Lincoln, Noa K. ; Loss, Scott R. ; Marichal, Raphael ; Matula, Radim ; Moos, Jan Hendrik ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Mor n-Ríos, Alejandro ; Muys, Bart ; Neirynck, Johan ; Norgrove, Lindsey ; Novo, Marta ; Nuutinen, Visa ; Nuzzo, Victoria ; Mujeeb Rahman, P. ; Pansu, Johan ; Paudel, Shishir ; Pérès, Guénola ; Pérez-Camacho, Lorenzo ; Piñeiro, Raúl ; Ponge, Jean François ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Rebollo, Salvador ; Rodeiro-Iglesias, Javier ; Rodríguez, Miguel ; Roth, Alexander M. ; Rousseau, Guillaume X. ; Rozen, Anna ; Sayad, Ehsan ; Schaik, Loes Van; Scharenbroch, Bryant C. ; Schirrmann, Michael ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Schröder, Boris ; Seeber, Julia ; Shashkov, Maxim P. ; Singh, Jaswinder ; Smith, Sandy M. ; Steinwandter, Michael ; Talavera, José A. ; Trigo, Dolores ; Tsukamoto, Jiro ; Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Virto, Iñigo ; Wackett, Adrian A. ; Warren, Matthew W. ; Wehr, Nathaniel H. ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Wironen, Michael B. ; Wolters, Volkmar ; Zenkova, Irina V. ; Zhang, Weixin ; Cameron, Erin K. ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
Science 366 (2019)6464. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 480 - 485.

Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.

Comparison of smoking-related DNA methylation between newborns from prenatal exposure and adults from personal smoking
Sikdar, Sinjini ; Joehanes, Roby ; Joubert, Bonnie R. ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Vives-Usano, Marta ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Felix, Janine F. ; Ward, James M. ; Guan, Weihua ; Richmond, Rebecca C. ; Brody, Jennifer A. ; Küpers, Leanne K. ; Baïz, Nour ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Smith, Jennifer A. ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Aslibekyan, Stella ; Hoyo, Cathrine ; Dhingra, Radhika ; Markunas, Christina A. ; Xu, Tao ; Reynolds, Lindsay M. ; Just, Allan C. ; Mandaviya, Pooja R. ; Ghantous, Akram ; Bennett, Brian D. ; Wang, Tianyuan ; Consortium, The Bios ; Bakulski, Kelly M. ; Melen, Erik ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Jin, Jianping ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Meurs, Joyce Van; Taylor, Jack A. ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Murphy, Susan K. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica Cheng ; Deary, Ian J. ; Nystad, Wenche ; Waldenberger, Melanie ; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella ; Conneely, Karen ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Arnett, Donna ; Snieder, Harold ; Kardia, Sharon L.R. ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Ong, Ken K. ; Ewart, Susan ; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia ; Romieu, Isabelle ; Sotoodehnia, Nona ; Fornage, Myriam ; Motsinger-Reif, Alison ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Levy, Daniel ; London, Stephanie J. - \ 2019
Epigenomics 11 (2019)13. - ISSN 1750-1911 - p. 1487 - 1500.
cigarette smoking - epigenetics - infant - maternal exposure - methylation

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

Using the WOFOST crop growth model to assess within-field yield variability
Tagarakis, A.C. ; Mimić, G. ; Vaessen, H.M. ; Rodriguez-Moreno, F. ; Evert, F.K. Van; Ćirić, V. - \ 2019
In: Precision Agriculture 2019 - Papers Presented at the 12th European Conference on Precision Agriculture, ECPA 2019. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (Precision Agriculture 2019 - Papers Presented at the 12th European Conference on Precision Agriculture, ECPA 2019 ) - ISBN 9789086863372 - p. 91 - 97.
Apparent electrical conductivity - Crop modelling - Soil texture - Water flow accumulation - Yield monitor

Usually crop models are run as point-based at field level. However, various soil properties may cause crop growth and yield to vary significantly at a smaller spatial scale than the field. Thus the objective of this study was to determine whether within-field variation in yield can be simulated when appropriate input data are available. A study was performed on a 64-ha maize field located in Vojvodina region (northern Serbia). The soil was characterized as Chernozem. The field was managed by the farmer at a sub-field level in 2017. Apparent electrical conductivity zones were used for targeted soil sampling and final yield was recorded by yield monitors installed on the two harvesters used to harvest the field. According to the results, field slope, water flow direction and accumulation were important yield driving factors. Spatially variable soil properties were introduced into the WOFOST crop model by estimating available water within the field, based on calculated water flow accumulation. Points were selected within management zones. Yield predicted by the model was correlated with the yield measured by the yield monitors.

Robustness of trait connections across environmental gradients and growth forms
Flores-Moreno, Habacuc ; Fazayeli, Farideh ; Banerjee, Arindam ; Datta, Abhirup ; Kattge, Jens ; Butler, Ethan E. ; Atkin, Owen K. ; Wythers, Kirk ; Chen, Ming ; Anand, Madhur ; Bahn, Michael ; Byun, Chaeho ; Cornelissen, Hans C. ; Craine, Joseph ; Gonzalez-Melo, Andres ; Hattingh, Wesley N. ; Jansen, Steven ; Kraft, Nathan J.B. ; Kramer, Koen ; Laughlin, Daniel C. ; Minden, Vanessa ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Onipchenko, Vladimir ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Dalrymple, Rhiannon L. ; Reich, Peter B. - \ 2019
Global Ecology and Biogeography (2019). - ISSN 1466-822X
leaf traits - plant functional traits - plant strategy integration - seed traits - stem traits - trait interdependence - trait networks

Aim: Plant trait databases often contain traits that are correlated, but for whom direct (undirected statistical dependency) and indirect (mediated by other traits) connections may be confounded. The confounding of correlation and connection hinders our understanding of plant strategies, and how these vary among growth forms and climate zones. We identified the direct and indirect connections across plant traits relevant to competition, resource acquisition and reproductive strategies using a global database and explored whether connections within and between traits from different tissue types vary across climates and growth forms. Location: Global. Major taxa studied: Plants. Time period: Present. Methods: We used probabilistic graphical models and a database of 10 plant traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, mass- and area-based leaf nitrogen and phosphorous content, leaf life span, plant height, stem specific density and seed mass) with 16,281 records to describe direct and indirect connections across woody and non-woody plants across tropical, temperate, arid, cold and polar regions. Results: Trait networks based on direct connections are sparser than those based on correlations. Land plants had high connectivity across traits within and between tissue types; leaf life span and stem specific density shared direct connections with all other traits. For both growth forms, two groups of traits form modules of more highly connected traits; one related to resource acquisition, the other to plant architecture and reproduction. Woody species had higher trait network modularity in polar compared to temperate and tropical climates, while non-woody species did not show significant differences in modularity across climate regions. Main conclusions: Plant traits are highly connected both within and across tissue types, yet traits segregate into persistent modules of traits. Variation in the modularity of trait networks suggests that trait connectivity is shaped by prevailing environmental conditions and demonstrates that plants of different growth forms use alternative strategies to cope with local conditions.

Effectiveness of Panama as an intercontinental land bridge for large mammals
Meyer, Ninon F.V. ; Moreno, Ricardo ; Sutherland, Christopher ; Torre, J.A. de la; Esser, Helen J. ; Jordan, Christopher A. ; Olmos, Melva ; Ortega, Josué ; Reyna-Hurtado, Rafael ; Valdes, Samuel ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2019
Conservation Biology (2019). - ISSN 0888-8892
Bayesian statistics - community-level distribution - hierarchical occupancy modeling - landscape connectivity - Mesoamerican Biological Corridor - Neotropical forest

Habitat fragmentation is a primary driver of wildlife loss, and establishment of biological corridors is a common strategy to mitigate this problem. A flagship example is the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC), which aims to connect protected forest areas between Mexico and Panama to allow dispersal and gene flow of forest organisms. Because forests across Central America have continued to degrade, the functioning of the MBC has been questioned, but reliable estimates of species occurrence were unavailable. Large mammals are suitable indicators of forest functioning, so we assessed their conservation status across the Isthmus of Panama, the narrowest section of the MBC. We used large-scale camera-trap surveys and hierarchical multispecies occupancy models in a Bayesian framework to estimate the occupancy of 9 medium to large mammals and developed an occupancy-weighted connectivity metric to evaluate species-specific functional connectivity. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), jaguar (Panthera onca), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and tapir (Tapirus bairdii) had low expected occupancy along the MBC in Panama. Puma (Puma concolor), red brocket deer (Mazama temama), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), which are more adaptable, had higher occupancy, even in areas with low forest cover near infrastructure. However, the majority of species were subject to ≥1 gap that was larger than their known dispersal distances, suggesting poor connectivity along the MBC in Panama. Based on our results, forests in Darien, Donoso–Santa Fe, and La Amistad International Park are critical for survival of large terrestrial mammals in Panama and 2 areas need restoration.

Correction to: Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer
Bien, Stephanie A. ; Su, Yu Ru ; Conti, David V. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Qu, Conghui ; Guo, Xingyi ; Lu, Yingchang ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Auer, Paul L. ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chen, Sai ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Gallinger, Steven ; Giles, Graham G. ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Kühn, Tilman ; Küry, Sébastien ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Marchand, Loic Le; Milne, Roger L. ; Li, Li ; Li, Christopher I. ; Lindblom, Annika ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Martín, Vicente ; McNeil, Caroline E. ; Melas, Marilena ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharaoh, Paul D.P. ; Potter, John D. ; Qu, Chenxu ; Riboli, Elio ; Rennert, Gad ; Sala, Núria ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Scacheri, Peter C. ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Severi, Gianluca ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Tumino, Rosario ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Abeçasis, Goncalo R. ; Casey, Graham ; Nickerson, Deborah A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Hsu, Li ; Zheng, Wei ; Peters, Ulrike - \ 2019
Human Genetics 138 (2019)7. - ISSN 0340-6717 - p. 789 - 791.

Every author has erroneously been assigned to the affiliation “62”. The affiliation 62 belongs to the author Graham Casey.

Root architecture system of oilseed species from the Jatropha genus during seed development and germination
Brito, Cristiane D. de; Loureiro, Marta B. ; Ribeiro, Paulo R. ; Vasconcelos, Paulo Carvalho T. ; Moreno, Maria Lúcia V. ; Fernandez, Luzimar G. ; Hilhorst, Henk W.M. ; Lammeren, Andre van; Ligterink, Wilco ; Castro, Renato D. de - \ 2019
Industrial Crops and Products 139 (2019). - ISSN 0926-6690
Germination - Guard cells - Root development - Seed embryo

The life cycle of a seed plant involves subsequent stages of development including germination and seedling establishment. Morphological structures have a fundamental role in these phases, since they are strongly related to physiological adaptations to survival in a range of environments. The present study describes an important morphophysiological and anatomical pattern in embryos of Jatropha genus, involving adaptations for germination and seedling growth. Seed embryos of Jatropha curcas, J. gossypiifolia, J. podagrica and J. multifida were examined using different physiological and microscopic assays. Jatropha species present a multimeristematic embryo composed of one main apical primary meristem plus four radial primary meristems. Seed germination is completed by simultaneous protrusion of five functional roots and seedlings are able to survive even with only one of them. The hypocotyl-radicle transition zone exhibiting different stomata sizes, ontogenic phases and short lifespan limited to the germination. Stomata fractures at mid-region due to the fact that guard cells were not lengthen as neighboring epidermal cells, forming a large cavity in the epidermal tissue during seedling growth. The results showed an unusual and complex root structure for the Jatropha genus. The presence of stomata operating strictly during seed germination could be associated to intense energetic metabolism demanded for the simultaneous growth of the five roots originated from the multimeristematic radicle. This study provides important insights into the understanding of seed germination of Jatropha species in response to stress environmental conditions.

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, R. ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, D. ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, M.V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-lópez, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, J.A. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
biodiversity - agroecosystem - landscape composition - landscape configuration - functional traits - arthropods - natural pest control - pollination - yields
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non‐crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7‐ and 1.4‐fold respectively. Arable‐dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield‐enhancing ecosystem services.
Wet and dry tropical forests show opposite successional pathways in wood density but converge over time
Poorter, L. ; Rozendaal, Danaë ; Bongers, F. ; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. ; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica María ; Álvarez, Francisco S. ; Andrade, José Luís ; Villa, Luis Felipe Arreola ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Bhaskar, Radika ; Boukili, Vanessa ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Broadbent, Eben N. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Chave, Jerome ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Craven, Dylan ; Jong, Ben H.J. de; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; García, Elisa Díaz ; Dupuy, Juan M. ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos ; Fandiño, María C. ; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Jakovac, A.C. ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, M.W.M. ; Lopez, Omar R. ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita ; Mora, Francisco ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa De; Müller, Sandra C. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Oliveira Neto, Silvio Nolasco De; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Paz, Horacio ; Pena Claros, M. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Ruíz, Jorge ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Thomas, William Wayt ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Breugel, Michiel van; Wal, Hans van der - \ 2019
secondary succession - community assembly - community-weighted mean - wood density - Neotropics - tropical forest - Latin America
We analyse how community wood density (WD) recovers during secondary tropical forest succession. In wet forests succession proceeds from low to high WD, in dry forests from high to low WD, resulting in convergence of community WD of dry and wet forests over time, as vegetation cover builds up.
Wet and dry tropical forests show opposite successional pathways in wood density but converge over time
Poorter, Lourens ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Bongers, Frans ; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. de; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica María ; Álvarez, Francisco S. ; Andrade, José Luís ; Villa, Luis Felipe Arreola ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Bhaskar, Radika ; Boukili, Vanessa ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Broadbent, Eben N. ; César, Ricardo G. ; Chave, Jerome ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Craven, Dylan ; Jong, Ben H.J. de; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; García, Elisa Díaz ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário M. ; Fandiño, María C. ; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Jakovac, Catarina C. ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Lopez, Omar R. ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Martins, Sebastião V. ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita ; Mora, Francisco ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa de; Müller, Sandra C. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Oliveira Neto, Silvio Nolasco de; Nunes, Yule R.F. ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Paz, Horacio ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Piotto, Daniel ; Ruíz, Jorge ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Thomas, William Wayt ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Utrera, Luis P. ; Breugel, Michiel van; Sande, Masha T. van der; Wal, Hans van der; Veloso, Maria D.M. ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vieira, Ima C.G. ; Villa, Pedro Manuel ; Williamson, G.B. ; Wright, S.J. ; Zanini, Kátia J. ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Westoby, Mark - \ 2019
Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 928 - 934.

Tropical forests are converted at an alarming rate for agricultural use and pastureland, but also regrow naturally through secondary succession. For successful forest restoration, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of secondary succession. These mechanisms may vary across forest types, but analyses across broad spatial scales are lacking. Here, we analyse forest recovery using 1,403 plots that differ in age since agricultural abandonment from 50 sites across the Neotropics. We analyse changes in community composition using species-specific stem wood density (WD), which is a key trait for plant growth, survival and forest carbon storage. In wet forest, succession proceeds from low towards high community WD (acquisitive towards conservative trait values), in line with standard successional theory. However, in dry forest, succession proceeds from high towards low community WD (conservative towards acquisitive trait values), probably because high WD reflects drought tolerance in harsh early successional environments. Dry season intensity drives WD recovery by influencing the start and trajectory of succession, resulting in convergence of the community WD over time as vegetation cover builds up. These ecological insights can be used to improve species selection for reforestation. Reforestation species selected to establish a first protective canopy layer should, among other criteria, ideally have a similar WD to the early successional communities that dominate under the prevailing macroclimatic conditions.

The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agroecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, David ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, Mario V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair-Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
Ecology Letters 22 (2019)7. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1083 - 1094.
Agroecology - arthropod community - biological control - edge density - pest control - pollination - response trait - semi-natural habitat - trait syndrome - yield

Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non-crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7- and 1.4-fold respectively. Arable-dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield-enhancing ecosystem services.

Nurturing Children's Healthy Eating : Position statement
Haines, Jess ; Haycraft, Emma ; Lytle, Leslie ; Nicklaus, Sophie ; Kok, Frans J. ; Merdji, Mohamed ; Fisberg, Mauro ; Moreno, Luis A. ; Goulet, Olivier ; Hughes, Sheryl O. - \ 2019
Appetite 137 (2019). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 124 - 133.
Adolescents - Children - Eating habits - Feeding practices - Feeding style - Pleasure of eating

The relationship between eating a healthy diet and positive health outcomes is well known; nurturing healthy eating among children therefore has the potential to improve public health. A healthy diet occurs when one's usual eating patterns include adequate nutrient intake and sufficient, but not excessive, energy intake to meet the energy needs of the individual. However, many parents struggle to establish healthy eating patterns in their children due to the pressures of modern life. Moreover, healthcare providers often do not have the time or the guidance they need to empower parents to establish healthy eating practices in their children. Based on existing evidence from epidemiologic and intervention research, the Nurturing Children's Healthy Eating collaboration, established by Danone Institute International, has identified four key themes that encourage and support healthy eating practices among children in the modern Western world. The first — positive parental feeding — explores how parenting practices and styles, such as avoiding food restriction, allowing children to make their own food choices, and encouraging children to self-limit their portion sizes, can influence children's dietary intake. The second — eating together — highlights the link between eating socialization through regular family meals and healthful diet among children. The third — a healthy home food environment — explores the impact on eating practices of family resources, food availability/accessibility, parental modeling, and cues for eating. The fourth — the pleasure of eating — associates children's healthy eating with pleasure through repeated exposure to healthful foods, enjoyable social meals, and enhancement of the cognitive qualities (e.g. thoughts or ideas) of healthful foods. This paper reviews the evidence leading to the characterization of these nurturing themes, and ways in which recommendations might be implemented in the home.

Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer
Bien, Stephanie A. ; Su, Yu-Ru ; Conti, David V. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Qu, Conghui ; Guo, Xingyi ; Lu, Yingchang ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Auer, Paul L. ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chen, Sai ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Gallinger, Steven ; Giles, Graham G. ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Kühn, Tilman ; Küry, Sébastien ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Marchand, Loic Le; Milne, Roger L. ; Li, Christopher I. ; Lindblom, Annika ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Martín, Vicente ; McNeil, Caroline E. ; Melas, Marilena ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharaoh, Paul D.P. ; Potter, John D. ; Qu, Chenxu ; Riboli, Elio ; Rennert, Gad ; Sala, Núria ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Scacheri, Peter C. ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Severi, Gianluca ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Tumino, Rosario ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Abecasis, Goncalo R. ; Casey, Graham ; Nickerson, Deborah A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Hsu, Li ; Zheng, Wei ; Peters, Ulrike - \ 2019
Human Genetics 138 (2019)4. - ISSN 0340-6717 - p. 307 - 326.
Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10− 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10− 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10− 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.
A climate-sensitive forest model for assessing impacts of forest management in Europe
Härkönen, S. ; Neumann, M. ; Mues, V. ; Berninger, F. ; Bronisz, K. ; Cardellini, G. ; Chirici, G. ; Hasenauer, H. ; Koehl, M. ; Lang, M. ; Merganicova, K. ; Mohren, F. ; Moiseyev, A. ; Moreno, A. ; Mura, M. ; Muys, B. ; Olschofsky, K. ; Perugia, B. Del; Rørstad, P.K. ; Solberg, B. ; Thivolle-Cazat, A. ; Trotsiuk, V. ; Mäkelä, A. - \ 2019
Environmental Modelling & Software 115 (2019). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 128 - 143.
Bioeconomy - Bioenergy - Disturbances - Forest planning - FORMIT - Model - NPP - Scenario analysis - Sustainability - Timber harvests

FORMIT-M is a widely applicable, open-access, simple and flexible, climate-sensitive forest management simulator requiring only standard forest inventory data as input. It combines a process-based carbon balance approach with a strong inventory-based empirical component. The model has been linked to the global forest sector model EFI-GTM to secure consistency between timber cutting and demand, although prescribed harvest scenarios can also be used. Here we introduce the structure of the model and demonstrate its use with example simulations until the end of the 21st century in Europe, comparing different management scenarios in different regions under climate change. The model was consistent with country-level statistics of growing stock volumes (R 2 = 0.938) and its projections of climate impact on growth agreed with other studies. The management changes had a greater impact on growing stocks, harvest potential and carbon balance than projected climate change, at least in the absence of increased disturbance rates.

Seminal plasma amino acid profile in different breeds of chicken : Role of seminal plasma on sperm cryoresistance
Santiago-Moreno, Julián ; Bernal, Berenice ; Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín ; Castaño, Cristina ; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo ; Esteso, Milagros C. ; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso ; López-Sebastián, Antonio ; Gil, María G. ; Woelders, Henri ; Blesbois, Elisabeth - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)1. - ISSN 1932-6203

Seminal plasma is a key biological fluid that modulates sperm function in the reproduction process. However, its role in sperm biotechnologies is scarce in poultry. The aims of the present study were to study the amino acids profile and total proteins of seminal plasma in 12 Spanish chicken breeds and to investigate the role of seminal plasma on cryoresistance of rooster sperm. To investigate the role of seminal plasma on cryoresistance, diluted pooled semen samples were cryopreserved in the presence and absence of seminal plasma. Glutamic acid was the most abundant free amino acid in seminal plasma, followed by alanine, serine, valine, and glycine. There was an influence of breed (P<0.05) on the percentage of viable sperm after freezing-thawing of samples with seminal plasma. Cluster analysis revealed that White Prat, Black Castellana, Blue Andaluza, Quail Castellana, and Red-Barred Vasca returned the best freezing-thawing response (good freezers). There was a positive correlation between seminal plasma concentrations of valine, isoleucine lysine, leucine and post thaw viability. The evaluation of fertilization capacity of frozen-thawed semen from the breeds White Prat (‘good freezer’) and Black-Red Andaluza (‘bad freezer’) showed that good freezer had higher fertility (20/68, 29.4%) compared to bad freezer breed (14/76, 18.4%), even if the difference was not significant (P = 0.08). The TUNEL assay revealed that freezing/thawing procedures in presence of seminal plasma provoked higher DNA fragmentation in most of the breeds, with a positive correlation between seminal alanine, valine, isoleucine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine concentrations and DNA integrity. DNA fragmentation was lower in absence of seminal plasma and the breed effect on sperm viability was highly reduced. It is concluded that specific seminal plasma amino acids were associated with post-thaw percentage of viable sperm and DNA integrity. The removal of seminal plasma decreases the variability of the results and DNA fragmentation damages.

Recent insights on uncertainties present in integrated catchment water quality modelling
Tscheikner-Gratl, Franz ; Bellos, Vasilis ; Schellart, Alma ; Moreno-Rodenas, Antonio ; Muthusamy, Manoranjan ; Langeveld, Jeroen ; Clemens, Francois ; Benedetti, Lorenzo ; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel ; Carvalho, Rita Fernandes de; Breuer, Lutz ; Shucksmith, James ; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M. ; Tait, Simon - \ 2019
Water Research 150 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 368 - 379.
Complexity management - Integrated catchment modelling - Sub-models of integrated modelling - Uncertainty - Water quality

This paper aims to stimulate discussion based on the experiences derived from the QUICS project (Quantifying Uncertainty in Integrated Catchment Studies). First it briefly discusses the current state of knowledge on uncertainties in sub-models of integrated catchment models and the existing frameworks for analysing uncertainty. Furthermore, it compares the relative approaches of both building and calibrating fully integrated models or linking separate sub-models. It also discusses the implications of model linkage on overall uncertainty and how to define an acceptable level of model complexity. This discussion includes, whether we should shift our attention from uncertainties due to linkage, when using linked models, to uncertainties in model structure by necessary simplification or by using more parameters. This discussion attempts to address the question as to whether there is an increase in uncertainty by linking these models or if a compensation effect could take place and that overall uncertainty in key water quality parameters actually decreases. Finally, challenges in the application of uncertainty analysis in integrated catchment water quality modelling, as encountered in this project, are discussed and recommendations for future research areas are highlighted.

Potential for re-emergence of wheat stem rust in the United Kingdom
Lewis, Clare M. ; Persoons, Antoine ; Bebber, Daniel P. ; Kigathi, Rose N. ; Maintz, Jens ; Findlay, Kim ; Bueno-Sancho, Vanessa ; Corredor-Moreno, Pilar ; Harrington, Sophie A. ; Kangara, Ngonidzashe ; Berlin, Anna ; García, Richard ; Germán, Silvia E. ; Hanzalová, Alena ; Hodson, David P. ; Hovmøller, Mogens S. ; Huerta-Espino, Julio ; Imtiaz, Muhammed ; Mirza, Javed Iqbal ; Justesen, Annemarie F. ; Niks, Rients E. ; Omrani, Ali ; Patpour, Mehran ; Pretorius, Zacharias A. ; Roohparvar, Ramin ; Sela, Hanan ; Singh, Ravi P. ; Steffenson, Brian ; Visser, Botma ; Fenwick, Paul M. ; Thomas, Jane ; Wulff, Brande B.H. ; Saunders, Diane G.O. - \ 2018
Communications Biology 1 (2018)1. - ISSN 2399-3642

Wheat stem rust, a devastating disease of wheat and barley caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, was largely eradicated in Western Europe during the mid-to-late twentieth century. However, isolated outbreaks have occurred in recent years. Here we investigate whether a lack of resistance in modern European varieties, increased presence of its alternate host barberry and changes in climatic conditions could be facilitating its resurgence. We report the first wheat stem rust occurrence in the United Kingdom in nearly 60 years, with only 20% of UK wheat varieties resistant to this strain. Climate changes over the past 25 years also suggest increasingly conducive conditions for infection. Furthermore, we document the first occurrence in decades of P. graminis on barberry in the UK. Our data illustrate that wheat stem rust does occur in the UK and, when climatic conditions are conducive, could severely harm wheat and barley production.

Catalysing food safety in the domestic horticulture sector in Kenya : The potential link between export production and evolving domestic supply chains
Gema, Joyce ; Keige, John ; Ngetich, Titus ; Moreno Echeverri, Indira ; Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Koomen, I. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (Report WCDI 18-051) - 101 p.
A protocol for an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized land-use and climate scenarios
Kim, Hyejin ; Rosa, Isabel M.D. ; Alkemade, Rob ; Leadley, Paul ; Hurtt, George ; Popp, Alexander ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Anthoni, Peter ; Arneth, Almut ; Baisero, Daniele ; Caton, Emma ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Chini, Louise ; Palma, Adriana De; Fulvio, Fulvio Di; Marco, Moreno Di; Espinoza, Felipe ; Ferrier, Simon ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Gonzalez, Ricardo E. ; Gueguen, Maya ; Guerra, Carlos ; Harfoot, Mike ; Harwood, Thomas D. ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Havlík, Petr ; Hellweg, Stefanie ; Hill, Samantha L.L. ; Hirata, Akiko ; Hoskins, Andrew J. ; Janse, Jan H. ; Jetz, Walter ; Johnson, Justin A. ; Krause, Andreas ; Leclère, David ; Martins, Ines S. ; Matsui, Tetsuya ; Merow, Cory ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Ohashi, Haruka ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Purvis, Andy ; Quesada, Benjamin ; Rondinini, Carlo ; Schipper, Aafke M. ; Sharp, Richard ; Takahashi, Kiyoshi ; Thuiller, Wilfried ; Titeux, Nicolas - \ 2018
Geoscientific Model Development 11 (2018)11. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 4537 - 4562.

To support the assessments of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the IPBES Expert Group on Scenarios and Models is carrying out an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized scenarios (BES-SIM). The goals of BES-SIM are (1) to project the global impacts of land-use and climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services (i.e., nature's contributions to people) over the coming decades, compared to the 20th century, using a set of common metrics at multiple scales, and (2) to identify model uncertainties and research gaps through the comparisons of projected biodiversity and ecosystem services across models. BES-SIM uses three scenarios combining specific Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)-SSP1xRCP2.6, SSP3xRCP6.0, SSP5xRCP8.6-to explore a wide range of land-use change and climate change futures. This paper describes the rationale for scenario selection, the process of harmonizing input data for land use, based on the second phase of the Land Use Harmonization Project (LUH2), and climate, the biodiversity and ecosystem services models used, the core simulations carried out, the harmonization of the model output metrics, and the treatment of uncertainty. The results of this collaborative modeling project will support the ongoing global assessment of IPBES, strengthen ties between IPBES and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios and modeling processes, advise the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) on its development of a post-2020 strategic plans and conservation goals, and inform the development of a new generation of nature-centred scenarios.

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