Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Gender in climate change, agriculture, and natural resource policies: insights from East Africa
Ampaire, Edidah L. ; Acosta, Mariola ; Huyer, Sofia ; Kigonya, Ritah ; Muchunguzi, Perez ; Muna, Rebecca ; Jassogne, Laurence - \ 2019
Climatic Change (2019). - ISSN 0165-0009

Gender mainstreaming was acknowledged as an indispensable strategy for achieving gender equality at the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action. Since then, governments have made substantial efforts in developing gender-responsive policies and implementation strategies. The advent of climate change and its effects, which have continued to impact rural livelihoods and especially food security, demands that gender mainstreaming efforts are accelerated. Effective gender mainstreaming requires that gender is sufficiently integrated in policies, development plans, and implementation strategies, supported by budgetary allocations. This study analyzes the extent of gender integration in agricultural and natural resource policies in Uganda and Tanzania, and how gender is budgeted for in implementation plans at district and lower governance levels. A total of 155 policy documents, development plans, and annual action plans from national, district, and sub-county/ward levels were reviewed. In addition, district and sub-county budgets for four consecutive financial years from 2012/2013 to 2015/2016 were analyzed for gender allocations. Results show that whereas there is increasing gender responsiveness in both countries, (i) gender issues are still interpreted as “women issues,” (ii) there is disharmony in gender mainstreaming across governance levels, (iii) budgeting for gender is not yet fully embraced by governments, (iii) allocations to gender at sub-national level remain inconsistently low with sharp differences between estimated and actual budgets, and (iv) gender activities do not address any structural inequalities. We propose approaches that increase capacity to develop and execute gender-responsive policies, implementation plans, and budgets.

Sustainable intensification of agricultural systems in the Central African Highlands : The need for institutional innovation
Schut, Marc ; Asten, Piet van; Okafor, Chris ; Hicintuka, Cyrille ; Mapatano, Sylvain ; Nabahungu, Nsharwasi Léon ; Kagabo, Desire ; Muchunguzi, Perez ; Njukwe, Emmanuel ; Dontsop-Nguezet, Paul M. ; Sartas, Murat ; Vanlauwe, Bernard - \ 2016
Agricultural Systems 145 (2016). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 165 - 176.
CGIAR Research Program on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (Humidtropics) - Farming systems research - Participatory action research - Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS) - Sub-Saharan Africa

This study identifies entry points for innovation for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems. An agricultural innovation systems approach is used to provide a holistic image of (relations between) constraints faced by different stakeholder groups, the dimensions and causes of these constraints, and intervention levels, timeframes and types of innovations needed. Our data shows that constraints for sustainable intensification of agricultural systems are mainly of economic and institutional nature. Constraints are caused by the absence, or poor functioning of institutions such as policies and markets, limited capabilities and financial resources, and ineffective interaction and collaboration between stakeholders. Addressing these constraints would mainly require short- and middle-term productivity and institutional innovations, combined with middle- to long-term NRM innovations across farm and national levels. Institutional innovation (e.g. better access to credit, services, inputs and markets) is required to address 69% of the constraints for sustainable intensification in the Central Africa Highlands. This needs to go hand in hand with productivity innovation (e.g. improved knowhow of agricultural production techniques, and effective use of inputs) and NRM innovation (e.g. targeted nutrient applications, climate smart agriculture). Constraint network analysis shows that institutional innovation to address government constraints at national level related to poor interaction and collaboration will have a positive impact on constraints faced by other stakeholder groups. We conclude that much of the R4D investments and innovation in the Central Africa Highlands remain targeting household productivity at farm level. Reasons for that include (1) a narrow focus on sustainable intensification, (2) institutional mandates and pre-analytical choices based project objectives and disciplinary bias, (3) short project cycles that impede work on middle- and long-term NRM and institutional innovation, (4) the likelihood that institutional experimentation can become political, and (5) complexity in terms of expanded systems boundaries and measuring impact.

Crop-livestock-tree integration in Uganda: The case of Mukono-Wakiso innovation platform
Namazzi, Sylvia ; Muchunguzi, Perez ; Lamers, Dieuwke ; Sole-Amat, Anna ; Asten, Piet van; Dubois, Thomas ; Afari-Sefa, Victor ; Tenywa, Moses M. ; Mugisa, Immaculate ; McCampbell, Mariëtte ; Sartas, Murat - \ 2015
In: Innovation Platforms for Agricultural Development / Dror, I., Cadilhon, J.J., Schut, M., Misiko, M., Maheswari, S., Taylor and Francis Inc. - ISBN 9781138181717 - p. 79 - 97.
Mukono and Wakiso are two districts where Humidtropics has one of its field sites in the Lake Victoria Crescent Zone of Uganda. This peri-urban area is highly populated, reducing the acreage under agriculture and threatening food security. The two districts have a booming business of real estate; many city entrants are opting to construct houses in either Mukono or Wakiso district. This increases competition for the land uses and exerts pressure on natural resources such as forests and wetlands. The districts are close to Kampala, the capital of Uganda, providing a big market opportunity for the farmers’ produce. Despite the business opportunities, the two districts have high youth unemployment close to the national average of 62 per cent, posing a challenge and opportunity for the IP (UBOS, 2002).
Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping for Innovation Platforms and Research in Development
Paas, W.H. ; Sole, A. ; Muchunguzi, P. ; Lamers, D. ; Tenywa, M. ; Asten, P. van; Groot, J.C.J. - \ 2015
Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping for Innovation Platforms and Research in Development
Paas, W.H. ; Muchunguzi, P. ; Sole, A. ; Lamers, D. ; Asten, P. van; Tenywa, M. ; Groot, J.C.J. - \ 2015
Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) combines mind maps with fuzzy logic to assess the (causal) relations among phenomena and processes. The strengths of these relationships are used to assess the impact of changes on the system as described in the mind map. FCM features a quick and low cost semi-quantitative systems analysis at different scales that visualizes the complex reality around interventions. Moreover, FCM can strengthen participation and ownership in platform processes. Consequently, converging to promising integrated scenarios at an early phase in the platform process could be achieved by using FCM. In addition, the inclusion of feedback loops in FCM enhances the learning process of stakeholders regarding (integrated) systems thinking. FCM was tested in two Humidtropics innovation platforms in Uganda: Kiboga-Kyankwanzi and
Mukono-Wakiso. Both one-day sessions commenced with an exercise at farm level that was followed by an analysis at regional scale. The participants first listed important phenomena and processes relevant to problems encountered in the case study area, and subsequently identified interrelations and the strengths of these interactions. This joint effort and the visualization of the result in a cognitive map helped the platform members to improve their understanding on how to proceed in the platform process. Sensitivity analysis with the FCM-software (FuzzyDANCES) further supports systems understanding and can be used to improve the fuzzy cognitive map. We think that FCM can be applied from the start onwards in the Innovation Platform process, with regular
revisiting the cognitive maps to monitor changes in understanding of the problems at stake. At the same time, targeted research could support the subjective base of fuzzy cognitive maps with more objective information.
Apart from improving the function for FCM in innovation platforms, we try to involve FCM in methodologies that support the scaling out of interventions. Parallel to this, we look how FCM can fit in a portfolio of narratives and quantitative (model) approaches targeted at systems improvement
and development.
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