Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Animal models for COVID-19
    Munoz-Fontela, César ; Dowling, William E. ; Funnell, Simon G.P. ; Gsell, Pierre S. ; Riveros Balta, Ximena ; Albrecht, Randy A. ; Andersen, Hanne ; Baric, Ralph S. ; Carroll, Miles W. ; Cavaleri, Marco ; Qin, Chuan ; Crozier, Ian ; Dallmeier, Kai ; Waal, Leon de; Wit, Emmie de; Delang, Leen ; Dohm, Erik ; Duprex, W.P. ; Falzarano, Darryl ; Finch, Courtney L. ; Frieman, Matthew B. ; Graham, Barney S. ; Gralinski, Lisa ; Guilfoyle, Kate ; Haagmans, Bart L. ; Hamilton, Geraldine A. ; Hartman, Amy L. ; Herfst, Sander ; Kaptein, Suzanne J.F. ; Klimstra, William ; Knezevic, Ivana ; Krause, Phillip R. ; Kuhn, Jens H. ; Grand, Roger Le; Lewis, Mark ; Liu, Wen-Chun ; Maisonnasse, Pauline ; McElroy, Anita K. ; Munster, Vincent ; Oreshkova, N.D. ; Rasmussen, Angela L. ; Rocha-Pereira, Joana ; Rockx, Barry ; Rodriguez, Estefania ; Rogers, Thomas ; Salguero, Francisco J. ; Schotsaert, Michael ; Stittelaar, Koert ; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan ; Tseng, Chien-Te ; Vergara-Alert, Júlia ; Beer, Martin ; Brasel, Trevor ; Chan, Jasper F.W. ; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo ; Neyts, Johan ; Perlman, Stanley ; Reed, Douglas S. ; Richt, Jürgen A. ; Roy, Chad J. ; Segalés, Joaquim ; Vasan, Seshadri S. ; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria ; Barouch, Dan H. - \ 2020
    Nature 586 (2020)7830. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 509 - 515.
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in Hubei province, China). As of 18 September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. As humans do not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents and vaccines to mitigate the current pandemic and to prevent the re-emergence of COVID-19. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) assembled an international panel to develop animal models for COVID-19 to accelerate the testing of vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here we summarize the findings to date and provides relevant information for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates and therapeutic agents for COVID-19.
    Halotolerance mechanisms of the methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum
    Bordel, Sergio ; Pérez, Rebeca ; Rodríguez, Elisa ; Cantera, Sara ; Fernández-González, Nuria ; Martínez, María A. ; Muñoz, Raúl - \ 2020
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 117 (2020)11. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 3459 - 3474.
    ectoine - halotolerance - metabolism - metanotrophy - respiratory chains - RNA-seq

    Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum is an alkaliphilic and halotolerant methanotroph. The physiological responses of M. alcaliphilum to high NaCl concentrations, were studied using RNA sequencing and metabolic modeling. This study revealed that M. alcaliphilum possesses an unusual respiratory chain, in which complex I is replaced by a Na+ extruding NQR complex (highly upregulated under high salinity conditions) and a Na+ driven adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase coexists with a conventional H+ driven ATP synthase. A thermodynamic and metabolic model showing the interplay between these different components is presented. Ectoine is the main osmoprotector used by the cells. Ectoine synthesis is activated by the transcription of an ect operon that contains five genes, including the ectoine hydroxylase coding ectD gene. Enzymatic tests revealed that the product of ectD does not have catalytic activity. A new Genome Scale Metabolic Model for M. alcaliphilum revealed a higher flux in the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway leading to NADPH production and contributing to resistance to oxidative stress.

    A new environmental governance
    Delgado, Luisa E. ; Zorondo-Rodríguez, Francisco ; Bachmann-Vargas, Pamela ; Soto, Carmiña ; Avila Foucat, Veronique S. ; Gutierrez, Ricardo A. ; Muñoz-Barriga, Andrea ; Ferreiro, Oscar E. - \ 2019
    In: Social-ecological Systems of Latin America / Delgado, Luisa E., Marin, Victor H., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030284510 - p. 117 - 135.
    Adaptation - Complexity - Environmental governance - Latin America - Public policies - Social-ecological systems
    At present, there is no unified theoretical framework to deal with environmental governance issues. Consequently, there is a diversity of interpretations of the concept at the public-political arena both nationally and internationally. Recent Latin American efforts have given a step forward conceptualizing environmental governance from the South and systematizing experiences to illustrate a diverse contemporaneous reality. At a regional scale, within the last decades, discursive turns in national policies such as the introduction of the sustainable development concept have triggered an increase in studies and applications of environmental governance (e.g., forest's governance, climate change, marine coastal zones) including the use of the ecosystem services concept. The instrumentation of public actions in relation to environmental governance derives from the states. However, if analyzed with a beyond-the-States view, governance can be understood as a process involving the participation of governmental and non-governmental actors reaching decisions, for mutual benefits, through negotiation processes. However, there is not, still, within the countries of the region, inclusive and participative governance oriented toward the sustainable use of natural resources. Although there are many challenges, in this chapter we discuss two of them: (1) to build an analytical framework to understand the environmental governance modes currently available in Latin America and (2) to generate a new sociopolitical interdisciplinary framework involving both natural and sociopolitical systems as a contribution to a new analytical framework for environmental governance. In other words, new environmental governance for Latin America.
    Análisis de redes en twitter para la inserción en comunidades : El caso de un producto agroindustrial
    Aguilar-Gallegos, Norman ; Valdés-López, Armando ; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Manrrubio ; Martínez-González, Enrique Genaro ; Santoyo-Cortés, Horacio ; Aguilar-Ávila, Jorge - \ 2019
    Interciencia 44 (2019)2. - ISSN 0378-1844 - p. 75 - 81.

    The hashtags and relevant content in Twitter, related to the agroindustrial product mezcal were analysed, and the so-called ‘influencers’ were also identified. For doing this, 57.362 tweets were extracted and stored; three networks were built: users-hashtags, retweets, and mentions, which were studied by using social network analysis (SNA). The application of the SNA allowed revealing certain kind of hidden patterns within the social media complex relationships, which can be useful for designing strategies aimed at positioning actors and spread information. The results allow stating that in order to get inserted in the social network, the following should be considered: the use of combined hashtags, the message content kind, including pictures attached, and mentioning the most influential accounts who are embedded in already formed communities.

    Disentangling ‘ecosystem services’ and ‘nature’s contributions to people’
    Kadykalo, Andrew N. ; López-Rodriguez, María D. ; Ainscough, Jacob ; Droste, Nils ; Ryu, Hyeonju ; Ávila-Flores, Giovanni ; Clec’h, Solen Le; Muñoz, Marcia C. ; Nilsson, Lovisa ; Rana, Sakshi ; Sarkar, Priyanka ; Sevecke, Katharina J. ; Harmáčková, Zuzana V. - \ 2019
    Ecosystems and People 15 (2019)1. - ISSN 2639-5908 - p. 269 - 287.
    Ecosystem services - IPBES - nature’s benefits to people - nature’s contributions to people - NCP - Patricia Balvanera - people and nature - science–policy interface

    People depend on functioning ecosystems, which provide benefits that support human existence and wellbeing. The relationship between people and nature has been experienced and conceptualized in multiple ways. Recently, ecosystem services (ES) concepts have permeated science, government policies, multi-national environmental agreements, and science–policy interfaces. In 2017, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) introduced a new and closely related concept–Nature’s Contributions to People (NCP). The introduction of NCP has sparked some lively discussion and confusion about the distinguishing characteristics between ES and NCP. In order to clarify their conceptual relation, we identify eleven specific claims about novel elements from the latest NCP literature and analyze how far ES research has already contributed to these corresponding conceptual claims in the existing ES literature. We find a mixed-picture, where on six specific conceptual claims (culture, social sciences and humanities, indigenous and local knowledge, negative contributions of nature, generalizing perspective, non-instrumental values and valuation) NCP does not differ greatly from past ES research, but we also find five conceptual claims (diverse worldviews, context-specific perspective, relational values, fuzzy and fluid reporting categories and groups, inclusive language and framing) where NCP provides novel conceptualizations of people and nature relations.

    Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests
    Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Bongers, Frans ; Aide, T.M. ; Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; Calvo-Rodriguez, Sofia ; Chave, Jerome ; César, Ricardo G. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Condit, Richard ; Dallinga, Jorn S. ; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. De; Jong, Ben de; Oliveira, Alexandre De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Dutrieux, Loïc P. ; Espírito-Santo, Mario M. ; Fandino, María C. ; Fernandes, G.W. ; Finegan, Bryan ; García, Hernando ; Gonzalez, Noel ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Hubbell, Stephen ; Jakovac, Catarina C. ; Hernández, Alma Johanna ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Larpin, Denis ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Licona, Juan-Carlos ; Lebrija-trejos, Edwin ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita C.G. ; Mora, Francisco ; Müller, Sandra C. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Oliveira Neto, Silvio Nolasco De; Norden, Natalia ; Nunes, Yule R.F. ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Caros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Aguilar-Cano, José ; Rodriguez-Buritica, Susana ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Romero, Marco Antonio ; Ruíz, Jorge ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Silver, Whendee L. ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Thomas, William Wayt ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Sá Sampaio, Everardo Valadares De; Breugel, Michiel van; Wal, Hans van der; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio ; Veloso, Maria D.M. ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima C.G. ; Villa, Pedro ; Williamson, G.B. ; Zanini, Kátia J. ; Zimmerman, Jess ; Poorter, Lourens - \ 2019
    Science Advances 5 (2019)3. - ISSN 2375-2548 - 10 p.
    Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during secondary succession across gradients in environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbance in an unprecedented multisite analysis for the Neotropics. Secondary forests recover remarkably fast in species richness but slowly in species composition. Secondary forests take a median time of five decades to recover the species richness of old-growth forest (80% recovery after 20 years) based on rarefaction analysis. Full recovery of species composition takes centuries (only 34% recovery after 20 years). A dual strategy that maintains both old-growth forests and species-rich secondary forests is therefore crucial for biodiversity conservation in human-modified tropical landscapes.
    Technologies for the bioconversion of methane into more valuable products
    Cantera, Sara ; Muñoz, Raúl ; Lebrero, Raquel ; López, Juan Carlos ; Rodríguez, Yadira ; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio - \ 2018
    Current Opinion in Biotechnology 50 (2018). - ISSN 0958-1669 - p. 128 - 135.

    Methane, with a global warming potential twenty five times higher than that of CO 2 is the second most important greenhouse gas emitted nowadays. Its bioconversion into microbial molecules with a high retail value in the industry offers a potential cost-efficient and environmentally friendly solution for mitigating anthropogenic diluted CH 4 -laden streams. Methane bio-refinery for the production of different compounds such as ectoine, feed proteins, biofuels, bioplastics and polysaccharides, apart from new bioproducts characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria, has been recently tested in discontinuous and continuous bioreactors with promising results. This review constitutes a critical discussion about the state-of-the-art of the potential and research niches of biotechnologies applied in a CH 4 biorefinery approach.

    Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in raw and cooked seafood from European market : Concentrations and human exposure levels
    Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana ; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara ; Jacobs, Silke ; Serra-Compte, Albert ; Cáceres, Nuria ; Sioen, Isabelle ; Verbeke, Wim ; Barbosa, Vera ; Ferrari, Federico ; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita ; Cunha, Sara ; Granby, Kit ; Robbens, Johan ; Kotterman, Michiel ; Marques, Antonio ; Barceló, Damià - \ 2018
    Environment International 119 (2018). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 570 - 581.
    Cooking - Dietary exposure - Endocrine disruptors - Pharmaceuticals - Risk - Seafood

    Pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals of emerging concern that can accumulate in seafood sold in markets. These compounds may represent a risk to consumers through effects on the human reproductive system, metabolic disorders, pathogenesis of breast cancer or development of microbial resistance. Measuring their levels in highly consumed seafood is important to assess the potential risks to human health. Besides, the effect of cooking on contaminant levels is relevant to investigate. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to study the presence and levels of PhACs and EDCs in commercially available seafood in the European Union market, to investigate the effect of cooking on contaminant levels, and to evaluate the dietary exposure of humans to these compounds through seafood consumption. A sampling survey of seafood from 11 European countries was undertaken. Twelve highly consumed seafood types were analysed raw and cooked with 3 analytical methods (65 samples, 195 analysis). PhACs were mostly not detectable or below quantification limits in seafood whereas EDCs were a recurrent group of contaminants quantified in the majority of the samples. Besides, cooking by steaming significantly increased their levels in seafood from 2 to 46-fold increase. Based on occurrence and levels, bisphenol A, methylparaben and triclosan were selected for performing a human exposure assessment and health risk characterisation through seafood consumption. The results indicate that the Spanish population has the highest exposure to the selected EDCs through seafood consumption, although the exposure via seafood remained below the current toxicological reference values.

    Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in Neotropical forests
    Gei, Maga ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Bongers, Frans ; Sprent, Janet I. ; Garner, Mira D. ; Aide, T.M. ; Andrade, José Luis ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Cole, Rebecca J. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Jong, Ben De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos Do; Fernandes, G.W. ; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Mora, Francisco ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Reich, Peter B. ; Reyes-García, Casandra ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Pérez, I.E. ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. ; Silver, Whendee ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa De; Sullivan, Benjamin W. ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Uriarte, Maria ; Breugel, Michiel Van; Wal, Hans Van Der; Veloso, Maria Das Dores Magalhães ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Powers, Jennifer S. - \ 2018
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018)7. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1104 - 1111.
    The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area is twice as high in dry compared with wet secondary forests. The tremendous ecological success of legumes in recently disturbed, water-limited forests is likely to be related to both their reduced leaflet size and ability to fix N2, which together enhance legume drought tolerance and water-use efficiency. Earth system models should incorporate these large-scale successional and climatic patterns of legume dominance to provide more accurate estimates of the maximum potential for natural nitrogen fixation across tropical forests.
    Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
    Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
    Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests

    Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

    Continuous abatement of methane coupled with ectoine production by Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z in stirred tank reactors : A step further towards greenhouse gas biorefineries
    Cantera, Sara ; Lebrero, Raquel ; Rodríguez, Elisa ; García-Encina, Pedro A. ; Muñoz, Raúl - \ 2017
    Journal of Cleaner Production 152 (2017). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 134 - 141.
    Climate change - Ectoine - Methane abatement - Methane biorefinery - Methylomicrobium

    This study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of producing ectoine (a high added value osmoprotectant intensively used in the cosmetic industry) during the continuous abatement of diluted emissions of methane by Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z in stirred tank reactors under non-sterile conditions. An increase in NaCl concentration in the cultivation broth from 3 to 6% increased the intra-cellular ectoine yield by a factor of 2 (from 16.5 to 37.4 mg ectoine (g biomass)−1), while high stirring rates (600 rpm) entailed a detrimental cellular stress and 3 times lower ectoine yields (5.6 mg ectoine (g biomass)−1) compared to process operation at 300 rpm. An increase in Cu2+ concentration from 0.05 to 25 μM enhanced methane abatement by a factor of 2 (up to elimination capacities of 24.5 g m−3 h−1), did not enhance intra-cellular ectoine production but promoted the excretion to the cultivation broth of 20% of the total ectoine synthesized regardless of the NaCl concentration and stirring rate. The results obtained by culture hybridization with the specific probe Mγ1004 showed that Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z accounted for more than 80% of the total bacterial population in most experimental runs. This work confirmed the technical feasibility of a new generation of biorefineries based on the abatement of diluted CH4 emissions using extremophile methanotrophs.

    Ectoine bio-milking in methanotrophs : A step further towards methane-based bio-refineries into high added-value products
    Cantera, Sara ; Lebrero, Raquel ; Rodríguez, Suní ; García-Encina, Pedro A. ; Muñoz, Raúl - \ 2017
    Chemical Engineering Journal 328 (2017). - ISSN 1385-8947 - p. 44 - 48.
    Bio-milking - Ectoine - Methane abatement - Methylomicrobium

    This communication showed for the first time that the methanotrophic strain Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z (M. alcaliphilum 20Z) can efficiently synthesize and excrete (through a tailored bio-milking process) ectoine under continuous mode using methane (CH4) as the sole energy and carbon source. First, three consecutive 50 h fed batch fermentations consisting of alternating high salinity (6% NaCl for 24 h) and low salinity (0% NaCl for 24 h) cultivation stages were carried out in triplicate to determine the influence of sudden modifications in media salinity on ectoine synthesis and excretion. The results demonstrated that M. alcaliphilum 20Z exhibited a rapid response to osmotic shocks, which resulted in the release of the accumulated ectoine under hyposmotic shocks and the immediate uptake of the previously excreted ectoine during hyperosmotic shocks. A second experiment was carried out under continuous cultivation mode in two sequential stirred tank reactors operated at NaCl concentrations of 0 and 6%. Cells exhibited a constant intra-cellular ectoine concentration of 70.4 ± 14.3 mg g biomass−1 along the entire operation period when cultivated at a NaCl concentration of 6%. The centrifugation of the cultivation broth followed by a hyposmotic shock resulted in the excretion of ∼70% of the total intra-cellular ectoine. In brief, this research shows the feasibility of the continuous bioconversion of diluted CH4 emissions into high added-value products such as ectoine, which can turn greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement into a sustainable and profitable process.

    Biodiversity and climate determine the functioning of Neotropical forests
    Poorter, L. ; Sande, M.T. van der; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Ascarrunz, N. ; Enquist, B.J. ; Finegan, B. ; Licona, J.C. ; Martinez-Ramos, M. ; Mazzei, L. ; Meave, J. ; Munoz, R. ; Nytch, C.J. ; Oliveira, A.A. de; Perez-Garcia, E.A. ; Prado-Junior, J.A. ; Rodriguez-Velazquez, J. ; Ruschel, A.R. ; Salgado Negret, B. ; Schiavini, I. ; Swenson, N.G. ; Tenorio, E.A. ; Thompson, J. ; Toledo, M. ; Uriarte, M. ; Hout, P. van der; Zimmerman, J.K. ; Pena Claros, M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University & Research
    biodiversity - biomass - carbon - ecosystem functioning - forest dynamics - productivity - soil fertility - tropical forest - water
    Tropical forests account for a quarter of the global carbon storage and a third of the terrestrial productivity. Few studies have teased apart the relative importance of environmental factors and forest attributes for ecosystem functioning, especially for the tropics. This study aims to relate aboveground biomass (AGB), biomass dynamics (i.e., net biomass productivity and its underlying demographic drivers: biomass recruitment, growth and mortality) to forest attributes (tree diversity, community-mean traits, and stand basal area) and environmental conditions (water availability, soil fertility and disturbance). We used data from 26 sites, 201 one-ha plots and >92,000 trees distributed across the Neotropics. We quantified for each site water availability and soil total exchangeable bases and for each plot three key community-weighted mean functional traits that are important for biomass stocks and productivity. We used structural equation models to test the hypothesis that all drivers have independent, positive effects on biomass stocks and dynamics. Of the relationships analysed, vegetation attributes were more frequently significantly associated with biomass stocks and dynamics than environmental conditions (in 67% versus 33% of the relationships). High climatic water availability increased biomass growth and stocks, light disturbance increased biomass growth, and soil bases had no effect. Rarefied tree species richness had consistent positive relationships with biomass stocks and dynamics, probably because of niche complementarity, but was not related to net biomass productivity. Community-mean traits were good predictors of biomass stocks and dynamics. Water availability has a strong positive effect on biomass stocks and growth, and a future predicted increase in (atmospheric) drought might, therefore, potentially reduce carbon storage. Forest attributes – including species diversity and community-weighted mean traits – have independent and important relationships with AGB stocks, dynamics, and ecosystem functioning, not only in relatively simple temperate systems, but also in structurally complex hyper-diverse tropical forests.
    Biodiversity and climate determine the functioning of Neotropical forests
    Poorter, Lourens ; Sande, Masha T. van der; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Enquist, Brian ; Finegan, Bryan ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nytch, Christopher J. ; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Prado-junior, Jamir ; Rodríguez-Velázques, Jorge ; Ruschel, Ademir Roberto ; Salgado-Negret, Beatriz ; Schiavini, Ivan ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Tenorio, Elkin A. ; Thompson, Jill ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Hout, Peter van der; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Peña-Claros, Marielos - \ 2017
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 26 (2017)12. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1423 - 1434.
    Aim: Tropical forests account for a quarter of the global carbon storage and a third of the terrestrial productivity. Few studies have teased apart the relative importance of environmental factors and forest attributes for ecosystem functioning, especially for the tropics. This study aims to relate aboveground biomass (AGB) and biomass dynamics (i.e., net biomass productivity and its underlying demographic drivers: biomass recruitment, growth and mortality) to forest attributes (tree diversity, community-mean traits and stand basal area) and environmental conditions (water availability, soil fertility and disturbance). Location: Neotropics. Methods: We used data from 26 sites, 201 1-ha plots and >92,000 trees distributed across the Neotropics. We quantified for each site water availability and soil total exchangeable bases and for each plot three key community-weighted mean functional traits that are important for biomass stocks and productivity. We used structural equation models to test the hypothesis that all drivers have independent, positive effects on biomass stocks and dynamics. Results: Of the relationships analysed, vegetation attributes were more frequently associated significantly with biomass stocks and dynamics than environmental conditions (in 67 vs. 33% of the relationships). High climatic water availability increased biomass growth and stocks, light disturbance increased biomass growth, and soil bases had no effect. Rarefied tree species richness had consistent positive relationships with biomass stocks and dynamics, probably because of niche complementarity, but was not related to net biomass productivity. Community-mean traits were good predictors of biomass stocks and dynamics. Main conclusions: Water availability has a strong positive effect on biomass stocks and growth, and a future predicted increase in (atmospheric) drought might, therefore, potentially reduce carbon storage. Forest attributes, including species diversity and community-weighted mean traits, have independent and important relationships with AGB stocks, dynamics and ecosystem functioning, not only in relatively simple temperate systems, but also in structurally complex hyper-diverse tropical forests.
    Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood
    Alves, Ricardo N. ; Maulvault, Ana L. ; Barbosa, Vera L. ; Cunha, Sara ; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F. ; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana ; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara ; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar ; Eljarrat, Ethel ; Barceló, Damià ; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita ; Tediosi, Alice ; Marques, António - \ 2017
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 104 (2017)June 2017. - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 69 - 78.
    Seafood - perfluorinated compounds - brominated flame retardants - Pharmaceuticals - personal care products - bioaccessibility - Steaming
    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, a-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for a-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.
    Erratum: Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range
    Henderson, Gemma ; Cox, Faith ; Ganesh, Siva ; Jonker, Arjan ; Young, Wayne ; Abecia, Leticia ; Angarita, Erika ; Aravena, Paula ; Nora Arenas, Graciela ; Ariza, Claudia ; Attwood, Graeme T. ; Mauricio Avila, Jose ; Avila-stagno, Jorge ; Bannink, André ; Barahona, Rolando ; Batistotti, Mariano ; Bertelsen, Mads F. ; Brown-Kav, Aya ; Carvajal, Andres M. ; Cersosimo, Laura ; Vieira Chaves, Alexandre ; Church, John ; Clipson, Nicholas ; Cobos-peralta, Mario A. ; Cookson, Adrian L. ; Cravero, Silvio ; Cristobal Carballo, Omar ; Crosley, Katie ; Cruz, Gustavo ; Cerón Cucchi, María ; Barra, Rodrigo de la; Menezes, Alexandre B. de; Detmann, Edenio ; Dieho, Kasper ; Dijkstra, Jan ; Reis, William L.S. Dos; Dugan, Mike E.R. ; Hadi Ebrahimi, Seyed ; Eythórsdóttir, Emma ; Nde Fon, Fabian ; Fraga, Martín ; Franco, Francisco ; Friedeman, Chris ; Fukuma, Naoki ; Gagić, Dragana ; Gangnat, Isabelle ; Javier Grilli, Diego ; Guan, Le Luo ; Heidarian Miri, Vahideh ; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma ; Gomez, Alma Ximena Ibarra ; Isah, Olubukola A. ; Ishaq, Suzanne ; Jami, Elie ; Jelincic, Juan ; Kantanen, Juha ; Kelly, William J. ; Kim, Seon-Ho ; Klieve, Athol ; Kobayashi, Yasuo ; Koike, Satoshi ; Kopecny, Jan ; Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten ; Julie Krizsan, Sophie ; Lachance, Hannah ; Lachman, Medora ; Lamberson, William R. ; Lambie, Suzanne ; Lassen, Jan ; Leahy, Sinead C. ; Lee, Sang-Suk ; Leiber, Florian ; Lewis, Eva ; Lin, Bo ; Lira, Raúl ; Lund, Peter ; Macipe, Edgar ; Mamuad, Lovelia L. ; Cuquetto Mantovani, Hilário ; Marcoppido, Gisela Ariana ; Márquez, Cristian ; Martin, Cécile ; Martinez, Gonzalo ; Eugenia Martinez, Maria ; Lucía Mayorga, Olga ; McAllister, Tim A. ; McSweeney, Chris ; Mestre, Lorena ; Minnee, Elena ; Mitsumori, Makoto ; Mizrahi, Itzhak ; Molina, Isabel ; Muenger, Andreas ; Muñoz, Camila ; Murovec, Bostjan ; Newbold, John ; Nsereko, Victor ; O’donovan, Michael ; Okunade, Sunday ; O’neill, Brendan ; Ospina, Sonia ; Ouwerkerk, Diane ; Parra, Diana ; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro ; Pinares-patiño, Cesar ; Pope, Phil B. ; Poulsen, Morten ; Rodehutscord, Markus ; Rodriguez, Tatiana ; Saito, Kunihiko ; Sales, Francisco ; Sauer, Catherine ; Shingfield, Kevin ; Shoji, Noriaki ; Simunek, Jiri ; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica ; Stres, Blaz ; Sun, Xuezhao ; Swartz, Jeffery ; Liang Tan, Zhi ; Tapio, Ilma ; Taxis, Tasia M. ; Tomkins, Nigel ; Ungerfeld, Emilio ; Valizadeh, Reza ; Adrichem, Peter van; Hamme, Jonathan van; Hoven, Woulter van; Waghorn, Garry ; Wallace, John R. ; Wang, Min ; Waters, Sinéad M. ; Keogh, Kate ; Witzig, Maren ; Wright, Andre-Denis G. ; Yamano, Hidehisa ; Yan, Tianhai ; Yáñez-ruiz, David R. ; Yeoman, Carl J. ; Zambrano, Ricardo ; Zeitz, Johanna ; Zhou, Mi ; Wei Zhou, Hua ; Xia Zou, Cai ; Zunino, Pablo ; Janssen, Peter H. - \ 2016
    Scientific Reports 6 (2016). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 2 p.
    Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in macroalgaes, bivalves, and fish from coastal areas in Europe
    Álvarez-Muñoz, D. ; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S. ; Maulvault, A.L. ; Tediosi, A. ; Fernández-Tejedor, M. ; Heuvel, F. Van den; Kotterman, M. ; Marques, A. ; Barceló, D. - \ 2015
    Environmental Research 143 (2015). - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 56 - 64.
    Algae - Bivalves - Endocrine disrupting compounds - Fish - Pharmaceutical - Prioritisation

    The ocurrence and levels of PhACs, Endocrine Disrupting and related Compounds (EDCs) in seafood from potential contaminated areas in Europe has been studied. Macroalgae (S. accharina latissima and Laminaria digitata), bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus spp., Chamalea gallina and Crassostrea gigas) and fish (Liza aurata and Platichthys flesus) from Portugal, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, and Norway were analysed following 4 different analytical protocols depending on the organism and target group of contaminants. The results revealed the presence of 4 pharmaceutical compounds in macroalgae samples, 16 in bivalves and 10 in fish. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that PhACs have been detected in marine fish and in macroalgae. Besides, this is also the first time that dimetridazole, hydrochlorothiazide and tamsulosin have been detected in biota samples. The highest levels of PhACs corresponded to the psychiatric drug velanfaxine (up to 36.1 ng/g dry weight (dw)) and the antibiotic azithromycin (up to 13.3 ng/g dw) in bivalves from the Po delta (Italy). EDCs were not detected in macroalgae samples, however, the analysis revealed the presence of 10 EDCs in bivalves and 8 in fish. The highest levels corresponded to the organophosphorus flame retardant tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP) reaching up to 98.4 ng/g dw in mullet fish from the Tagus estuary. Bivalves, in particular mussels, have shown to be good bioindicator organisms for PhACs and fish for EDCs. Taking into consideration the concentrations and frequencies of detection of PhACs and EDCs in the seafood samples analysed, a list of candidates' compounds for priorization in future studies has been proposed.

    Information networks that generate economic value: A study on clusters of adopters of new or improved technologies and practices among oil palm growers in Mexico
    Aguilar-Gallegos, N. ; Muñoz-Rodríguez, M. ; Santoyo-Cortés, H. ; Aguilar-Ávila, J. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2015
    Agricultural Systems 135 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 122 - 132.
    agricultural innovation systems - sustainable agriculture - conservation practices - knowledge systems - land management - adoption - farmers - exchange - africa - kenya
    The area under cultivation of oil palm has undergone considerable growth in Mexico, but yields are far below their potential. This is related to the low rate of adoption of new or improved technologies and practices in areas such as plantation management and farm administration. This study determines the factors that have an influence on adoption of new or improved technologies and practices and their relationship with the generation of economic value of oil palm. A cluster analysis of 33 key new or improved technologies and practices adopted by 104 growers was performed, and the main adoption categories and the variables influencing adoption are described. The results indicate that three clusters of growers can be discerned that differ in terms of their levels of adoption. The highest level of adoption of new or improved technologies and practices is related to higher yields and vice versa. The new or improved technologies and practices that differentiate the cluster of the advanced adopters from the cluster of the basic adopters are those related to plantation health, grower associations and production unit management. The cluster of the intermediate adopters is outstanding for their levels of adoption of new or improved technologies and practices in the aspects of plant nutrition, harvest, and genetics and reproduction. The advanced adopters set up better links for getting information, generally fromtheir extensionists. The three clusters each exhibit a great degree of homophily, indicating little information flow between the different clusters of growers, while these can learn from each other. These results make it evident that better articulation among different clusters of growers and other actors should be encouraged, and that diversified and tailor-made extension strategies should be designed to optimally support different clusters of growers.
    The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of Mobile Genetic Elements : Release 2.0
    Llorens, Carlos ; Futami, Ricardo ; Covelli, Laura ; Domínguez-Escribá, Laura ; Viu, Jose M. ; Tamarit, Daniel ; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Jose ; Vicente-Ripolles, Miguel ; Fuster, Gonzalo ; Bernet, Guillermo P. ; Maumus, Florian ; Munoz-Pomer, Alfonso ; Sempere, Jose M. ; Latorre, Amparo ; Moya, Andres - \ 2011
    Nucleic acids research 39 (2011)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 0305-1048 - p. D70 - D74.

    This article introduces the second release of the Gypsy Database of Mobile Genetic Elements (GyDB 2.0): a research project devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and transposable elements based on their phylogenetic classification (per lineage and protein domain). The Gypsy Database (GyDB) is a long-term project that is continuously progressing, and that owing to the high molecular diversity of mobile elements requires to be completed in several stages. GyDB 2.0 has been powered with a wiki to allow other researchers participate in the project. The current database stage and scope are long terminal repeats (LTR) retroelements and relatives. GyDB 2.0 is an update based on the analysis of Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia and Bel/Pao LTR retroelements and the Caulimoviridae pararetroviruses of plants. Among other features, in terms of the aforementioned topics, this update adds: (i) a variety of descriptions and reviews distributed in multiple web pages; (ii) protein-based phylogenies, where phylogenetic levels are assigned to distinct classified elements; (iii) a collection of multiple alignments, lineage-specific hidden Markov models and consensus sequences, called GyDB collection; (iv) updated RefSeq databases and BLAST and HMM servers to facilitate sequence characterization of new LTR retroelement and caulimovirus queries; and (v) a bibliographic server. GyDB 2.0 is available at

    Dominant negative phenotype of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba mutants suggest hetero-oligomer formation among different Cry toxins.
    Carmona, D. ; Rodriguez-Almazan, C. ; Munoz-Garay, C. ; Portugal, L. ; Perez, C. ; Maagd, R.A. de; Bakker, P. ; Soberon, M. ; Bravo, A. - \ 2011
    PLoS ONE 6 (2011)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 6 p.
    subsp israelensis - delta-endotoxin - manduca-sexta - alkaline-phosphatase - protective antigen - anopheles-gambiae - toxicity - crystal - anthrax - mutagenesis
    Background - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used worldwide in the control of different insect pests important in agriculture or in human health. The Cry proteins are pore-forming toxins that affect the midgut cell of target insects. It was shown that non-toxic Cry1Ab helix a-4 mutants had a dominant negative (DN) phenotype inhibiting the toxicity of wildtype Cry1Ab when used in equimolar or sub-stoichiometric ratios (1:1, 0.5:1, mutant:wt) indicating that oligomer formation is a key step in toxicity of Cry toxins. Methodology/Principal Findings - The DN Cry1Ab-D136N/T143D mutant that is able to block toxicity of Cry1Ab toxin, was used to analyze its capacity to block the activity against Manduca sexta larvae of other Cry1 toxins, such as Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, Cry1Ea and Cry1Fa. Cry1Ab-DN mutant inhibited toxicity of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa. In addition, we isolated mutants in helix a-4 of Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa, and demonstrate that Cry4Ba-E159K and Cry11Aa-V142D are inactive and completely block the toxicity against Aedes aegypti of both wildtype toxins, when used at sub-stoichiometric ratios, confirming a DN phenotype. As controls we analyzed Cry1Ab-R99A or Cry11Aa-E97A mutants that are located in helix a-3 and are affected in toxin oligomerization. These mutants do not show a DN phenotype but were able to block toxicity when used in 10:1 or 100:1 ratios (mutant:wt) probably by competition of binding with toxin receptors. Conclusions/Significance - We show that DN phenotype can be observed among different Cry toxins suggesting that may interact in vivo forming hetero-oligomers. The DN phenotype cannot be observed in mutants affected in oligomerization, suggesting that this step is important to inhibit toxicity of other toxins
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