Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A generic framework to assess the representation and protection of benthic ecosystems in European marine protected areas
    Greathead, Clare ; Magni, Paolo ; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Buhl‐Mortensen, Lene ; Janas, Urszula ; Blomqvist, Mats ; Craeymeersch, Johan A. ; Dannheim, Jennifer ; Darr, Alexander ; Degraer, Steven ; Desroy, Nicolas ; Donnay, Annick ; Griffiths, Yessica ; Guala, Ivan ; Guerin, Laurent ; Hinchen, Hayley ; Labrune, Celine ; Reiss, Henning ; Hoey, Gert Van; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. - \ 2020
    Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems 30 (2020)7. - ISSN 1052-7613 - p. 1253 - 1275.
    There is concern across the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) region that a consideration of vulnerable components and the wider support mechanisms underpinning benthic marine ecosystems may be lacking from the process of marine protected area (MPA) designation, management and monitoring. In this study, MPAs across six European ecoregions were assessed from a benthic ecology perspective. The study included 102 MPAs, designated by 10 countries, and focused on three aspects regarding the role of the benthos in: (i) the designation of MPAs; (ii) the management measures used in MPAs; and (iii) the monitoring and assessment of MPAs. Qualitative entries to a questionnaire based on an existing framework (EU project ‘Monitoring Evaluation of Spatially Managed Areas’, (MESMA) were collected by 19 benthic experts of the ICES Benthic Ecology Working Group. A pedigree matrix was used to apply a numerical scale (score) to these entries. The results showed clear differences in scores between ecoregions and between criteria. The designation‐phase criteria generally achieved higher scores than the implementation‐phase criteria. Poor designation‐phase scores were generally reiterated in the implementation‐phase scores, such as scores for assessment and monitoring. Over 70% of the MPA case studies were found to consider the benthos to some extent during selection and designation; however, this was not followed up with appropriate management measures and good practice during the implementation phase.
    Poor spatial and temporal coverage of monitoring and ineffective indicators is unlikely to pick up changes caused by management measures in the MPA. There is concern that without adequate monitoring and adaptive management frameworks, the MPAs will be compromised. Also, there could be an increased likelihood that, with regard to the benthos, they will fail to meet their conservation objectives. This assessment was successful in highlighting issues related to the representation and protection of the benthos in MPAs and where changes need to be made, such as expanding the characterization and monitoring of benthic species or habitats of interest. These issues could be attributable to an ongoing process and/or an indication that some MPAs only have ‘paper protection’.
    Electronic monitoring in fisheries: Lessons from global experiences and future opportunities
    Helmond, Aloysius T.M. ; Mortensen, Lars O. ; Plet‐hansen, Kristian S. ; Ulrich, Clara ; Needle, Coby L. ; Oesterwind, Daniel ; Kindt‐Larsen, Lotte ; Catchpole, Thomas ; Mangi, Stephen ; Zimmermann, Christopher ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Bailey, Nick ; Bergsson, Heidrikur ; Dalskov, Jørgen ; Elson, Jon ; Hosken, Malo ; Peterson, Lisa ; Mcelderry, Howard ; Ruiz, Jon ; Pierre, Johanna P. ; Dykstra, Claude ; Poos, Jan Jaap - \ 2020
    Fish and Fisheries 21 (2020)1. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 162 - 189.
    catch documnetation - discard monitoring - electronic monitoring - fully documented fisheries - video-based monitoring
    Since the beginning of the 21st century, electronic monitoring (EM) has emerged as a cost‐efficient supplement to existing catch monitoring programmes in fisheries. An EM system consists of various activity sensors and cameras positioned on vessels to remotely record fishing activity and catches. The first objective of this review was to describe the state of play of EM in fisheries worldwide and to present the insights gained on this technology based on 100 EM trials and 12 fully implemented programmes. Despite its advantages, and its global use for monitoring, progresses in implementation in some important fishing regions are slow. Within this context, the second objective was to discuss more specifically the European experiences gained through 16 trials. Findings show that the three major benefits of EM were as follows: (a) cost‐efficiency, (b) the potential to provide more representative coverage of the fleet than any observer programme and (c) the enhanced registration of fishing activity and location. Electronic monitoring can incentivize better compliance and discard
    reduction, but the fishing managers and industry are often reluctant to its uptake. Improved understanding of the fisher's concerns, for example intrusion of privacy, liability and costs, and better exploration of EM benefits, for example increased traceability, sustainability claims and market access, may enhance implementation on a larger scale. In conclusion, EM as a monitoring tool embodies various solid strengths that are not diminished by its weaknesses. Electronic monitoring has the opportunity to be a powerful tool in the future monitoring of fisheries, particularly when integrated within existing monitoring programmes.
    European experiences on the use of remote electronic monitoring
    Mortensen, L. ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Plet-Hansen, Kristian ; Ulrich, C. ; Needle, C. ; Oesterwind, D. ; Kindt-Larsen, L. ; Catchpole, T. ; Mangi, Stephen ; Zimmermann, C. ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Bailey, N. ; Bergsson, Heidrikur ; Dalskov, J. ; Elson, Jon ; Hosken, Malo ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2018
    - 1 p.
    Bottom trawl fishing footprints on the world’s continental shelves
    Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Althaus, Franziska ; Baird, Susan Jane ; Black, Jenny ; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Campbell, Alexander B. ; Catarino, Rui ; Collie, Jeremy ; Cowan, James H. ; Durholtz, Deon ; Engstrom, Nadia ; Fairweather, Tracey P. ; Fock, Heino O. ; Ford, Richard ; Gálvez, Patricio A. ; Gerritsen, Hans ; Góngora, María Eva ; González, Jessica A. ; Hiddink, Jan G. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Intelmann, Steven S. ; Jenkins, Chris ; Jonsson, Patrik ; Kainge, Paulus ; Kangas, Mervi ; Kathena, Johannes N. ; Kavadas, Stefanos ; Leslie, Rob W. ; Lewis, Steve G. ; Lundy, Mathieu ; Makin, David ; Martin, Julie ; Mazor, Tessa ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Papadopoulou, Nadia ; Posen, Paulette E. ; Rochester, Wayne ; Russo, Tommaso ; Sala, Antonello ; Semmens, Jayson M. ; Silva, Cristina - \ 2018
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)43. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E10275 - E10282.
    Bottom trawlers land around 19 million tons of fish and invertebrates annually, almost one-quarter of wild marine landings. The extent of bottom trawling footprint (seabed area trawled at least once in a specified region and time period) is often contested but poorly described. We quantify footprints using high-resolution satellite vessel monitoring system (VMS) and logbook data on 24 continental shelves and slopes to 1,000-m depth over at least 2 years. Trawling footprint varied markedly among regions: from <10% of seabed area in Australian and New Zealand waters, the Aleutian Islands, East Bering Sea, South Overall, 14% of the 7.8 million-km2 study area was trawled, and 86% was not trawled. Trawling activity was aggregated; the most intensively trawled areas accounting for 90% of activity comprised 77% of footprint on average. Regional swept area ratio (SAR; ratio of total swept area trawled annually to total area of region, a metric of trawling intensity) and footprint area were related, providing an approach to estimate regional trawling footprints when highresolution spatial data are unavailable. If SAR was ≤0.1, as in 8 of 24 regions, therewas >95% probability that >90%of seabed was not trawled. If SAR was 7.9, equal to the highest SAR recorded, there was >95% probability that >70% of seabed was trawled. Footprints were smaller and SAR was ≤0.25 in regions where fishing rates consistently met international sustainability benchmarks for fish stocks, implying collateral environmental benefits from sustainable fishing.
    Reviewing research priorities in weed ecology, evolution and management: a horizon scan
    Neve, P. ; Barney, J.N. ; Buckley, Y. ; Cousens, R.D. ; Graham, S. ; Jordan, N.R. ; Lawton-Rauh, A. ; Liebman, M. ; Mesgaran, M.B. ; Shaw, J. ; Storkey, J. ; Baraibar, B. ; Baucom, R.S. ; Chalak, M. ; Childs, D.Z. ; Christensen, S. ; Eizenberg, H. ; Fernández-Quintanilla, C. ; French, K. ; Harsch, M. ; Heijting, S. ; Harrison, L. ; Loddo, D. ; Macel, M. ; Maczey, N. ; Merotto, A. ; Mortensen, D. ; Necajeva, J. ; Peltzer, D.A. ; Recasens, J. ; Renton, M. ; Riemens, M. ; Sønderskov, M. ; Williams, M. ; Rew, Lisa - \ 2018
    Weed Research 58 (2018)4. - ISSN 0043-1737 - p. 250 - 258.
    Weedy plants pose a major threat to food security, biodiversity, ecosystem services and consequently to human health and wellbeing. However, many currently used weed management approaches are increasingly unsustainable. To address this knowledge and practice gap, in June 2014, 35 weed and invasion ecologists, weed scientists, evolutionary biologists and social scientists convened a workshop to explore current and future perspectives and approaches in weed ecology and management. A horizon scanning exercise ranked a list of 124 pre‐submitted questions to identify a priority list of 30 questions. These questions are discussed under seven themed headings that represent areas for renewed and emerging focus for the disciplines of weed research and practice. The themed areas considered the need for transdisciplinarity, increased adoption of integrated weed management and agroecological approaches, better understanding of weed evolution, climate change, weed invasiveness and finally, disciplinary challenges for weed science. Almost all the challenges identified rested on the need for continued efforts to diversify and integrate agroecological, socio‐economic and technological approaches in weed management. These challenges are not newly conceived, though their continued prominence as research priorities highlights an ongoing intransigence that must be addressed through a more system‐oriented and transdisciplinary research agenda that seeks an embedded integration of public and private research approaches. This horizon scanning exercise thus set out the building blocks needed for future weed management research and practice; however, the challenge ahead is to identify effective ways in which sufficient research and implementation efforts can be directed towards these needs.
    Scientific motivations and criteria to consider updating EFSA assessments : Scientific opinion
    Hardy, A. ; Benford, D. ; Halldorsson, T. ; Jeger, M.J. ; Knutsen, K.H. ; More, S. ; Mortensen, A. ; Naegeli, H. ; Noteborn, H. ; Ockleford, C. ; Brock, T.C.M. - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)3. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 11 p.
    EFSA is committed to assess and communicate the risks occurring in the food and feed chain from farm to fork and to provide other forms of scientific advice. This work, carried out by EFSA since its inception, has resulted in the adoption of thousands of scientific assessments. EFSA is obliged to re-assess past assessments in specific regulatory contexts such as those on food and feed additives, active substances in plant protection products and genetically modified food and feed. In other sectors, the consideration for updating past EFSA scientific assessments is taken on an ad hoc basis mainly depending on specific requests by risk managers or on EFSA self-tasking. If safety is potentially at stake in any area within EFSA's remit, the readiness to update past scientific assessments is important to keep EFSA at the forefront of science and to promote an effective risk assessment. Although this task might be very complex and resource demanding, it is fundamental to EFSA's mission. The present EFSA Scientific Committee opinion deals with scientific motivations and criteria to contribute to the timely updating of EFSA scientific assessments. It is recognised that the decision for updating should be agreed following careful consideration of all the relevant elements by the EFSA management, in collaboration with risk managers and stakeholders. The present opinion addresses the scientific approaches through which it would be possible for EFSA to increase the speed and effectiveness of the acquisition of new data, as well as, to improve the consequent evaluations to assess the relevance and reliability of new data in the context of contributing to the better definition of whether to update past scientific assessments.
    High-fat feeding rather than obesity drives taxonomical and functional changes in the gut microbiota in mice
    Xiao, Liang ; Sonne, Si Brask ; Feng, Qiang ; Chen, Ning ; Xia, Zhongkui ; Li, Xiaoping ; Fang, Zhiwei ; Zhang, Dongya ; Fjære, Even ; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden ; Derrien, Muriel ; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Tang, Longqing ; Li, Junhua ; Zhang, Jianfeng ; Liu, Chuan ; Hao, Qin ; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte ; Mortensen, Alicja ; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Licht, Tine Rask ; Yang, Huanming ; Wang, Jian ; Li, Yingrui ; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan ; Wang, Jun ; Madsen, Lise ; Kristiansen, Karsten - \ 2017
    Microbiome 5 (2017). - ISSN 2049-2618 - p. 43 - 43.
    129S6/Sv mice - C57BL/6J mice - High-fat feeding - Indomethacin - Microbiome - Microbiota - Obesity

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that the microbiota of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice differs from that of lean mice, but to what extent, this difference reflects the obese state or the diet is unclear. To dissociate changes in the gut microbiota associated with high HF feeding from those associated with obesity, we took advantage of the different susceptibility of C57BL/6JBomTac (BL6) and 129S6/SvEvTac (Sv129) mice to diet-induced obesity and of their different responses to inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, where inhibition of COX activity in BL6 mice prevents HF diet-induced obesity, but in Sv129 mice accentuates obesity.

    RESULTS: Using HiSeq-based whole genome sequencing, we identified taxonomic and functional differences in the gut microbiota of the two mouse strains fed regular low-fat or HF diets with or without supplementation with the COX-inhibitor, indomethacin. HF feeding rather than obesity development led to distinct changes in the gut microbiota. We observed a robust increase in alpha diversity, gene count, abundance of genera known to be butyrate producers, and abundance of genes involved in butyrate production in Sv129 mice compared to BL6 mice fed either a LF or a HF diet. Conversely, the abundance of genes involved in propionate metabolism, associated with increased energy harvest, was higher in BL6 mice than Sv129 mice.

    CONCLUSIONS: The changes in the composition of the gut microbiota were predominantly driven by high-fat feeding rather than reflecting the obese state of the mice. Differences in the abundance of butyrate and propionate producing bacteria in the gut may at least in part contribute to the observed differences in obesity propensity in Sv129 and BL6 mice.

    The footprint of bottom trawling in European waters : Distribution, intensity, and seabed integrity
    Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål ; Catarino, Rui ; Dinesen, Grete E. ; Egekvist, Josefine ; Fock, Heino O. ; Geitner, Kerstin ; Gerritsen, Hans D. ; González, Manuel Marín ; Jonsson, Patrik ; Kavadas, Stefanos ; Laffargue, Pascal ; Lundy, Mathieu ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Papadopoulou, Nadia ; Posen, Paulette E. ; Pulcinella, Jacopo ; Russo, Tommaso ; Sala, Antonello ; Silva, Cristina ; Smith, Christopher J. ; Vanelslander, Bart ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. - \ 2017
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 847 - 865.
    benthic impact - bottom trawl - fishing pressure - indicators - Mediterranean Sea - Northeast Atlantic - seabed habitat - seabed integrity - trawling footprint - trawling intensity
    Mapping trawling pressure on the benthic habitats is needed as background to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. The extent and intensity of bottom trawling on the European continental shelf (0-1000 m) was analysed from logbook statistics and vessel monitoring system data for 2010-2012 at a grid cell resolution of 1 1 min longitude and latitude. Trawling intensity profiles with seabed impact at the surface and subsurface level are presented for 14 management areas in the North-east Atlantic, Baltic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. The footprint of the management areas ranged between 53-99% and 6-94% for the depth zone from 0 to 200 m (Shallow) and from 201 to 1000 m (Deep), respectively. The footprint was estimated as the total area of all grid cells that were trawled fully or partially. Excluding the untrawled proportions reduced the footprint estimates to 28-85% and 2-77%. Largest footprints per unit landings were observed off Portugal and in the Mediterranean Sea. Mean trawling intensity ranged between 0.5 and 8.5 times per year, but was less in the Deep zone with a maximum intensity of 6.4. Highest intensities were recorded in the Skagerrak-Kattegat, Iberian Portuguese area, Tyrrhenian Sea and Adriatic Sea. Bottom trawling was highly aggregated. For the Shallow zone the seabed area where 90% of the effort occurred comprised between 17% and 63% (median 36%) of the management area. Footprints were high over a broad range of soft sediment habitats. Using the longevity distribution of the untrawled infaunal community, the seabed integrity was estimated as the proportion of the biomass of benthic taxa where the trawling interval at the subsurface level exceeds their life span. Seabed integrity was low (>0.1) in large parts of the European continental shelfs, although smaller pockets of seabed with higher integrity values occur. The methods developed here integrate official fishing effort statistics and industry-based gear information to provide high-resolution pressure maps and indicators, which greatly improve the basis for assessing and managing benthic pressure from bottom trawling. Further they provide quantitative estimates of trawling impact on a continuous scale by which managers can steer.
    Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries : A management approach for the North Sea demersal fisheries
    Ulrich, Clara ; Vermard, Youen ; Dolder, Paul J. ; Brunel, Thomas ; Jardim, Ernesto ; Holmes, Steven J. ; Kempf, Alexander ; Mortensen, Lars O. ; Poos, Jan Jaap ; Rindorf, Anna - \ 2017
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)2. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 566 - 575.
    choke species - Common Fisheries Policy - fleet modelling - FMSY ranges - landing obligation - management plan - pretty good yield
    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example of an issue that is generic across most demersal fisheries worldwide, with the diversity of species and fisheries inducing numerous biological and technical interactions. Building on a rich knowledge base for the understanding and quantification of these interactions, new approaches have emerged. Recent paths towards operationalizing MSY at the regional scale have suggested the expansion of the concept into a desirable area of "pretty good yield", implemented through a range around FMSY that would allow for more flexibility in management targets. This article investigates the potential of FMSY ranges to combine long-term single-stock targets with flexible, short-term, mixed-fisheries management requirements applied to the main North Sea demersal stocks. It is shown that sustained fishing at the upper bound of the range may lead to unacceptable risks when technical interactions occur. An objective method is suggested that provides an optimal set of fishing mortality within the range, minimizing the risk of total allowable catch mismatches among stocks captured within mixed fisheries, and addressing explicitly the trade-offs between the most and least productive stocks.
    Wood ash application increases pH but does not harm the soil mesofauna
    Qin, Jiayi ; Hovmand, M. ; Ekelund, Flemming ; Rønn, Regin ; Christensen, S. ; Groot, G.A. de; Mortensen, L.H. ; Skov, Simon ; Henning Krogh, P. - \ 2017
    Environmental Pollution 224 (2017). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 581 - 589.
    Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions. To examine this, we performed laboratory toxicity studies of the effects of wood-ash added to an agricultural soil and the organic horizon of a coniferous plantation soil with the detrivore soil collembolans Folsomia candida and Onychiurus yodai, the gamasid predaceous mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, and the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus. We used ash concentrations spanning 0-75 g kg-1 soil. As ash increases pH we compared bioash effects with effects of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, the main liming component of ash. Only high ash concentrations above 15 g kg-1 agricultural soil or 17 t ha-1 had significant effects on the collembolans. The wood ash neither affected H. aculeifer nor E. crypticus. The estimated osmolalities of Ca(OH)2 and the wood ash were similar at the LC50 concentration level. We conclude that short-term chronic effects of wood ash differ among different soil types, and osmotic stress is the likely cause of effects while high pH and heavy metals is of minor importance.
    Maritime ecosystem-based management in practice : Lessons learned from the application of a generic spatial planning framework in Europe
    Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Galparsoro, Ibon ; Vega Fernández, Tomás ; Johnson, Kate ; Anna, Giovanni D'; Badalamenti, Fabio ; Garofalo, Germana ; Carlström, Julia ; Piwowarczyk, Joanna ; Rabaut, Marijn ; Hoof, Luc van - \ 2017
    Marine Policy 75 (2017). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 174 - 186.
    Blue Growth - Human activities - Management - Marine Spatial Planning - MSP-Framework - Spatial use conflicts

    A generic framework (FW) for the monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas (here defined as marine areas subject to a planning and management regime) was developed and tested in nine marine areas of 13 European countries under the EU funded project MESMA (Monitoring and Evaluation of Spatially Managed Areas). This paper describes the lessons learned in the use of the FW and draws conclusions for its future use and development. The selected case studies represented diverse spatial scales, management status and complexity, ranging from sub-national areas to entire national coastlines, and large offshore regions. The application of the FW consisted of seven steps: starting with (i) context setting and (ii) gathering of relevant ecosystem information, human activities and management goals; it continues with (iii) indicator selection and (iv) risk assessment; and the final steps considers the (v) analysis of findings and (vi) the evaluation of management effectiveness, to end up with (vii) the revision and proposal of adaptation to current management. The lessons learnt through the application of the FW in the case studies have proved the value of the FW. However, difficulties rose due to the diversity of the nature and the different stages of development in planning and management in the case study areas; as well as, limited knowledge on ecosystem functioning needed for its implementation. As a conclusion the FW allowed for a flexible and creative application and provided important gap analyses.

    Differences in biological traits composition of benthic assemblages between unimpacted habitats
    Bolam, S.G. ; Garcia, C. ; Eggleton, J. ; Kenny, A.J. ; Buhl-Mortensen, L. ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, G. ; Kooten, T. van; Dinesen, G. ; Hansen, J. ; Hiddink, J.G. ; Sciberras, M. ; Smith, C. ; Papadopoulou, N. ; Gumus, A. ; Hoey, G. Van; Eigaard, O.R. ; Bastardie, F. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2017
    Marine Environmental Research 126 (2017). - ISSN 0141-1136 - p. 1 - 13.
    Biological traits - European shelf - Infauna - Unimpacted assemblages
    There is an implicit requirement under contemporary policy drivers to understand the characteristics of benthic communities under anthropogenically-unimpacted scenarios. We used a trait-based approach on a large dataset from across the European shelf to determine how functional characteristics of unimpacted benthic assemblages vary between different sedimentary habitats. Assemblages in deep, muddy environments unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance show increased proportions of downward conveyors and surface deposit-feeders, while burrowing, diffusive mixing, scavenging and predation traits assume greater numerical proportions in shallower habitats. Deep, coarser sediments are numerically more dominated by sessile, upward conveyors and suspension feeders. In contrast, unimpacted assemblages of coarse sediments in shallower regions are proportionally dominated by the diffusive mixers, burrowers, scavengers and predators. Finally, assemblages of gravelly sediments exhibit a relatively greater numerical dominance of non-bioturbators and asexual reproducers. These findings may be used to form the basis of ranking habitats along a functional sensitivity gradient.
    A correction to “Estimating seabed pressure from demersal trawls, seines and dredges based on gear design and dimensions”†
    Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Breen, Mike ; Dinesen, Grete E. ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Laffargue, Pascal ; Mortensen, Lars O. ; Rasmus Nielsen, J. ; Nilsson, Hans ; O'neill, Finbarr G. ; Polet, Hans ; Reid, David G. ; Sala, Antonello ; Sköld, Mattias ; Smith, Chris ; Sørensen, Thomas K. ; Tully, Oliver ; Zengin, Mustafa ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. - \ 2016
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016)9. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 2420 - 2423.
    Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice
    Kiilerich, Pia ; Myrmel, Lene Secher ; Fjære, Even ; Hao, Qin ; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Sonne, Si Brask ; Derrien, Muriel ; Pedersen, Lone Møller ; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed ; Mortensen, Alicja ; Licht, Tine Rask ; Rømer, Maria Unni ; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte ; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette ; Giallourou, Natasa ; Feng, Qiang ; Xiao, Liang ; Liu, Chuan ; Liaset, Bjørn ; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Wang, Jun ; Madsen, Lise ; Kristiansen, Karsten - \ 2016
    American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 310 (2016)11. - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. E886 - E899.
    Gut microbiota - High-fat diet - High-protein diet - Obesity - Survival

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucrose ratio precipitated obesity and reduced survival relative to mice fed a low-fat diet. By contrast, intake of a high-fat diet with a high protein/sucrose ratio attenuated lifelong weight gain and adipose tissue expansion, and survival was not significantly altered relative to low-fat-fed mice. Our findings support the notion that reduced survival in response to high-fat/high-sucrose feeding is linked to obesity development. Digital gene expression analyses, further validated by qPCR, demonstrated that the protein/sucrose ratio modulated global gene expression over time in liver and adipose tissue, affecting pathways related to metabolism and inflammation. Analysis of fecal bacterial DNA using the Mouse Intestinal Tract Chip revealed significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in relation to host age and dietary fat content, but not the protein/sucrose ratio. Accordingly, dietary fat rather than the protein/sucrose ratio or adiposity is a major driver shaping the gut microbiota, whereas the effect of a high-fat diet on survival is dependent on the protein/sucrose ratio.

    The distribution of blue whiting west of the British Isles and Ireland
    Gastauer, Sven ; Fassler, Sascha ; O'Donnell, Ciaran ; Høines, Åge ; Jakobsen, Jan Arge ; Krysov, Alexander I. ; Smith, Leon ; Tangen, Øyvind ; Anthonypillai, Valantine ; Mortensen, Ebba ; Armstrong, Eric ; Schaber, Matthias ; Scoulding, Ben - \ 2016
    Fisheries Research 183 (2016). - ISSN 0165-7836 - p. 32 - 43.
    Acoustic survey - Blue whiting - Geostatistics - Spatial indices

    Northern blue whiting is a small abundant pelagic gadoid that is widely distributed in the northeast Atlantic and one of the most commercially valuable species west of the British Isles and Ireland. Over the last two decades the northeast Atlantic stock has undergone dramatic changes in abundance. The stock size decreased dramatically from 2007 to 2011, but has since shown signs of recovery. Changes in recruitment levels have occurred almost simultaneously with unusual changes in the north Atlantic ecosystem and oceanography. These links may suggest a causal linkage and the possibility of improving our understanding of the recruitment and spawning stock distribution. Here we use a set of geostatistical indices to describe the temporal and spatial patterns of the northeast Atlantic blue whiting stock in spring of 2006-2014. Geostatistical indices were computed to investigate changes in the spatial distribution, dynamics and variability of the stock in terms of density and location. Indices revealed 3 different distribution patterns over the time series. Main concentrations were either found around Rockall (first years), west of the Hebrides (2008-2013) or in the southern survey area (2014). The distribution was found to be age structured, with young blue whiting mainly concentrated in shallower areas (1000 m). A general additive mixed model (GAMM) was used to model the distribution of blue whiting according to environmental conditions and location.

    Towards a framework for the quantitative assessment of trawling impact on the seabed and benthic ecoystem
    Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Bastardie, F. ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Bolam, S.G. ; Buhl-Mortensen, L. ; Eigaard, O.R. ; Hamon, K.G. ; Piet, G.J. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Kooten, T. van - \ 2016
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016)S1. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. i127 - i138.
    benthos - biological traits - Good environmental status - Indicators - Method
    A framework to assess the impact of mobile fishing gear on the seabed and benthic ecosystem is presented. The framework that can be used at regional and local scales provides indicators for both trawling pressure and ecological impact. It builds on high-resolution maps of trawling intensity and considers the physical effects of trawl gears on the seabed, on marine taxa, and on the functioning of the benthic ecosystem. Within the framework, a reductionist approach is applied that breaks down a fishing gear into its components, and a number of biological traits are chosen to determine either the vulnerability of the benthos to the impact of that gear component, or to provide a proxy for their ecological role. The approach considers gear elements, such as otter boards, twin trawl clump, and groundrope, and sweeps that herd the fish. The physical impact of these elements on the seabed, comprising scraping of the seabed, sediment mobilization, and penetration, is a function of the mass, size, and speed of the individual component. The impact of the elements on the benthic community is quantified using a biological-trait approach that considers the vulnerability of the benthic community to trawl impact (e.g. sediment position, morphology), the recovery rate (e.g. longevity, maturation age, reproductive characteristics, dispersal), and their ecological role. The framework is explored to compare the indicators for pressure and ecological impact of bottom trawling in three main seabed habitat types in the North Sea. Preliminary results show that the Sublittoral mud (EUNIS A5.3) is affected the most due to the combined effect of intensive fishing and large proportions of long-lived taxa
    Beyond conservation agriculture
    Giller, K.E. ; Andersson, J.A. ; Corbeels, Marc ; Kirkegaard, John ; Mortensen, David ; Erenstein, Olaf ; Vanlauwe, Bernard - \ 2015
    Frontiers in Plant Science 6 (2015)OCTOBER. - ISSN 1664-462X - 14 p.
    Climate smart agriculture - Legumes - Mulch - Soil erosion - Sustainable intensification - Systems agronomy

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

    Benthos distribution modelling and its relevance for marine ecoysystem management
    Reiss, H. ; Birchenough, S.N.R. ; Borja, A. ; Buhl-Mortensen, L. ; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. - \ 2015
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 72 (2015)2. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 297 - 315.
    species distribution models - predicting suitable habitat - niche factor-analysis - sea-floor integrity - pseudo-absence data - western baltic sea - climate-change - north-sea - logistic-regression - spatial prediction
    Marine benthic ecosystems are difficult to monitor and assess, which is in contrast to modern ecosystem-based management requiring detailed information at all important ecological and anthropogenic impact levels. Ecosystem management needs to ensure a sustainable exploitation of marine resources as well as the protection of sensitive habitats, taking account of potential multiple-use con¿icts and impacts over large spatial scales. The urgent need for large-scale spatial data on benthic species and communities resulted in an increasing application of distribution modelling (DM). The use of DM techniques enables to employ full spatial coverage data of environmental variables to predict benthic spatial distribution patterns. Especially, statistical DMs have opened new possibilities for ecosystem management applications, since they are straightforward and the outputs are easy to interpret and communicate. Mechanistic modelling techniques, targeting the fundamental niche of species, and Bayesian belief networks are the most promising to further improve DM performance in the marine realm. There are many actual and potential management applications of DMs in the marine benthic environment, these are (i) early warning systems for species invasion and pest control, (ii) to assess distribution probabilities of species to be protected, (iii) uses in monitoring design and spatial management frameworks (e.g. MPA designations), and (iv) establishing long-term ecosystem management measures (accounting for future climate-driven changes in the ecosystem). It is important to acknowledge also the limitations associated with DM applications in a marine management context as well as considering new areas for future DM developments. The knowledge of explanatory variables, for example, setting the basis for DM, will continue to be further developed: this includes both the abiotic (natural and anthropogenic) and the more pressing biotic (e.g. species interactions) aspects of the ecosystem. While the response variables on the other hand are often focused on species presence and some work undertaken on species abundances, it is equally important to consider, e.g. biological traits or benthic ecosystem functions in DM applications. Tools such as DMs are suitable to forecast the possible effects of climate change on benthic species distribution patterns and hence could help to steer present-day ecosystem management.
    Development of metabarcoding for tracking changes of soil fauna community under stress by application of ash
    Qin, J. ; Groot, G.A. de; Hansen, L.H. ; Mortensen, L.H. ; Ustyuzhanina, M. ; Krogh, P.H. ; Vestergard, M. ; Ronn, R. ; Hovmand, M. ; Hansen, M. - \ 2014
    In: Book of Abstracts of the First Global Soil Biodiversity Conference. - - p. 474 - 474.
    Ash is a waste product from combustion of bio-fuel in power plants. Application of ash on soil ensures nutrient recycling, but detrimental ecotoxicological consequences may arise since ash is a complex mixture that may contain compounds affecting soil invertebrates and their food and habitat condition. Here, we study the effects of ash on the abundance and composition of the soil fauna community. Over time, we will compare control plots with plots receiving three different concentrations of ash. Targeting soil fauna community includes protozoa, nematodes, enchytraeids, collembolans, mites and earthworms. For collembolans and mites, a morphospecies approach combined with DNA barcoding will be performed to quantify the species abundance. Traditional morphological methods of identifying arthropods are (1) time consuming, (2) require trained taxonomists and (3) hampered by cryptic life stages and species. DNA metabarcoding, which couples the principle of DNA barcoding with next generation sequencing technology, has the potential to simplify community diversity monitoring. However, sampling and DNA extraction methods for the purpose of soil microarthropod metabarcoding have not been yet fully developed. We therefore will start out by comparing the morphospecies approach with three molecular approaches, differing in the types of DNA extracted from soil samples: total soil DNA, extracellular DNA and DNA gained from animals collected from the soil. In order to target all faunal groups, we use a set of three mini-barcodes based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I encoding gene (COI), histone 3 protein encoding gene (H3) and 18S regions, respectively. Community amplicon sequencing will be performed on the MiSeq Illumina platform. The extraction method with highest quality and efficiency will be used for long term monitoring of changes in the soil mesofaunal biodiversity under the stress of ash. Hopefully, the long term monitoring data could help maintain the soil ecology and improve the management of ash.
    Development of metabarcoding for tracking changes of soil fauna community under stress by application of ash
    Groot, G.A. de; Qin, J. ; Hansen, L.H. ; Mortensen, L.M. ; Ustyuzhanina, M. ; Krogh, P.H. ; Vestergard, M. - \ 2014
    Ash is a waste product from combustion of bio-fuel in power plants. Application of ash on soil ensures nutrient recycling, but detrimental ecotoxicological consequences may arise since ash is a complex mixture that may contain compounds affecting soil invertebrates and their food and habitat condition. Here, we study the effects of ash on the abundance and composition of the soil fauna community. Over time, we will compare control plots with plots receiving three different concentrations of ash. Targeting soil fauna community includes protozoa, nematodes, enchytraeids, collembolans, mites and earthworms. For collembolans and mites, a morphospecies approach combined with DNA barcoding will be performed to quantify the species abundance. Traditional morphological methods of identifying arthropods are (1) time consuming, (2) require trained taxonomists and (3) hampered by cryptic life stages and species. DNA metabarcoding, which couples the principle of DNA barcoding with next generation sequencing technology, has the potential to simplify community diversity monitoring. However, sampling and DNA extraction methods for the purpose of soil microarthropod metabarcoding have not been yet fully developed. We therefore will start out by comparing the morphospecies approach with three molecular approaches, differing in the types of DNA extracted from soil samples: total soil DNA, extracellular DNA and DNA gained from animals collected from the soil. In order to target all faunal groups, we use a set of three mini-barcodes based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I encoding gene (COI), histone 3 protein encoding gene (H3) and 18S regions, respectively. Community amplicon sequencing will be performed on the MiSeq Illumina platform. The extraction method with highest quality and efficiency will be used for long term monitoring of changes in the soil mesofaunal biodiversity under the stress of ash. Hopefully, the long term monitoring data could help maintain the soil ecology and improve the management of ash.
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